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Mycobacteria In Skin Lesions and the Habitat of the Endangered Houston Toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis).

J Wildl Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Texas State University, Department of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA.

Head-starting of the federally endangered Houston toad (Anaxyrus houstonensis), that is, the release of egg strands, tadpoles, and metamorphic juveniles produced in captivity into the original breeding ponds, requires assessment of potential threats for the transmission of pathogens from captive to free-ranging toads. We used Illumina-based 16S rRNA V3 amplicon sequencing to investigate the community structure of bacteria from skin lesions of captive Houston toad and habitat (pond) samples. Proteobacteria, alone or together with Actinobacteria and, in some samples, Cyanobacteria represented virtually all reads in tissue lesion samples, whereas pond samples were much more diverse, with Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia present with little variation between samples. Read More

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Intervention Effect of the Integration Model on Negative Emotions of Adolescents during the Outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019.

Psychiatr Danub 2021 ;33(1):86-94

Institute of Physical Education and Health, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035,

Background: The World Health Organization has declared the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Given the sudden infection from and extensive dispersion of COVID-19 and the absence of specific drugs, those infected are in danger if they are not treated in time. Consequently, COVID-19 has become an important factor influencing adolescents' mental health. Read More

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January 2021

IDEAL-D Framework for Device Innovation: A Consensus Statement on the Preclinical Stage.

Ann Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Wellcome EPSRC centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences, University College London, UK Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, UCLH Foundation Trust, London, UK Orthox Ltd., Oxford, UK Department of Neurosurgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK OrganOx Ltd., Oxford, UK Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Surgery Theme, Cambridge Clinical Trials Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, UK Western University, Ontario, Canada Departments of Health Evidence and Operating Rooms, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To extend the IDEAL Framework for device innovation, IDEAL-D, to include the preclinical stage of development (Stage 0).

Background: In previous work, the IDEAL collaboration has proposed frameworks for new surgical techniques and complex therapeutic technologies, the central tenet being that development and evaluation can and should proceed together in an ordered and logical manner that balances innovation and safety.

Methods: Following agreement at the IDEAL Collaboration Council, a multidisciplinary working group was formed comprising 12 representatives from healthcare, academia, industry, and a patient advocate. Read More

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Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions Improve Choice of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty in Patients with Reported Penicillin Allergies.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

R. Jones, University of Rochester Medical Center - Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Most patients who report a penicillin allergy can tolerate cefazolin, the preferred prophylaxis in a total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Regardless, patients with a reported penicillin allergy are less likely to receive first-line perioperative antibiotics as a result of inaccurate penicillin allergy documentation and misconceptions regarding cross-reactivity between penicillin and cephalosporins. The over-reporting of penicillin allergies and the safety of cephalosporins in patients with reported penicillin allergies have been well established throughout the evidence [13]. Read More

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Collaboration and Decision-Making on Trauma Teams: A Survey Assessment.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 11;22(2):278-283. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Program in Trauma, Baltimore, Maryland.

Introduction: Leadership, communication, and collaboration are important in well-managed trauma resuscitations. We surveyed resuscitation team members (attendings, fellows, residents, and nurses) in a large urban trauma center regarding their impressions of collaboration among team members and their satisfaction with patient care decisions.

Methods: The Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions in Trauma (CSACD. Read More

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January 2021

The Role of Online Social Support in Patients Undergoing Infertility Treatment - A Comparison of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Members.

Health Commun 2021 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Social Informatics and Methodology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana.

The role of social support in the online setting is explored in this study. For this purpose, the posts of infertility treatment patients participating in an infertility treatment online support group between 2002 and 2016 were retrieved. Members who contributed at least 100 words were divided into two groups according to the treatment outcome they reported (pregnancy). Read More

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Walk the Talk: The Transforming Journey of Facility-Based Death Review Committee from Stillbirths to Neonates.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:8871287. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Facility-based death review committee (DRC) of neonatal deaths and stillbirths can encourage stakeholders to enhance the quality of care during the antenatal period and labour to improve birth outcomes. To understand the benefits and impact of the DRCs, this study was aimed at exploring the DRC members' perception about the role and benefits of the newly developed facility-based DRCs in five pilot hospitals in Jordan, to assess women empowerment, decision-making process, power dynamics, culture and genderism as contributing factors for deaths, and impact of COVID-19 lockdown on births.

Methods: A descriptive study of a qualitative design-using focus group discussions-was conducted after one year of establishing DRCs in 5 pilot large hospitals. Read More

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Diagnosis, Education, and Care of Patients with -Associated Nephropathy: A Delphi Consensus and Systematic Review.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Bioethics and Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: variants contribute to the markedly higher incidence of ESKD in Blacks compared with Whites. Genetic testing for these variants in patients with African ancestry who have nephropathy is uncommon, and no specific treatment or management protocol for -associated nephropathy currently exists.

Methods: A multidisciplinary, racially diverse group of 14 experts and patient advocates participated in a Delphi consensus process to establish practical guidance for clinicians caring for patients who may have -associated nephropathy. Read More

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NHS Health Check programme: a protocol for a realist review.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 14;11(4):e048937. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Public Involvement in Pharmacy Studies Group, University of Kent Medway School of Pharmacy, Chatham Maritime, UK.

Introduction: The NHS Health Check aims to identify individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the adult population in England. The Health Check includes calculation of CVD risk and discussion of pharmacological and lifestyle approaches to manage risk, including referral to lifestyle support services. The programme is commissioned by Local Authorities (LAs) and is delivered by a range of different providers in different settings. Read More

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PrEP reminds me that I am the one to take responsibility of my life: a qualitative study exploring experiences of and attitudes towards pre-exposure prophylaxis use by women in Eswatini.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 14;21(1):727. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Pre-exposure-prophylaxis (PrEP) has been heralded for its potential to put women in control of preventing HIV infection, but uptake and continuation rates have been disappointing in high-incidence settings in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored structural and social factors that influenced PrEP use among young women and pregnant or breastfeeding women in rural Eswatini.

Methods: We conducted two in-depth interviews with ten women on PrEP, and one-time in-depth interviews with fourteen women who declined or discontinued PrEP. Read More

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Prevention of Viridans Group Streptococcal Infective Endocarditis: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circulation 2021 Apr 15:CIR0000000000000969. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Background: In 2007, the American Heart Association published updated evidence-based guidelines on the recommended use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent viridans group streptococcal (VGS) infective endocarditis (IE) in cardiac patients undergoing invasive procedures. The 2007 guidelines significantly scaled back the underlying conditions for which antibiotic prophylaxis was recommended, leaving only 4 categories thought to confer the highest risk of adverse outcome. The purpose of this update is to examine interval evidence of the acceptance and impact of the 2007 recommendations on VGS IE and, if needed, to make revisions based on this evidence. Read More

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[Current status of medical care of emerging infectious diseases at hospital emergency services in Spain].

An Sist Sanit Navar 2021 Apr 12;0(0). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Servicio de Urgencias. Hospital Universitario de la Paz. Madrid.

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the current status of Spanish Hospital Emergency Services (HES) in diagnosing and treating the most prevalent tropical diseases (TD) in Spain.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, using a questionnaire in Google Forms® sent to members of the INFURG-SEMES group. The following variables were analyzed: the size of the hospital in terms of number of beds, number of tropical disease emergencies, existence of tropical medicine protocols, urgent diagnostic tests or antimalarial treatment. Read More

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A living mapping review for COVID-19 funded research projects: six-month update.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 1;5:209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

UK Collaborative on Development Research, London, UK.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in an unprecedented research response, demonstrating exceptional examples of rapid research and collaboration. There is however a need for greater coordination, with limited resources and the shifting global nature of the pandemic resulting in a proliferation of research projects underpowered and unable to achieve their aims. The UK Collaborative on Development Research (UKCDR) and Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness (GloPID-R), two funder coordination groups have collaborated to develop a live database of funded research projects across the world relating to COVID-19. Read More

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Diabetes and Migration.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna, 5th Medical Department of Endocrinology, Rheumatology and Acute Geriatrics, Vienna, Austria.

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Interleukin-17D regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell function through its receptor CD93.

Immunity 2021 Apr;54(4):673-686.e4

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Affiliated Renji Hospital, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

The interleukin (IL)-17 family, consisting of six members, promotes host defense but can in some context promote the development of autoimmune disease. Here, we examined the role of IL-17D, a poorly understood member in the IL-17 family. IL-17D was expressed primarily by colonic epithelial cells. Read More

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Improving Safety and Quality During Interhospital Transfer of Patients With Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Simulation-Based Pilot Program.

J Patient Saf 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

From the Yale School of Medicine Yale New Haven Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: The presentation of critically ill patients to emergency departments often necessitates interhospital transfer (IHT) to a tertiary care center for specialized neurocritical care. Patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage represent a critically ill population subject to high rates of IHT and who is thus an important target for research and quality improvement of IHT. We describe the use of an innovative simulation methodology engaging transfer staff, clinicians, and stakeholders to refine and facilitate the adoption of a standardized IHT protocol for transferring patients with neurovascular emergencies. Read More

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Experience with the targeted next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Objectives: Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets (HHR) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypophosphatemia. Although the X-linked dominant HHR is the most common form, the genetic etiology of HHR is variable. Recently, developed next-generation sequencing techniques may provide opportunities for making HHR diagnosis in a timely and efficient way. Read More

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Impact of Individual, Organizational, and Technological Factors on the Implementation of an Online Portal to Support a Clinical Pathway Addressing Psycho-Oncology Care: Mixed Methods Study.

JMIR Hum Factors 2021 04 14;8(2):e26390. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Psycho-Oncology Co-operative Research Group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Clinical pathways (CPs) can improve patient outcomes but can be complex to implement. Technologies, such as clinical decision support (CDS) tools, can facilitate their use, but require end-user testing in clinical settings.

Objective: This study applied the Technology Acceptance Model to evaluate the individual, organizational, and technological contexts impacting application of a portal to facilitate a CP for anxiety and depression (the ADAPT Portal) in a metropolitan cancer service. Read More

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An email-based survey of practice regarding hemodynamic monitoring and management in children with septic shock in China.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Mar;10(3):587-597

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

Background: Understanding current hemodynamic monitoring (HM) practice patterns is essential to determine education and training strategies in China. The survey was to describe the practice of HM and management in children with septic shock in China.

Methods: We conducted an Email-based survey of members of sub-association of pediatric intensive care physicians. Read More

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, a new anurognathid pterosaur from the Jurassic of China and comments on the group.

PeerJ 2021 31;9:e11161. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Anurognathids are an elusive group of diminutive, potentially arboreal pterosaurs. Even though their monophyly has been well-supported, their intrarelationships have been obscure, and their phylogenetic placement even more. In the present work, we present a new genus and species from the Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation, the third nominal anurognathid species from the Jurassic of China. Read More

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Perceptions of e-cigarettes among smokers and non-smokers in households with children in rural China: A cross-sectional study.

Tob Induc Dis 2021 9;19:25. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: The perceived health benefits and effectiveness of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in quitting smoking may affect e-cigarette usage, however, research on the use of e-cigarettes among the Chinese, especially among the rural Chinse, is scarce. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of e-cigarette related harms, benefits, and addictiveness, among smoker and non-smoker households with children in rural China, to support the design of population-based interventions targeting rural Chinese households.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire, we collected data from the household members of children in two selected rural communities in China. Read More

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Variation in personality can substitute for social feedback in coordinated animal movements.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 13;4(1):469. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.

Collective movements are essential for the effective function of animal societies, but are complicated by the need for consensus among group members. Consensus is typically assumed to arise via feedback mechanisms, but this ignores inter-individual variation in behavioural tendency ('personality'), which is known to underpin the successful function of many complex societies. In this study, we use a theoretical approach to examine the relative importance of personality and feedback in the emergence of collective movement decisions in animal groups. Read More

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Comprehensive comparative genomics reveals over 50 phyla of free-living and pathogenic bacteria are associated with diverse members of the amoebozoa.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8043. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biology, Spelman College, 350 Spelman Lane Southwest, Atlanta, GA, 30314, USA.

The Amoebozoa, a group containing predominantly amoeboid unicellular protists has been shown to play an important ecological role in controlling environmental bacteria. Amoebozoans not only graze bacteria but also serve as a safe niche for bacterial replication and harbor endosymbiotic bacteria including dangerous human pathogens. Despite their importance, only a few lineages of Amoebozoa have been studied in this regard. Read More

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Free-Living, Psychrotrophic Bacteria of the Genus Are Descendants of Pathobionts.

mSystems 2021 Apr 13;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany

Host-adapted microorganisms are generally assumed to have evolved from free-living, environmental microorganisms, as examples of the reverse process are rare. In the phylum , family , the genus includes strains from a broad ecological distribution including animal bodies as well as sea ice and other nonhost environments. To elucidate the relationship between these ecological niches and 's evolutionary history, we performed tandem genomic analyses with phenotyping of 85 accessions. Read More

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Effectiveness and Safety of Inhaled Antibiotics in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Multicentre Observational Study.

Arch Bronconeumol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Pneumology Service, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorios (CIBERES), Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 119, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We aimed to describe the effectiveness and safety of inhaled antibiotics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, as well as the patient profile in which they are usually prescribed and the patient groups that can most benefit from this treatment.

Methods: Multicentre retrospective observational cohort study in COPD patients who had received ≥1 dose of inhaled antibiotics in the last 5 years. Clinical data from the two years prior to and subsequent to the start of the treatment were compared. Read More

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Are malaria transmission-blocking vaccines acceptable to high burden communities? Results from a mixed methods study in Bo, Sierra Leone.

Malar J 2021 Apr 13;20(1):183. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

CDC Southeastern Center of Excellence in Vector Borne Diseases, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) could help break the cycle of malaria transmission by conferring community rather than individual protection. When introducing new intervention strategies, uptake is dependent on acceptability, not just efficacy. In this exploratory study on acceptability of TBVs in Sierra Leone, it was hypothesized that TBVs would be largely acceptable to adults and health workers in areas with relatively few ongoing malaria interventions, and that (i) knowledge of malaria and vaccines, (ii) health behaviours associated with malaria and vaccines, and (iii) attitudes towards different vaccines types could lead to greater TBV acceptability. Read More

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Unmet needs related to the quality of life of advanced cancer patients in Korea: a qualitative study.

BMC Palliat Care 2021 Apr 13;20(1):58. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877 Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan, 44033, Republic of Korea.

Background: It has recently been emphasized that the unmet needs of cancer patients should be evaluated more holistically, for example, by exploring caregivers' perspectives and cross cultural differences. This study explored additional domains or items of unmet needs among Korean cancer patients in reference to the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC).

Methods: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 15 cancer patients, following a semi-structured format to elicit participants' health perceptions, comments on SPARC, and opinions on the roles of medical professionals to improve the health-related quality of life of cancer patients. Read More

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Sundanese culture-sensitive family nursing model improves behavior in controlling blood sugar in elderly patients with diabetes.

Enferm Clin 2021 Apr;31 Suppl 2:S361-S365

Department of Nursing, Ministry of Health Polytechnic of Tasikmalaya, Tasikmalaya, West Java, Indonesia.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that has associations with an unhealthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a Sudanese culture-sensitive family nursing model on improving family behavior in controlling blood sugar in elderly patients with diabetes. This study used a quasi-experimental design, involving 57 respondents in the intervention group and 57 respondents in the control group of families containing elderly members with diabetes. Read More

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Family psychoeducation (FPE) therapy for family anxiety in caring for family members with mental disorders.

Enferm Clin 2021 Apr;31 Suppl 2:S165-S169

Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Indonesia.

Families experience various kinds of problems and problems in caring for family members whose families experience various obstacles in treating a patient with mental disorders. One condition that is felt is anxiety. Anxiety is related to ignorance regarding the patient's condition; earn a living; demands to divide time. Read More

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The structural features of an ancient ribonuclease from Salmo salar reveal an intriguing case of auto-inhibition.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

The superfamily of vertebrate ribonucleases, a large group of evolutionarily related proteins, continues to provide interesting structural and functional information. In particular, the crystal structure of SS-RNase-2 from Salmo salar (SS2), here presented, has revealed a novel auto-inhibition mechanism that enriches the number of inhibition strategies observed in some members of the family. Within an essentially unmodified RNase folding, the SS2 active site cleft is in part obstructed by the collapse of an extra pentapeptide inserted in the C-terminal region. Read More

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