12,157 results match your criteria mellitus understanding

Metformin leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting the NFE2L1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:115523. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China. Electronic address:

Metformin, as the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been shown to possess a capability to activate or inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different ways. However, the detailed mechanisms of the opposite effect are poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that metformin induces accumulation of ROS by inhibiting the expression of a core antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1/Nrf1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Read More

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Characteristics of insulinopenic and non insulinopenic diabetes related to immune checkpoint inhibitors: A French pharmacovigilance study.

Therapie 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, Department of Pharmacology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced diabetes mellitus (ICI-DM) is an immune-related adverse drug reaction (irADR). Hyperglycemia can be linked to endogenous insulin deficiency with ketoacidosis or associated with preserved beta-cell function.

Objectives: We aimed to identify the characteristics of both types of ICI-DM (type 1 and type 2 DM), to improve our understanding of this irADR and its management. Read More

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Acute kidney injury is more common in men than women after accounting for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, alcohol intake and smoking history.

Biol Sex Differ 2021 Apr 8;12(1):30. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Renal Medicine, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B15 2GW, UK.

Background: The association of several comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, heart failure and chronic kidney or liver disease, with acute kidney injury (AKI) is well established. Evidence on the effect of sex and socioeconomic factors are scarce. This study was designed to examine the association of sex and socioeconomic factors with AKI and AKI-related mortality and further to evaluate the additional relationship with other possible risk factors for AKI occurrence. Read More

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Experiences of midlife and older African American men living with type 2 diabetes.

Ethn Health 2021 Apr 8:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a complicated disease that disproportionately affects African American men. Understanding the experiences of African American men living with T2DM is important for developing effective, culturally sensitive interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe how African American men view their T2DM and describe their perspectives on living with and self-managing T2DM. Read More

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Quality Matters? The Involvement of Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiovascular Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:636295. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death and global health problems worldwide. Multiple factors are known to affect the cardiovascular system from lifestyles, genes, underlying comorbidities, and age. Requiring high workload, metabolism of the heart is largely dependent on continuous power supply via mitochondria through effective oxidative respiration. Read More

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Belatacept in renal transplantation in comparison to tacrolimus and molecular understanding of resistance pattern: Meta-analysis and systematic review.

World J Transplant 2021 Mar;11(3):70-86

Department of Surgery, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield S10 2JF, United Kingdom.

Background: The T-cell costimulation blocking agent belatacept has been identified as a possible substitute for calcineurin inhibitors, however, no consensus has been established against its use over the standard care agent Tacrolimus.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of belatacept based maintenance immuno-suppressive regimens in comparison to tacrolimus in renal transplantion.

Methods: We did extensive search of all the available literature comparing the role of belatacept to tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients by searching the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Crossref, Scopus, clinical trials registry on October 5, 2020. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Overview of Their Potential in Cell-Based Therapy for Diabetic Nephropathy.

Stem Cells Int 2021 16;2021:6620811. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a devastating complication associated with diabetes mellitus, and it is the leading cause of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). Over the last few decades, numerous studies have reported the beneficial effects of stem cell administration, specifically mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs), on tissue repair and regeneration. MSC therapy has been considered a promising strategy for ameliorating the progression of DN largely based on results obtained from several preclinical studies and recent Phase I/II clinical trials. Read More

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Application of Animal Models in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

Diabetes Metab J 2021 Mar 25;45(2):129-145. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Diabetic heart disease is a growing and important public health risk. Apart from the risk of coronary artery disease or hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for heart failure in the form of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DiaCM). Currently, DiaCM is defined as myocardial dysfunction in patients with DM in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Read More

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Adipokines, Myokines, and Hepatokines: Crosstalk and Metabolic Repercussions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Marília (UNIMAR), Avenida Higino Muzzi Filho 1001, Marília 17525-902, São Paulo, Brazil.

Adipose, skeletal, and hepatic muscle tissues are the main endocrine organs that produce adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines. These biomarkers can be harmful or beneficial to an organism and still perform crosstalk, acting through the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine pathways. This study aims to review the crosstalk between adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines. Read More

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Chronic Diabetic Wounds and Their Treatment with Skin Substitutes.

Cells 2021 Mar 15;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Regenerative Medicine and Immune Regulation, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland.

With the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus steeply rising, instances of chronic, hard-healing, or non-healing diabetic wounds and ulcers are predicted to increase. The growing understanding of healing and regenerative mechanisms has elucidated critical regulators of this process, including key cellular and humoral components. Despite this, the management and successful treatment of diabetic wounds represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Read More

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Lifetime Impact of Cow's Milk on Overactivation of mTORC1: From Fetal to Childhood Overgrowth, Acne, Diabetes, Cancers, and Neurodegeneration.

Bodo C Melnik

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Am Finkenhügel 7a, D-49076 Osnabrück, Germany.

The consumption of cow's milk is a part of the basic nutritional habits of Western industrialized countries. Recent epidemiological studies associate the intake of cow's milk with an increased risk of diseases, which are associated with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. This review presents current epidemiological and translational evidence linking milk consumption to the regulation of mTORC1, the master-switch for eukaryotic cell growth. Read More

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Different Curve Shapes of Fasting Glucose and Various Obesity-Related Indices by Diabetes and Sex.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 17;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan.

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and obesity-related indices are prognostic factors for adverse outcomes in both subjects with and without diabetes. A few studies have investigated sex differences in obesity indices related to the risk of diabetes, however no studies have compared the relationship between FPG and obesity-related indices by diabetes and sex. Therefore, in this study, we compared the curve shapes of FPG and various obesity-related indices by diabetes, and further explored sex differences in these associations. Read More

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Immune metabolism: a bridge of dendritic cells function.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 Apr 1:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

An increasing number of researches have shown that cell metabolism regulates cell function. Dendritic cells (DCs), a professional antigen presenting cells, connect innate and adaptive immune responses. The preference of DCs for sugar or lipid affects its phenotypes and functions. Read More

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Identification of a potentially functional circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in type 2 diabetes mellitus by integrated microarray analysis.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 04 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P.R. of China -

Aim: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) function as miRNA sponges by adsorbing microRNAs (miRNAs), thereby regulating messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has rarely been explored. A circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network associated with T2DM was established to help deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanism of and therapeutic targets for T2DM. Read More

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Metabolomic profile associated with obstructive sleep apnoea severity in obese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A pilot study.

J Sleep Res 2021 Apr 1:e13327. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Research Informatics Core, Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is prevalent in obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present pilot study explored associations between OSA severity and metabolites in women with GDM. A total of 81 obese women with diet-controlled GDM had OSA assessment (median gestational age [GA] 29 weeks). Read More

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Body fat predicts exercise capacity in persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A machine learning approach.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(3):e0248039. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) related morbidity, mortality and death. Exercise capacity in persons with type 2 diabetes has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular events. In this study, we used the data from the prospective randomized LOOK AHEAD study and used machine learning algorithms to help predict exercise capacity (measured in Mets) from the baseline data that included cardiovascular history, medications, blood pressure, demographic information, anthropometric and Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measured body composition metrics. Read More

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Impact of dietary counseling on the perception of diet in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Diabetol Int 2021 Apr 9;12(2):151-160. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, International University of Health and Welfare, 8-10-16 Akasaka Minato, 107-0052 Tokyo, Japan.

Aims/introduction: Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treatment. Patients with GDM should receive dietary counseling regarding diet and exercise.

Materials And Methods: To study patients' perception level of diet and their level of understanding after dietary counseling, we analyzed 225 reports of dietary counseling of patients with GDM prepared by dieticians. Read More

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How do women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus use mHealth during and after pregnancy? Qualitative exploration of women's views and experiences.

Midwifery 2021 Mar 21;98:102995. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, United Kingdom; Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust Clinical School Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust, Treliske, Truro, CornwallTR1 3LQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Women experiencing gestational diabetes face challenges during and after pregnancy that could be supported with mobile health. Mobile health isn't routinely implemented and little is known regarding its use to aid information seeking, peer support and behaviour change. Understanding women's experiences of mHealth is critical to ensuring acceptance and use, particularly with relation to postpartum and interconception periods, where support is currently lacking. Read More

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Concurrent diabetes and heart failure: interplay and novel therapeutic approaches.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing heart failure, and the co-existence of both diseases worsens cardiovascular outcomes, hospitalization and the progression of heart failure. Despite current advancements on therapeutic strategies to manage hyperglycemia, the likelihood of developing diabetes-induced heart failure is still significant, especially with the accelerating global prevalence of diabetes and an ageing population. This raises the likelihood of other contributing mechanisms beyond hyperglycemia in predisposing diabetic patients to cardiovascular disease risk. Read More

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Artificial Urinary Sphincter Complications: Risk Factors, Workup, and Clinical Approach.

Curr Urol Rep 2021 Mar 29;22(5):30. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review risk factors for AUS complications and present a systematic approach to their diagnosis and management.

Recent Findings: Established risk factors for AUS complications include catheterization, channel TURP, pelvic radiation, urethroplasty, anticoagulation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, frailty index, hypertension, low albumin, and low testosterone. We present our algorithm for diagnosis and management of AUS complications. Read More

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CD26/Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV and Its Multiple Biological Functions.

Cureus 2021 Feb 22;13(2):e13495. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

CD26/Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a cell surface glycoprotein with numerous roles including glucose metabolism, immunomodulation, and tumorigenesis. CD26/DPPIV is well recognized in diabetes, with DPPIV inhibitors being a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs called gliptins that are commonly used to treat type two diabetes mellitus. Recent work also indicated a potential role for CD26 in infectious diseases, including COVID-19, and immune-mediated disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and graft-versus-host disease. Read More

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February 2021

Pericytes Across the Lifetime in the Central Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 12;15:627291. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, United States.

The pericyte is a perivascular cell type that encapsulates the microvasculature of the brain and spinal cord. Pericytes play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and have a multitude of important functions in the brain. Recent evidence indicates that pericyte impairment has been implicated in neurovascular pathology associated with various human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and stroke. Read More

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Diabetes, inflammation, and the adiponectin paradox: Therapeutic targets in SARS-CoV-2.

Drug Discov Today 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Aging and pre-existing conditions in older patients increase severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) severity and its complications, although the causes remain unclear. Apart from acute pulmonary syndrome, Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) can increasingly induce chronic conditions. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 triggers de novo type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) linked to age-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancers, and neurodegeneration. Read More

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Diabetes care provided by national standards can improve patients' self-management skills: A qualitative study of how people with type 2 diabetes perceive primary diabetes care.

Health Expect 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] has resulted in extensive research into the characteristics of successful primary diabetes care. Even if self-management support and continuity are increasingly recognized as important, there is still a need for deeper understanding of how patients' experiences of continuity of care coincide with their needs for self-management and/or self-management support.

Objective: To gain a deeper understanding of how people with T2DM perceive Swedish primary diabetes care and self-management support. Read More

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Patient perspectives of a heart failure action plan: A qualitative study.

Nurs Forum 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Professional Nursing Practice, School of Nursing & Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Individuals with heart failure (HF) have difficulty evaluating their symptoms, understanding when to seek health care, and implementing self-care activities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to inform the development of a heart failure action plan (HFAP) for individuals living with HF. This study used a prospective, descriptive qualitative design with a content analysis approach. Read More

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Geographically weighted machine learning model for untangling spatial heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) prevalence in the USA.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 26;11(1):6955. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research and Education in Energy, Environment, and Water (RENEW) Institute, University at Buffalo, State University at New York, 108 Cooke Hall, Buffalo, NY, 14260, USA.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) prevalence in the United States varies substantially across spatial and temporal scales, attributable to variations of socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors. Understanding these variations in risk factors contributions to T2D would be of great benefit to intervention and treatment approaches to reduce or prevent T2D. Geographically-weighted random forest (GW-RF), a tree-based non-parametric machine learning model, may help explore and visualize the relationships between T2D and risk factors at the county-level. Read More

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Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia among diabetes mellitus patients and predictors of optimal dyslipidemia control: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Mar 26;20(1):29. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia and identify the predictors of optimal control (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2018). Overall, 4311 patients with DM, aged ≥19 years, and without cardiovascular diseases were selected, and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia were calculated. Read More

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Roles of interstitial fluid pH and weak organic acids in development and amelioration of insulin resistance.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research Institute for Clinical Physiology, Kyoto Industrial Health Association, Kyoto 604-8472, Japan.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common lifestyle-related diseases (metabolic disorders) due to hyperphagia and/or hypokinesia. Hyperglycemia is the most well-known symptom occurring in T2DM patients. Insulin resistance is also one of the most important symptoms, however, it is still unclear how insulin resistance develops in T2DM. Read More

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Risk factors for hospital readmission following complicated urinary tract infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6926. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medicine E, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tiqva, Israel.

Hospital readmissions following severe infections are a major economic burden on the health care system and have a negative influence on patients' quality of life. Understanding the risk factors for readmission, particularly the extent to which they could be prevented, is of a great importance. In this study we evaluated potentially preventable risk factors for 60-day readmission in patients surviving hospitalization for complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI). Read More

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Factors Contributing to an Efficacious Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Asian Population.

Neurointervention 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Kyemyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Although randomized control trials about endovascular treatment (EVT) of emergent large vessel occlusion (LVO) have demonstrated the success of mechanical thrombectomy as the choice of treatment, a wide range of caveats remain unaddressed. Asian patients were rarely included in the trials, thereby raising the question of whether the treatment could be generalized. In addition, there remains a concern on the feasibility of the method with respect to its application against intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS)-related LVO, frequently observed in the Asian population. Read More

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