384,167 results match your criteria medicinal chemistry

Glutamine synthetase as a central element in hepatic glutamine and ammonia metabolism: novel aspects.

Biol Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, D-40225Düsseldorf, Germany.

Glutamine synthetase (GS) in the liver is expressed in a small perivenous, highly specialized hepatocyte population and is essential for the maintenance of low, non-toxic ammonia levels in the organism. However, GS activity can be impaired by tyrosine nitration of the enzyme in response to oxidative/nitrosative stress in a pH-sensitive way. The underlying molecular mechanism as investigated by combined molecular simulations and experiments indicates that tyrosine nitration can lead to a fully reversible and pH-sensitive regulation of protein function. Read More

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Herbal supplement (Combi-5) in the management of COVID 19 individual with mild to moderate symptoms: a case report.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Objective: To explore repurposing known natural products for managing patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19.

Case Presentation: We present a case report of a middle aged woman, who was positive to COVID 19, with mild to moderate symptoms; who self -managed at home using well formulated herbal supplement (Combi-5) taken along with vitamin C and Zinc supplements. She recovered within a short time. Read More

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A yellow chlorophyll catabolite in leaves of Urtica dioica L.: An overlooked phytochemical that contributes to health benefits of stinging nettle.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;359:129906. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Center for Drug Research, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Butenandtstr. 5-13, D-81377 München, Germany. Electronic address:

Stinging nettle is appreciated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which renders the plant a popular ingredient in a healthy diet in form of salads or smoothies. The most common use, presumably, is of dried leaves as ingredient in tea mixtures. The plant's health benefits are attributed primarily to phenolic phytochemicals. Read More

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Rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the enantioanalysis of verapamil in rat plasma using superficially porous silica isopropyl-cyclofructan 6 chiral stationary phase after SPE: Application to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 29;201:114108. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2457, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the rapid and sensitive enantioselective analysis of verapamil (VER) in rat plasma was developed and validated using new superficially porous silica isopropyl-cyclofructan 6 chiral column (LarihcShell-P, LSP). The isocratic mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: trifluoroacetic acid: 10 mM ammonium formate (100 : 0.1 : 0. Read More

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Novel 4-(piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-2(1H)-one bearing thiazoles with antiproliferative activity through VEGFR-2-TK inhibition.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Apr 22;40:116168. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, 61519 Minia, Egypt; Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, New Minia, Minia, Egypt. Electronic address:

A new series of 2-(4-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)acetamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activity. All target compounds showed anticancer activity higher than that of their 2-oxo-4-piperazinyl-1,2-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one precursors. Multidose testing of target compounds was performed against breast cancer T-47D cell line. Read More

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Diterpenoids from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris and their anti-inflammatory activity.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 26;112:104944. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Wuya College of Innovation, Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Twelve previously undescribed diterpenoids, euplarisans A-L (1-12), including one premyrsinane and eleven lathyranes, along with ten known analogues 13-22 were isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris. Their chemical structures were delineated by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, both 5 and 6 possessed an unusual trans-gem-dimethylcyclopropane as structural features and compound 8 was elucidated as premyrsinane-type diterpenoid. Read More

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Structure-based design approach of potential BCL-2 inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 30;134:104455. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, 560054, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family is one of the chief regulators of cellular apoptosis. The intricate interactions between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes of the BCL-2 family dictate the apoptotic balance of the cell. An overexpression of the anti-apoptotic members of BCL-2 is indicative of cell death evasion and cancer metastasis. Read More

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Harnessing the therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles for cancer treatment.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Beijing, 100082, China; Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; Beijing Advanced Innovation, Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Cancer therapeutic strategies include surgeries, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapies. However, current cancer treatment still faces challenges such as postoperative residuals, postoperative recurrence, chemoradiotherapy resistance and lack of drugs with high specificity, due to the complexity of the cancer environment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-capsuled membrane vesicles secreted from cells, communicating vital messages between cells and regarding function in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Read More

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Suppressive, Curative, and Prophylactic Potentials of an Antimalarial Polyherbal Mixture and its Individual Components in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114105. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations. Read More

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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers quinone exhibits neurotoxicity by inducing DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and p53-driven adaptive response in microglia BV2 cells.

Toxicology 2021 May 4:152807. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are world-wide used flame retardants before they were listed as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Previously, our studies indicated that a quinone type of PBDE metabolite (PBDEQ) exposure was linked with neurotoxicity via excess free radical formation and oxidative stress. However, it is current unknown the effect of PBDEQ on genetic biomacromolecules DNA and corresponding biological consequences in neurological cells. Read More

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Properties and structure of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) filaments for fused deposition modelling.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska Cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava 45, Slovak Republic.

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a process of additive manufacturing allowing creating of highly precise complex three-dimensional objects for a large range of applications. The principle of FDM is an extrusion of the molten filament and gradual deposition of layers and their solidification. Potential applications in pharmaceutical and medical fields require the development of biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastics for the processing of filaments. Read More

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Possible contribution of hepatocyte secretion to the elevation of plasma exosomal arginase-1 in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Life Sci 2021 May 4:119588. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Aims: The elevation of arginase in vascular tissues decreases nitric oxide production, which is considered as an early step of atherosclerosis in obesity. Previously, we found that arginase-1, one of arginase isozymes, was elevated in the blood plasma of obese adults. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which obesity increases arginase-1 levels in the blood. Read More

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A novel family of nonribosomal peptides modulate collective behavior in Pseudovibrio bacteria isolated from marine sponges.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Pharmaceutical Sciences, 900 S Ashland Ave, 60607, Chicago, UNITED STATES.

Although swarming motility and biofilms are opposed collective behaviors, both contribute to bacterial survival and host colonization. Pseudovibrio bacteria have attracted attention because they are part of the microbiome of healthy marine sponges. Two-thirds of Pseudovibrio genomes contain a member of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase gene cluster family, which is also found sporadically in Pseudomonas pathogens of insects and plants. Read More

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Tubular cell damage may be the earliest sign of renal extrahepatic manifestation caused by Hepatitis C.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251392. Epub 2021 May 7.

Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most well-known extrahepatic manifestations caused by hepatitis C infection (HCV). CKD is typically discovered at a late stage. HCV-nephropathy may show different histopathologic patterns, as both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage have been described. Read More

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Halting the Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus-1: The Discovery of an Effective Dual αvβ6/αvβ8 Integrin Ligand.

J Med Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Over recent years, αvβ6 and αvβ8 Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrins have risen to prominence as interchangeable co-receptors for the cellular entry of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). In fact, the employment of subtype-specific integrin-neutralizing antibodies or gene-silencing siRNAs has emerged as a valuable strategy for impairing HSV infectivity. Here, we shift the focus to a more affordable pharmaceutical approach based on small RGD-containing cyclic pentapeptides. Read More

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Site-Specific Conjugation of Metal-Chelating Polymers to Anti-Frizzled-2 Antibodies Microbial Transglutaminase.

Biomacromolecules 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1H6, Canada.

Metal-chelating polymer-based radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) are effective agents for radioimmunotherapy but are currently limited by nonspecific binding and off-target organ uptake. Nonspecific binding appears after conjugation of the polymer to the antibody and may be related to random lysine conjugation since the polymers themselves do not bind to cells. To investigate the role of conjugation sites on nonspecific binding of polymer RICs, we developed a microbial transglutaminase reaction to prepare site-specific antibody-polymer conjugates. Read More

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pH and Redox Dual-Response Disulfide Bond-Functionalized Red-Emitting Gold Nanoclusters for Monitoring the Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Foods.

Anal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, People's Republic of China.

Most of the fluorescence sensors require choline oxidase or quenchers to detect organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) based on a single hydrolysate and suffer from high cost, complex procedures, weak stability, and low sensitivity. Here, we proposed a brand-new fluorescence strategy for highly sensitive detection of OPs based on both hydrolysate-response disulfide bond-functionalized gold nanoclusters (S-S-AuNCs) without additional substances. S-S-AuNCs were synthesized via a facile one-step redox reaction and emitted bright red light with ultrasmall size and high water dispersion. Read More

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Recent Advances in the Electrochemical Synthesis of Organosulfur Compounds.

Chem Rec 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Main Building, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK.

Organosulfur compounds are being widely used in medicinal chemistry, as well as in organic transformations and in synthetic applications. Because of their interest in many areas, the development of sustainable and green synthetic methods to access various organosulfur compounds has a high influence on the chemistry community. Electroorganic synthesis has become a very valuable methodology for the synthesis of organosulfur compounds during the last decade. Read More

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The human vault RNA enhances tumorigenesis and chemoresistance through the lysosome in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Autophagy 2021 May 7:1-13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The small non-coding (vault RNA 1-1) is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in several malignant cell lines and to also modulate the macroautophagic/autophagic flux in hepatocytes, thus highlighting its pro-survival role. Here we describe a new function of in regulating and tumor cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Knockout (KO) of in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells reduced nuclear localization of TFEB (transcription factor EB), leading to a downregulation of the coordinated lysosomal expression and regulation (CLEAR) network genes and lysosomal compartment dysfunction. Read More

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Purification and identification of anticancer organosulfides from gum: integrative analysis employing GC/GC-MS/RP-HPLC/NMR.

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

, containing organosulfides is widely used in Indian cuisine and traditionally claimed to have several medicinal properties including anticancer properties. enriched with organosulfides displayed significant inhibition of the cell growth against SKOV3 and A549 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. This prompted us to investigate and delineate the compounds responsible for the activity. Read More

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Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids with potential neuroprotective activities from the stems and leaves of .

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 7:1-8. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, P. R. China.

A chemical study on the stems and leaves of resulted in the isolation and identification of a new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, melodicochine A (), together with seven known monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (-). The chemical structure of was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral data analyses and the known compounds were identified by comparing their experimental spectral data with the reported data in the literature. All isolated indole alkaloids were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells . Read More

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Synthesis and activity of miconazole derivatives as dual BChE/IDO1 inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Future Med Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial neurological disorder seen in elderly people. Loss of cholinergic transmission and unbalanced tryptophan metabolism kynurenine pathway have been demonstrated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Among the two series of synthesized compounds, compounds and were identified as effective dual BChE/IDO1 inhibitors, with well-balanced micromolar activity. Read More

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High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes Prepared From Dispersions of Tetrabenzonaphthalene-Based Conjugated Microporous Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center of Crystal Research, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan.

In this study, we prepared a series of conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) through Sonogashira-Hagihara cross-couplings of a tetrabenzonaphthalene (TBN) monomer with pyrene (Py), tetraphenylethylene (TPE), and carbazole (Car) units and examined their chemical structures, thermal stabilities, morphologies, crystallinities, and porosities. TBN-TPE-CMP possessed a high surface area (1150 m g) and thermal stability ( = 505 °C; char yield = 68 wt %) superior to those of TBN-Py-CMP and TBN-Car-CMP. To improve the conductivity of the TBN-CMP materials, we blended them with highly conductive single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector PPE36 attenuates host cytokine storm damage via inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious global public health threat. Macrophage polarization is crucial for the innate immunity against M. tuberculosis. Read More

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Aldoximes are precursors of auxins in Arabidopsis and maize.

New Phytol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

Two natural auxins, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), play crucial roles in plant growth and development. One route of IAA biosynthesis uses the glucosinolate intermediate indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) as a precursor, which is thought to occur only in glucosinolate-producing plants in Brassicales. A recent study showed that overproducing phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) in Arabidopsis increases PAA production. Read More

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scFv-Anti-LDL(-)-Metal-Complex Multi-Wall Functionalized-Nanocapsules as a Promising Tool for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:652137. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Atherosclerosis can be originated from the accumulation of modified cholesterol-rich lipoproteins in the arterial wall. The electronegative LDL, LDL(-), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis once this cholesterol-rich lipoprotein can be internalized by macrophages, contributing to the formation of foam cells, and provoking an immune-inflammatory response. Herein, we engineered a nanoformulation containing highly pure surface-functionalized nanocapsules using a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) reactive to LDL(-) as a ligand and assessed whether it can affect the LDL(-) uptake by primary macrophages and the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Read More

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From Conception to Development: Investigating PROTACs Features for Improved Cell Permeability and Successful Protein Degradation.

Front Chem 2021 20;9:672267. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are heterobifunctional degraders that specifically eliminate targeted proteins by hijacking the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This modality has emerged as an orthogonal approach to the use of small-molecule inhibitors for knocking down classic targets and disease-related proteins classified, until now, as "undruggable." In early 2019, the first targeted protein degraders reached the clinic, drawing attention to PROTACs as one of the most appealing technology in the drug discovery landscape. Read More

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Effects of a Traditional Caraway Formulation on Experimental Models of Vitiligo and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 19;2021:6675657. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization, and Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Chemistry in Arid Regions, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Background: Kursi Karwiya or caraway tablet (CWT), a traditional medicine formula, is widely used in Xinjiang, China, for treating vitiligo, a common autoimmune disease for which there is currently no satisfactory cure. Clinical interventions include pharmacological treatment with psoralens, often in conjunction with UVA radiation, but toxic side effects limit this application. Studies on the activities and mechanisms of CWT are scarce. Read More

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Xanthohumol ameliorates Diet-Induced Liver Dysfunction via Farnesoid X Receptor-Dependent and Independent Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:643857. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid and bile acid (BA) homeostasis. Hepatic FXR loss results in lipid and BA accumulation, and progression from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of xanthohumol (XN), a hop-derived compound mitigating metabolic syndrome, on liver damage induced by diet and FXR deficiency in mice. Read More

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Identification, Biological Activities and Biosynthetic Pathway of Alkaloids.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:605994. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biocontrol Engineering Research Center of Plant Disease and Pest, Biocontrol Engineering Research Center of Crop Disease and Pest, School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Orchidaceae family with more than 1,400 species. Many species have been used as medicinal plants in several Asian countries for thousands of years. Alkaloids were reported as the major biological markers due to their complex chemical compositions and various types. Read More

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