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Assessing Dentists' Knowledge and Experience in Restoring Endodontically Treated Teeth Using Post & Cores.

J Dent 2021 Sep 21:103815. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Rockefeller Building, 20 University Street, London WC1E 6DE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The restoration of endodontically, heavily filled teeth has been a challenge for the dental profession for decades. The aims of this study were to investigate dentists' experience and knowledge in the use of post & core when restoring endodontically treated teeth.

Method: This was a mixed method study incorporating quantitative and qualitative data collection. Read More

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September 2021

Cardiorespiratory Effects of Indoor Ozone Exposure Associated with Changes in Metabolic Profiles among Children: A Repeated-Measure Panel Study.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Feb 5;2(1):100087. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Ozone is one of the major gaseous pollutants associated with short-term adverse cardiopulmonary effects, even at concentrations below the current indoor air quality limits. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cardiorespiratory changes with exposure to ozone remain unclear. To further explore molecular linkages between indoor ozone exposure and relevant cardiorespiratory effects, a repeated-measure panel study including 46 schoolchildren was conducted and real-time exposure measurements including ozone were performed inside classrooms every weekday during the study period. Read More

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February 2021

The LEAF questionnaire is a good screening tool for the identification of the Female Athlete Triad/Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport among young football players.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e12118. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.

Background: It has been noticed that Female Athlete Triad (Fat) and Relative Energy Deficiency (Red-S) in Sport are characterized by the symptoms of impaired endocrine-metabolic function and bone health in female athletes. In addition, it may be evaluated with a qualitative tool, such as Low Energy Availability in Females questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and quantitative measurements: bone mineral density (BMD), resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, 24-hour dietary recall.

Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Triad and Red-S using the LEAF-Q in youth female football players. Read More

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September 2021

Improving Outcome Accountability of Block Grants: Lessons Learned From the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant Evaluation.

Am J Eval 2020 Oct;42(2):185-200

Center for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The flexibility federal block grants provide recipients poses challenges for evaluation. These challenges include aggregating data on wide-ranging activities grant recipients implement and the outcomes they achieve. In 2014, we began designing an evaluation to address the challenges of assessing outcomes and to improve outcome accountability for the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant. Read More

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October 2020

Using a human-centred design approach to develop a comprehensive newborn monitoring chart for inpatient care in Kenya.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 24;21(1):1010. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Athena Institute, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Introduction: Job aids such as observation charts are commonly used to record inpatient nursing observations. For sick newborns, it is important to provide critical information, intervene, and tailor treatment to improve health outcomes, as countries work towards reducing neonatal mortality. However, inpatient vital sign readings are often poorly documented and little attention has been paid to the process of chart design as a method of improving care quality. Read More

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September 2021

Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (screen time and homework) among overweight or obese adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study in Yazd, Iran.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Sep 23;21(1):421. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: The growing number of adolescents who are overweight or obese (OW / OB) is a public concern. The present study was aimed to evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) (screen time (ST) and homework time (HT)) among Yazd OW/OB adolescents.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 510 students aged 12-16 in Yazd, Iran. Read More

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September 2021

School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 23;9:CD007651. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: Physical activity among children and adolescents is associated with lower adiposity, improved cardio-metabolic health, and improved fitness. Worldwide, fewer than 30% of children and adolescents meet global physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Schools may be ideal sites for interventions given that children and adolescents in most parts of the world spend a substantial amount of time in transit to and from school or attending school. Read More

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September 2021

Increasing Access to HIV Testing Through Direct-to-Consumer HIV Self-Test Distribution - United States, March 31, 2020-March 30, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Sep 24;70(38):1322-1325. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

During 2019, approximately 34,800 new HIV infections occurred in the United States (1), and it is estimated that approximately 80% of HIV transmission occurs from persons who either do not know they have HIV infection or are not receiving regular care (2). Since 2006, CDC has recommended that persons who are disproportionately affected by HIV (including men who have sex with men [MSM]) should test for HIV at least annually (3,4). However, data from multiple sources indicate that these recommendations are not being fully implemented (5,6). Read More

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September 2021

Examining racial disparities in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 Sep 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Black individuals are less likely to receive an accurate diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than their White counterparts, possibly because diagnoses are typically made by a physician, often without reference to objective neuropsychological test data. We examined racial differences in actuarial MCI diagnoses among individuals diagnosed with MCI via semi-structured clinical interview (the Clinical Dementia Rating) to examine for possible biases in the diagnostic process. Participants were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set and included 491 individuals self-identifying as Black and 2,818 individuals self-identifying as White. Read More

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September 2021

Statement of the Committee of Human Nutrition Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences on the use of dietary supplements containing vitamins and minerals by adults.

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2021 ;72(3):321-326

Department of Dietetics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences.

The use of dietary supplements (supplementation) is the individual enrichment of the diet with ingredients naturally occurring in food. As a rule, dietary supplements should be used periodically. In nutritional practice, there are many indications for dietary supplementation, but the decision to take dietary supplements should be made by consumers wisely and only in justified situations, when there is a risk that the usual diet does not provide vitamins and minerals in an amount adequate to meet dietary recommendations. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations in the context of recommended dietary supplementation. Are pregnant women supplied with what they should get?

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2021 ;72(3):309-320

National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute, Department of Nutrition and Nutritional Value of Food, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The composition of preparations, intended for pregnant women is an important issue of proper dietary supplementation. The range of such products on the market is very wide and their composition is not regulated by law.

Objectives: To evaluate the composition of preparations for pregnant women in the context of 2014 Polish Gynecological Society (PTG) recommendation and the 2020 recommendation of the Polish Society of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (PTGiP). Read More

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January 2021

Trends and correlates of girl-child marriage in 11 West African countries: evidence from recent Demographic and Health Surveys.

AAS Open Res 2021 1;4:35. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun, 220005, Nigeria.

: West Africa historically has a high prevalence of girl-child marriage and requires substantial reduction to meet the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of ending child marriage by 2030, but current data on progress is sparce. We aimed to determine the trend in child marriage in West Africa and assess the influence of selected socio-demographic factors. : We analysed data on women aged 18-24 years from the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (conducted between 2006 and 2014) for 11 West African countries to determine the prevalence and trend of girl-child marriage. Read More

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September 2021

Sugar Habit Hacker: Initial evidence that a planning intervention reduces sugar intake.

J Behav Addict 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

3School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

Background And Aims: Sugar is a potentially addictive substance that is consumed in such high levels the World Health Organisation has set recommended consumption limits. To date there are no empirically tested brief interventions for reducing sugar consumption in adult populations. The current study aimed to preliminarily assess the feasibility of recruitment, retention, and intervention engagement and impact of a brief intervention. Read More

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September 2021

Overcoming scientific barriers in the transition from to non-animal batch testing of human and veterinary vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Sep 22:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Before release, vaccine batches are assessed for quality to evaluate whether they meet the product specifications. Vaccine batch tests, in particular of inactivated and toxoid vaccines, still largely rely on methods. Improved vaccine production processes, ethical concerns, and suboptimal performance of some tests have led to the development of alternatives. Read More

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September 2021

The Critical Role of Midwives in Safe Self-Managed Abortion.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Reproductive Health Consultant, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

As access to legal abortion in the United States becomes more complex, there is increasing interest in self-managed abortion. Choosing to seek abortion care outside the clinical setting can also help people marginalized or harmed by existing health care systems to access needed care in a way that feels safe and empowering. However, patients and midwives alike often have a lack of information about expected outcomes and potential complications that may arise, as well as how to manage these in a health care system that may make appropriate follow-up difficult to access if needed. Read More

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September 2021

Triaxial Accelerometry-Based Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Older Adults Using Four Different Methods.

J Aging Phys Act 2021 Sep 21:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Community and Public Health, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID,USA.

The amount of physical activity reported using accelerometry can vary depending on the method used. This study examined variability in four different methods of calculating moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among older adults, as well as lifestyle correlates of physical activity. The MVPA data were captured (n = 111; Mage = 70. Read More

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September 2021

Defining the "New Normal" in Primary Care.

Ann Fam Med 2021 Sep-Oct;19(5):457-459

University of Michigan, School of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Health care organizations in the United States have transformed at an unprecedented rate since March 2020 due to COVID-19, most notably with a shift to telemedicine. Despite rapidly adapting health care delivery in light of new safety considerations and a shifting insurance landscape, primary care offices across the country are facing drastic decreases in revenue and potential bankruptcy. To survive, primary care's adaptations will need to go beyond virtual versions of traditional office visits. Read More

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Naomi: a new modelling tool for estimating HIV epidemic indicators at the district level in sub-Saharan Africa.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Sep;24 Suppl 5:e25788

Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Introduction: HIV planning requires granular estimates for the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV), antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and unmet need, and new HIV infections by district, or equivalent subnational administrative level. We developed a Bayesian small-area estimation model, called Naomi, to estimate these quantities stratified by subnational administrative units, sex, and five-year age groups.

Methods: Small-area regressions for HIV prevalence, ART coverage and HIV incidence were jointly calibrated using subnational household survey data on all three indicators, routine antenatal service delivery data on HIV prevalence and ART coverage among pregnant women, and service delivery data on the number of PLHIV receiving ART. Read More

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September 2021

Antimicrobial Resistance in Africa-How to Relieve the Burden on Family Farmers.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Oct;27(10):2515-2520

Although currently available data indicate that Africa has the lowest usage of antimicrobials in animals in the world (adjusted by animal biomass), data show a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens isolated from animals and animal products. Apart from the lack of solid data on antimicrobial use in many countries in Africa, different hypotheses could explain this situation. Qualitative interviews of farmers show a lack of knowledge and uninformed use of antimicrobials. Read More

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October 2021

One year of COVID-19 and its impact on private provider engagement for TB.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2021 Sep 16:100277. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

McGill International TB Centre, Montreal, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health systems and health programs across the world. For tuberculosis (TB), it is predicted to set back progress by at least twelve years. Public private mix (PPM) is a collaborative approach to engage private providers in quality TB care. Read More

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September 2021

Treating an Epidemic During a Pandemic: Experience Treating Opioid Use Disorder at the Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Hospital Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, access to addiction treatment has plummeted. At the same time, patients with opioid use disorder are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection and experience worse outcomes. The Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital (BCCFH), a state-run COVID-19 disaster hospital operated by Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Maryland Medical System, continues to operate 14 months into the pandemic to serve as an overflow unit for the state's hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

Looking back at the lawsuit that transformed the chiropractic profession part 8: Judgment impact.

J Chiropr Educ 2021 Sep;35(S1):117-131

Objective: This paper is the eighth in a series that explores the historical events surrounding the Wilk v American Medical Association (AMA) lawsuit in which the plaintiffs argued that the AMA, the American Hospital Association, and other medical specialty societies violated antitrust law by restraining chiropractors' business practices. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impact that the final decision in favor of the plaintiffs may have had on the chiropractic profession.

Methods: This historical research study used a phenomenological approach to qualitative inquiry into the conflict between regular medicine and chiropractic and the events before, during, and after a legal dispute at the time of modernization of the chiropractic profession. Read More

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September 2021

How can we realise the full potential of animal health systems for delivering development and health outcomes?

Rev Sci Tech 2021 08;40(2):483-495

Animal health services play an essential role in supporting livestock production, with the potential to address the challenges of hunger, poverty, health, social justice and environmental health as part of the path towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) defined in the United Nations, 2030 Agenda. However, the provision of animal health services remains chronically underfunded. Although the aspiration that ‘no one will be left behind' is core to the SDG agenda, animal health service provision still fails to meet the basic needs of many of the poorest livestock owners. Read More

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Epidemic disease risks and implications for Veterinary Services.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 08;40(2):497-509

Growth in the livestock sector is associated with heightened risk for epidemic diseases. The increasing spillover of new diseases from wildlife is being driven by wide-scale anthropogenic changes allowing for more frequent and closer wildlife-human and wildlife-livestock contacts. An increasing number of epidemics in livestock are associated with rapid transition of livestock systems from extensive to intensive, and local to global movement of livestock and their products through value chain networks with weak biosecurity. Read More

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Livestock production systems, their responses to the demand for animal-source food, and the implications for animal health services.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 Aug;40(2):383-394

This paper reviews the rapidly changing global demands for animal-source foods, examines the agri-food systems behind these changes, and discusses the potential responses required by public-sector Veterinary Services to meet these new demands. Read More

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Development of Privacy Features on Anecdata.org, a Free Citizen Science Platform for Collecting Datasets for Climate Change and Related Projects.

Front Clim 2021 Apr 30;3. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, United States.

The Anecdata website and its corresponding mobile app provide unique features to meet the needs of a wide variety of diverse citizen science projects from across the world. The platform has been developed with the help of continuous feedback from community partners, project leaders, and website users and currently hosts more than 200 projects. Over 8,000 registered users have contributed more than 30,000 images and over 50,000 observations since the platform became open to the public in 2014. Read More

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A solution scan of societal options to reduce transmission and spread of respiratory viruses: SARS-CoV-2 as a case study.

J Biosaf Biosecur 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

Societal biosecurity, measures built into everyday society to minimize risks from pests and diseases, is an important aspect of managing epidemics and pandemics. We aimed to identify societal options for reducing the transmission and spread of respiratory viruses. We used SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) as a case study to meet the immediate need to manage the COVID-19 pandemic and eventually transition to more normal societal conditions, and to catalog options for managing similar pandemics in the future. Read More

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September 2021

Predictors of Emergency Room Access and Not Urgent Emergency Room Access by the Frail Older Adults.

Front Public Health 2021;9:721634. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome "Tor Vergata,"Rome, Italy.

Emergency rooms (ERs) overcrowded by older adults have been the focus of public health policies during the recent COVID-19 outbreak too. This phenomenon needed a change in the nursing care of older frail people. Health policies have tried to mitigate the frequent use of ER by implementing community care to meet the care demands of older adults. Read More

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September 2021

Emerging Needs and Viability of Telepsychiatry During and Post COVID-19 Era: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Aug 7;13(8):e16974. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Psychiatry, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in nationwide stay-at-home orders in an effort to slow the spread severely impacting the healthcare sector. Telepsychiatry provides a platform bridging the gap through advanced technologies connecting mental health providers and patients who need their services, overcoming previous barriers of great distances, lack of transportation, and even time constraints. The most obvious benefit is increased accessibility to mental healthcare, especially in underserved and remote areas where there is no easy access for in-person care. Read More

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Canadian policy changes for alcohol-based hand rubs during the COVID-19 pandemic and unintended risks.

World Med Health Policy 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Strategic Research Program, Department of Plant Sciences Ministry of Agriculture University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to major changes in public policies to address supply chain disruption and escalated the price of consumer disinfectant products. To address market demands on alcohol-based hand rubs and disinfectants, Health Canada implemented major changes to the regulations regarding composition, handling, transportation, and packaging to insure product availability. Furthermore, accelerated licensing of ingredients and packaging did not meet standard medical quality guidelines yet were authorized for manufacturing and packaging of alcohol-based hand rubs and disinfectants. Read More

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