3,683 results match your criteria meiosis anaphase


Microtubule reorganization during female meiosis in .

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Membrane and Cell Physiology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, United States.

Most female meiotic spindles undergo striking morphological changes while transitioning from metaphase to anaphase. The ultra-structure of meiotic spindles, and how changes to this structure correlate with such dramatic spindle rearrangements remains largely unknown. To address this, we applied light microscopy, large-scale electron tomography and mathematical modeling of female meiotic spindles. Read More

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FBXO43 variants in patients with female infertility characterized by early embryonic arrest.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Study Question: Can any new genetic factors responsible for early embryonic arrest in infertile patients be identified, together with the mechanism of pathogenic variants?

Summary Answer: We identified three homozygous variants in the F-box protein 43 gene (FBXO43) in infertile patients and studies on the effects of the variants in HEK293T cells and mouse oocytes provided evidence for a causal relation between FBXO43 and female infertility.

What Is Known Already: FBXO43, an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, mediates Metaphase II arrest as a component of the cytostatic factor in oocytes. Both male and female Fbxo43 knockout mice are viable but sterile. Read More

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Poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 promotes seed-setting rate by facilitating gametophyte development and meiosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Plant J 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Crop Germplasm Resources Preservation and Utilization, Agricultural Biological Gene Research Center, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which transfer either monomer or polymer of ADP-ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) onto target proteins, are required for multiple processes in DNA damage repair, cell cycle, development, and abiotic stress in animals and plants. Here, the uncharacterized rice (Oryza sativa) OsPARP1, which has been predicted to have two alternative OsPARP1 mRNA splicing variants, OsPARP1.1 and OsPARP1. Read More

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KCTD19 and its associated protein ZFP541 are independently essential for meiosis in male mice.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009412. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Meiosis is a cell division process with complex chromosome events where various molecules must work in tandem. To find meiosis-related genes, we screened evolutionarily conserved and reproductive tract-enriched genes using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and identified potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 19 (Kctd19) as an essential factor for meiosis. In prophase I, Kctd19 deficiency did not affect synapsis or the DNA damage response, and chiasma structures were also observed in metaphase I spermatocytes of Kctd19 KO mice. Read More

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A Hypomorphic Mutant of PHD Domain Protein Male Meiocytes Death 1.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Unit HortiCell, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Meiosis drives reciprocal genetic exchanges and produces gametes with halved chromosome number, which is important for the genetic diversity, plant viability, and ploidy consistency of flowering plants. Alterations in chromosome dynamics and/or cytokinesis during meiosis may lead to meiotic restitution and the formation of unreduced microspores. In this study, we isolated an mutant (), which produces a small subpopulation of diploid or polyploid pollen grains. Read More

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WAPL orchestrates porcine oocyte meiotic progression via control of spindle assembly checkpoint activity.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Apr 19;19(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095, Nanjing, China.

Background: In mitotic cells, WAPL acts as a cohesin release factor to remove cohesin complexes from chromosome arms during prophase to allow the accurate chromosome segregation in anaphase. However, we have recently documented that Wapl exerts a unique meiotic function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) control through maintaining Bub3 stability during mouse oocyte meiosis I. Whether this noncanonical function is conserved among species is still unknown. Read More

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Decabromodiphenyl ethane exposure damaged the asymmetric division of mouse oocytes by inhibiting the inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21449

College of Life Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is a new brominated flame retardant and is widely added to flammable materials to prevent fire. Because it has been continuously detected in a variety of organisms and humans, it is important to reveal the biological toxicity of DBDPE. However, the influence of DBDPE for female reproduction is unclear. Read More

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The Role of Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in Plant Reproduction.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:642934. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz," University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Most eukaryotic species propagate through sexual reproduction that requires male and female gametes. In flowering plants, it starts through a single round of DNA replication (S phase) and two consecutive chromosome segregation (meiosis I and II). Subsequently, haploid mitotic divisions occur, which results in a male gametophyte (pollen grain) and a female gametophyte (embryo sac) formation. Read More

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February 2021

Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Meiotic Divisions in Males.

Bio Protoc 2020 Oct 20;10(20):e3785. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Experimental Center, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Live-imaging of meiotic cell division has been performed in extracted spermatocytes of a number of species using phase-contrast microscopy. For the nematode , removal of spermatocytes from gonads has damaging effects, as most of the extracted spermatocytes show a high variability in the timing of meiotic divisions or simply arrest during the experiment. Therefore, we developed a live-cell imaging approach for filming of spermatocyte meiosis in whole immobilized males, thus allowing an observation of male germ cells within an unperturbed environment. Read More

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October 2020

Deprotection of centromeric cohesin at meiosis II requires APC/C activity but not kinetochore tension.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 1;40(7):e106812. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Laboratory of Chromosome Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

Genome haploidization involves sequential loss of cohesin from chromosome arms and centromeres during two meiotic divisions. At centromeres, cohesin's Rec8 subunit is protected from separase cleavage at meiosis I and then deprotected to allow its cleavage at meiosis II. Protection of centromeric cohesin by shugoshin-PP2A seems evolutionarily conserved. Read More

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Kinetochore individualization in meiosis I is required for centromeric cohesin removal in meiosis II.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 1;40(7):e106797. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Partitioning of the genome in meiosis occurs through two highly specialized cell divisions, named meiosis I and meiosis II. Step-wise cohesin removal is required for chromosome segregation in meiosis I, and sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. In meiosis I, mono-oriented sister kinetochores appear as fused together when examined by high-resolution confocal microscopy, whereas they are clearly separated in meiosis II, when attachments are bipolar. Read More

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Overlapping roles for PLK1 and Aurora A during meiotic centrosome biogenesis in mouse spermatocytes.

EMBO Rep 2021 04 21;22(4):e51023. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The establishment of bipolar spindles during meiotic divisions ensures faithful chromosome segregation to prevent gamete aneuploidy. We analyzed centriole duplication, as well as centrosome maturation and separation during meiosis I and II using mouse spermatocytes. The first round of centriole duplication occurs during early prophase I, and then, centrosomes mature and begin to separate by the end of prophase I to prime formation of bipolar metaphase I spindles. Read More

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Cytological Observations and Bulked-Segregant Analysis Coupled Global Genome Sequencing Reveal Two Genes Associated with Pollen Fertility in Tetraploid Rice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 15;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Neo-tetraploid rice with high fertility is a useful germplasm for polyploid rice breeding, which was developed from the crossing of different autotetraploid rice lines. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the fertility of neo-tetraploid rice. Here, two contrasting populations of tetraploid rice, including one with high fertility (hereafter referred to as JG) and another with low fertility (hereafter referred to as JD), were generated by crossing Huaduo 3 (H3), a high fertility neo-tetraploid rice that was developed by crossing Jackson-4x with 96025-4x, and Huajingxian74-4x (T452), a low fertility autotetraploid rice parent. Read More

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January 2021

Dynein-dynactin segregate meiotic chromosomes in spermatocytes.

Development 2021 Feb 10;148(3). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde - i3S, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal

The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) and its essential activator dynactin have conserved roles in spindle assembly and positioning during female meiosis and mitosis, but their contribution to male meiosis remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the G33S mutation in the dynactin subunit DNC-1, which corresponds to G59S in human p150 that causes motor neuron disease. In spermatocytes, delays spindle assembly and penetrantly inhibits anaphase spindle elongation in meiosis I, which prevents the segregation of homologous chromosomes. Read More

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February 2021

SLX4-XPF mediates DNA damage responses to replication stress induced by DNA-protein interactions.

J Cell Biol 2021 01;220(1)

Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The DNA damage response (DDR) has a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity during chromosome replication. However, responses to replication stress evoked by tight DNA-protein complexes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we used bacterial LacI protein binding to lacO arrays to make site-specific replication fork barriers on the human chromosome. Read More

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January 2021

Development of a Yellow-Seeded Stable Allohexaploid Brassica Through Inter-Generic Somatic Hybridization With a High Degree of Fertility and Resistance to .

Front Plant Sci 2020 24;11:575591. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Genetics Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

The Brassica coenospeceis have treasure troves of genes that could be beneficial if introgressed into cultivated Brassicas to combat the current conditions of climate change. Introducing genetic variability through plant speciation with polyploidization is well documented, where ploidy augmentation of inter-generic allohexaploids using somatic hybridization has significantly contributed to genetic base broadening. is a member of the Brassicaceae family that possesses valuable genes, including genes conferring resistance to , , pod shattering, heat, and drought stress. Read More

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November 2020

mRNA spindle localization and mitotic translational regulation by CPEB1 and CPEB4.

RNA 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology;

Transition through cell cycle phases requires temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression to ensure accurate chromosome duplication and segregation. This regulation involves dynamic reprogramming of gene expression at multiple transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In transcriptionally silent oocytes, the CPEB-family of RNAbinding proteins coordinates temporal and spatial translation regulation of stored maternal mRNAs to drive meiotic progression. Read More

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December 2020

Implications of Metastable Nicks and Nicked Holliday Junctions in Processing Joint Molecules in Mitosis and Meiosis.

Authors:
Félix Machín

Genes (Basel) 2020 12 12;11(12). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

Joint molecules (JMs) are intermediates of homologous recombination (HR). JMs rejoin sister or homolog chromosomes and must be removed timely to allow segregation in anaphase. Current models pinpoint Holliday junctions (HJs) as a central JM. Read More

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December 2020

Loss of ESRP1 blocks mouse oocyte development and leads to female infertility.

Development 2021 01 18;148(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China

Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to gene diversification, but the AS program during germline development remains largely undefined. Here, we interrupted pre-mRNA splicing events controlled by epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) and found that it induced female infertility in mice. deletion perturbed spindle organization, chromosome alignment and metaphase-to-anaphase transformation in oocytes. Read More

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January 2021

The mitotic exit network regulates the spatiotemporal activity of Cdc42 to maintain cell size.

J Cell Biol 2021 01;220(1)

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

During G1 in budding yeast, the Cdc42 GTPase establishes a polar front, along which actin is recruited to direct secretion for bud formation. Cdc42 localizes at the bud cortex and then redistributes between mother and daughter in anaphase. The molecular mechanisms that terminate Cdc42 bud-localized activity during mitosis are poorly understood. Read More

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January 2021

Role of PB1 Midbody Remnant Creating Tethered Polar Bodies during Meiosis II.

Genes (Basel) 2020 11 24;11(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LBDV), Institut de la Mer (IMEV), Sorbonne Université/CNRS, 06230 Villefranche sur-Mer, France.

Polar body (PB) formation is an extreme form of unequal cell division that occurs in oocytes due to the eccentric position of the small meiotic spindle near the oocyte cortex. Prior to PB formation, a chromatin-centered process causes the cortex overlying the meiotic chromosomes to become polarized. This polarized cortical subdomain marks the site where a cortical protrusion or outpocket forms at the oocyte surface creating the future PBs. Read More

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November 2020

Biophysical mechanism for zinc as an anticancer agent.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 13;144:110273. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Departments of Physics and Biology, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ 08102, United States. Electronic address:

The experimental observation that an increase in calcium above micromolar concentrations results in a slowing or stopping of anaphase-A motion is evidence for an electrostatic mechanism for poleward mitotic chromosome motions. Specifically, higher concentrations of doubly-charged calcium ions screen negative charges at microtubule free "plus" ends at kinetochores and at centrosomes. These structures normally interact with positive charges at kinetochores and positively charged microtubule free ends vicinal to centrosomes to generate poleward force. Read More

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November 2020

Chromosome segregation during female meiosis in C. elegans: A tale of pushing and pulling.

J Cell Biol 2020 12;219(12)

Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

The role of the kinetochore during meiotic chromosome segregation in C. elegans oocytes has been a matter of controversy. Danlasky et al. Read More

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December 2020

PRC1 is a critical regulator for anaphase spindle midzone assembly and cytokinesis in mouse oocyte meiosis.

FEBS J 2021 May 30;288(9):3055-3067. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, China.

Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) is a microtubule bundling protein that is involved in the regulation of the central spindle bundle and spindle orientation during mitosis. However, the functions of PRC1 during meiosis have rarely been studied. In this study, we explored the roles of PRC1 during meiosis using an oocyte model. Read More

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Cyclin B3 activates the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome in meiosis and mitosis.

PLoS Genet 2020 11 2;16(11):e1009184. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

In mitosis and meiosis, chromosome segregation is triggered by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation, leading to the separation of chromatids. APC/C activation requires phosphorylation of its APC3 and APC1 subunits, which allows the APC/C to bind its co-activator Cdc20. The identity of the kinase(s) responsible for APC/C activation in vivo is unclear. Read More

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November 2020

Phosphorylation of histone H3 by Haspin regulates chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis in maize.

J Exp Bot 2021 02;72(4):1046-1058

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

In human cells, Haspin-mediated histone H3 threonine 3 (H3T3) phosphorylation promotes centromeric localization of the chromosomal passenger complex, thereby ensuring proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Haspin also binds to PDS5 cohesin-associated factor B (Pds5B), antagonizing the Wings apart-like protein homolog (Wapl)-Pds5B interaction and thus preventing Wapl from releasing centromeric cohesion during mitosis. However, the role of Haspin in plant chromosome segregation is not well understood. Read More

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February 2021

Transient Breakage of the Nucleocytoplasmic Barrier Controls Spore Maturation via Mobilizing the Proteasome Subunit Rpn11 in the Fission Yeast .

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Oct 23;6(4). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

Forespore membrane (FSM) closure is a process of specialized cytokinesis in yeast meiosis. FSM closure begins with the contraction of the FSM opening and finishes with the disassembly of the leading-edge proteins (LEPs) from the FSM opening. Here, we show that the FSM opening starts to contract when the event of virtual nuclear envelope breakdown (vNEBD) occurs in anaphase II of the fission yeast . Read More

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October 2020

Wip1 controls the translocation of the chromosomal passenger complex to the central spindle for faithful mitotic exit.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Mar 16;78(6):2821-2838. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Drug Information Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310, Republic of Korea.

Dramatic cellular reorganization in mitosis critically depends on the timely and temporal phosphorylation of a broad range of proteins, which is mediated by the activation of the mitotic kinases and repression of counteracting phosphatases. The mitosis-to-interphase transition, which is termed mitotic exit, involves the removal of mitotic phosphorylation by protein phosphatases. Although protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) drive this reversal in animal cells, the phosphatase network associated with ordered bulk dephosphorylation in mitotic exit is not fully understood. Read More

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Evidence for anaphase pulling forces during C. elegans meiosis.

J Cell Biol 2020 12;219(12)

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Anaphase chromosome movement is thought to be mediated by pulling forces generated by end-on attachment of microtubules to the outer face of kinetochores. However, it has been suggested that during C. elegans female meiosis, anaphase is mediated by a kinetochore-independent pushing mechanism with microtubules only attached to the inner face of segregating chromosomes. Read More

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December 2020

The conserved molting/circadian rhythm regulator NHR-23/NR1F1 serves as an essential co-regulator of spermatogenesis.

Development 2020 11 27;147(22). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA

In sexually reproducing metazoans, spermatogenesis is the process by which uncommitted germ cells give rise to haploid sperm. Work in model systems has revealed mechanisms controlling commitment to the sperm fate, but how this fate is subsequently executed remains less clear. While studying the well-established role of the conserved nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor, NHR-23/NR1F1, in regulating molting, we discovered that NHR-23/NR1F1 is also constitutively expressed in developing primary spermatocytes and is a critical regulator of spermatogenesis. Read More

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November 2020