219,652 results match your criteria mechanisms signaling


Potassium in plants: Growth regulation, signaling, and environmental stress tolerance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Jan 7;172:56-69. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, 1207, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Potassium (K) is an essential element for the growth and development of plants; however, its scarcity or excessive level leads to distortion of numerous functions in plants. It takes part in the control of various significant functions in plant advancement. Because of the importance index, K is regarded second after nitrogen for whole plant growth. Read More

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January 2022

The dynamic interplay between AMPK/NFκB signaling and NLRP3 is a new therapeutic target in inflammation: Emerging role of dapagliflozin in overcoming lipopolysaccharide-mediated lung injury.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jan 12;147:112628. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. In this study, we examined for first time the role of dapagliflozin (DPGZ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by evaluating the effects of DPGZ on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), nuclear transcription factor kappa B, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 inflammasome activation. Treatment of acute lung injured rats with either low dose (5 mg/kg) or high dose (10 mg/kg) DPGZ significantly decreased oxidative stress by decreasing malondialdehyde and nitric oxide tissue levels with a significant increase in spectrophotometric measurements of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels. Read More

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January 2022

Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on cell signal transduction pathways.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jan 12;147:112620. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China.

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), is a major active ingredient Lycium barbarum (LB), which exhibits several beneficial effects through NF-κB, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, p38-MAPK, Wnt-β-catenin, PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β, and MyD88 signal pathway, including anti-oxidation, and anti-aging, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic, radiation, anti-tumor, and neuroprotection. Today, many researching papers are published on the LBP in physiology and pathology; however, the review of the LBP taking part in the signal transduction pathway in physiology and pathology is rear searched. Therefore, this research topic is a collection of reviews and original research articles that focus on the methods of the LBP extraction and its effects on the signal transduction pathway. Read More

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January 2022

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Implicated in the Dual Role of ROR2 in Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2022 Jan 12:103595. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Centro de Estudios Biomédicos, Básicos, Aplicados y Desarrollo (CEBBAD), Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires, 1405, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, 1425, Argentina. Electronic address:

ROR1 and ROR2 are Wnt receptors that are critical for β-catenin-independent Wnt pathways and were have been linked to processes driving tumor progression, such as cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and therapy resistance. Both receptors have garnered interest as potential therapeutic targets since they are largely absent in adult tissue, are overexpressed in several cancers, and, as members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, are easier to target than all other components of the pathway. Unlike ROR1 which always promotes tumorigenesis, ROR2 has a very complex role in cancer acting either to promote or inhibit tumor progression in different tumor types. Read More

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January 2022

C. elegans as a model organism to study female reproductive health.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2022 Jan 12:111152. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada. Electronic address:

Female reproductive health has been historically understudied and underfunded. Here, we present the advantages of using a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, as an animal system to study fundamental aspects of female reproductive health. C. Read More

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January 2022

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) induces mouse ovarian inflammation by promoting granulosa cells to produce inflammatory cytokine via activation of cGAS-STING signaling.

Toxicol Lett 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China. Electronic address:

Early experimental studies have demonstrated that microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is able to induce multiple organ damage. Female reproductive disorders caused by MC-LR have attracted increased attention in recent years. However, the underlying mechanisms of female reproductive malfunctions are not yet fully understood. Read More

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January 2022

Combination of molecular docking and liver transcription sequencing analysis for the evaluation of salt-processed psoraleae fructus-induced hepatotoxicity in ovariectomized mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 12:114955. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Processing, Engineering Center of State Ministry of Education for Standardization of Chinese Medicine Processing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Salt-processed Psoraleae fructus (SPF) is widely used as a phytoestrogen-like agent in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, SPF-associated hepatotoxicity is a known health hazard. Cholestasis is often associated with SPF-induced hepatotoxicity. Read More

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January 2022

Therapeutic effect of Patrinia villosa on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis via metabolism, vitamin D receptor and NF-κB signaling pathways.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 12:114989. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, Liaoning University, No.66 Chongshan Middle Road, Shenyang, 110036, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon. Patrinia villosa Juss. (P. Read More

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January 2022

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Syzygium aromaticum and the preliminary mechanism of action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 12:114995. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The dried flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. Read More

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January 2022

Study on alleviate effect of Wuzhi capsule (Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E.H. Wilson extract) against mycophenolate mofetil-induced intestinal injury.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 12:114987. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China; School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E.H. Wilson (S. Read More

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January 2022

Subfornical organ interleukin 1 receptor: a novel regulator of spontaneous and conditioned fear associated behaviors in mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati, USA; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Impaired threat responding and fear regulation is a hallmark of psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Panic Disorder (PD). Most studies have focused on external psychogenic threats to study fear, however, accumulating evidence suggests a primary role of homeostatic perturbations and interoception in regulating emotional behaviors. Heightened reactivity to interoceptive threat carbon dioxide (CO) inhalation associates with increased risk for developing PD and PTSD, however, contributory mechanisms and molecular targets are not well understood. Read More

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January 2022

Hippocampal Cannabinoid 1 Receptors Are Modulated Following Cocaine Self-administration in Male Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives Et Adaptatives (LNCA), Centre de La Recherche Nationale Scientifique, Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue Goethe, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Cocaine addiction is a complex pathology inducing long-term neuroplastic changes that, in turn, contribute to maladaptive behaviors. This behavioral dysregulation is associated with transcriptional reprogramming in brain reward circuitry, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. The endogenous cannabinoid system may play a role in this process in that cannabinoid mechanisms modulate drug reward and contribute to cocaine-induced neural adaptations. Read More

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January 2022

Alternative transcription and feedback regulation suggest that SlIDI1 is involved in tomato carotenoid synthesis in a complex way.

Hortic Res 2022 Jan;9

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (North China), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing Vegetable Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China.

Carotenoid pigments confer photoprotection and visual attraction and serve as precursors for many important signaling molecules. Herein, the orange-fruited phenotype of a tomato elite inbred line resulting from sharply reduced carotenoid levels and an increased β-carotene-to-lycopene ratio in fruit was shown to be controlled by a single recessive gene, oft3. BSA-Seq combined with fine mapping delimited the oft3 gene to a 71. Read More

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January 2022

Acquisition of taxane resistance by p53 inactivation in ovarian cancer cells.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies in women and has a poor prognosis. Taxanes are a class of standard first-line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, tumor-intrinsic and acquired resistance to taxanes poses major challenges to improving clinical outcomes. Read More

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January 2022

Preimmunization correlates of protection shared across malaria vaccine trials in adults.

NPJ Vaccines 2022 Jan 14;7(1). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

Identifying preimmunization biological characteristics that promote an effective vaccine response offers opportunities for illuminating the critical immunological mechanisms that confer vaccine-induced protection, for developing adjuvant strategies, and for tailoring vaccination regimens to individuals or groups. In the context of malaria vaccine research, studying preimmunization correlates of protection can help address the need for a widely effective malaria vaccine, which remains elusive. In this study, common preimmunization correlates of protection were identified using transcriptomic data from four independent, heterogeneous malaria vaccine trials in adults. Read More

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January 2022

APOE4 genotype confers transcriptomic and functional alterations to primary mouse microglia.

Neurobiol Dis 2022 Jan 11:105615. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Ronald M. Loeb Center for Alzheimer's Disease, Nash Family Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute, New York, NY, USA; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, New York, NY, USA; Department of Neurology, New York, NY, USA; Alzheimer Disease Research Center, New York, NY, USA; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Common genetic variants in more than forty loci modulate risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD risk alleles are enriched within enhancers active in myeloid cells, suggesting that microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, may play a key role in the etiology of AD. A major genetic risk factor for AD is Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, with the ε4/ε4 (E4) genotype increasing risk for AD by approximately 15 fold compared to the most common ε3/ε3 (E3) genotype. Read More

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January 2022

Nrf2 signaling pathway in trace metal carcinogenesis: A cross-talk between oxidative stress and angiogenesis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jan 11:109266. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Poursina Hakim Digestive Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

A large number of people worldwide are affected by chronic metal exposure, which is known to be associated with different type of malignancies. The mechanisms of metal carcinogenicity are complex in nature, and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by chronic metal exposure, among the other factors, has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms involved in that process. In tumor cells, ROS buildup may lead to cell death through intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Read More

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January 2022

Arsenic activates STAT3 signaling during the transformation of the human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2022 Jan 11;436:115884. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Stony Brook Cancer Center, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Lauterbur Drive, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Department of Pathology, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, 101 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As), a metalloid abundant in environment, is classified as a group I carcinogen associated with several common human cancers, including cancers in lung, skin, bladder, liver, and prostate (Wei et al., 2019). The mechanisms of As-induced carcinogenesis had been extensively studied, and different mechanisms might be involved in different types of cancer (Wei et al. Read More

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January 2022

The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor PLEKHG1 is activated by interaction with and phosphorylation by Src family kinase member FYN.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jan 11:101579. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, Yanagido1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan; Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Gifu University, Yanagido1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. Electronic address:

Rho family small GTPases (Rho) regulate various cell motility processes by spatiotemporally controlling the actin cytoskeleton. Some Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) are regulated via tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK). We also previously reported that PLEKHG2, a RhoGEF for the GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, is tyrosine-phosphorylated by SRC. Read More

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January 2022

Functional nucleic acids in glycobiology: A versatile tool in the analysis of disease-related carbohydrates and glycoconjugates.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

As significant components of the organism, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates play indispensable roles in energy supply, cell signaling, immune modulation, and tumor cell invasion, and function as biomarkers since aberrance of them has been proved to be associated with the emergence and development of certain diseases. Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) have properties including easy-to-synthesize, good stability, good biocompatibility, low cost, and high programmability, they have attracted significant research attention and been incorporated into biosensors for detecting disease-related carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. This review summarizes the construction strategies and biosensing applications of FNAs-based biosensors in glycobiology in terms of target recognition and signal transduction. Read More

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January 2022

Cortical Tension Initiates the Positive Feedback Loop between Cadherin and F-actin.

Biophys J 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Adherens junctions (AJs) physically link two cells at their contact interface via extracellular bindings between cadherin molecules and intracellular interactions between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton. Both cadherin and actomyosin cytoskeletal dynamics are reciprocally regulated by mechanical and chemical signals, which subsequently determine the strength of cell-cell adhesions and the emergent organization and stiffness of the tissues they form. However, an understanding of the integrated system is lacking. Read More

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January 2022

Human plasma pregnancy-associated miRNAs and their temporal variation within the first trimester of pregnancy.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2022 Jan 14;20(1):14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Functional Genomics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Background: During pregnancy, maternal metabolism undergoes substantial changes to support the developing fetus. Such changes are finely regulated by different mechanisms carried out by effectors such as microRNAs (miRNAs). These small non-coding RNAs regulate numerous biological functions, mostly through post-transcriptional repression of gene expression. Read More

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January 2022

Circular RNA hsa_circ_0001658 regulates apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer through microRNA-182/Ras-related protein Rab-10 signaling axis.

Bioengineered 2022 Feb;13(2):2387-2397

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a tumor with high incidence and lack of early diagnostic markers. The aim of this study was to explore novel regulatory circular RNAs (circRNAs) in GC and their underlying mechanisms. Differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Read More

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February 2022

Mechanisms of liver injury in high fat sugar diet fed mice that lack hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1.

PLoS One 2022 14;17(1):e0261789. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of liver diseases in the United States and can progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and need for liver transplantation. There are limited therapies for NAFLD, in part, due to incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, which involves different cell populations in the liver. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its adaptative unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway have been implicated in the progression from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Read More

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January 2022

The role of metabolic ecosystem in cancer progression - metabolic plasticity and mTOR hyperactivity in tumor tissues.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

1St Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, 1085, Budapest, Hungary.

Despite advancements in cancer management, tumor relapse and metastasis are associated with poor outcomes in many cancers. Over the past decade, oncogene-driven carcinogenesis, dysregulated cellular signaling networks, dynamic changes in the tissue microenvironment, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, protein expression within regulatory pathways, and their part in tumor progression are described in several studies. However, the complexity of metabolic enzyme expression is considerably under evaluated. Read More

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January 2022

Schisandrin B suppresses osteosarcoma lung metastasis by inhibiting the activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

Oncol Rep 2022 Mar 14;47(3). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor worldwide and is associated with a poor prognosis, often being accompanied by lung metastasis at an early stage. At present, there are several side‑effects associated with the OS clinical treatment of OS, with the treatment effects often being unsatisfactory. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of safe and effective novel drugs for the treatment of OS. Read More

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A dynamically evolving war between autophagy and pathogenic microorganisms.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2022 Jan;23(1):19-41

Henan Key Laboratory of Immunology and Targeted Drugs, School of Laboratory Medicine, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China.

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that maintains cellular homeostasis. It is essential for protecting organisms from environmental stress. Autophagy can help the host to eliminate invading pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Read More

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January 2022

Heterogeneity among tumors with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors harboring EGFR-T790M mutation in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Cancer Med 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

EGFR-T790M mutation is a major mechanism underlying acquired resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung cancer with mutated EGFR. However, differences in the biological characteristics of T790M tumors based on treatment regimens with each generation of EGFR-TKI are not fully understood. We established cell lines with acquired resistance harboring EGFR-T790M mutation derived from xenograft tumors treated with each generation of EGFR-TKI and examined their biological characteristics with respect to third-generation EGFR-TKI osimertinib sensitivity. Read More

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January 2022

Maternal Perinatal Exposure to Dibutyl Phthalate Promotes Ovarian Dysfunction in Adult Female Offspring via Downregulation of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3.

Reprod Sci 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Maternal exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) may result in ovarian dysfunction in female offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of DBP, estradiol, and corn oil from gestational day 7 until the end of lactation. Read More

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January 2022

Lung protective effect of Punicalagin on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

Biosci Rep 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Punicalagin (Pun) is one of the main bioactive compounds in pomegranate peel, it possesses many properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressive activities. The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanisms of Pun on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.

Methods And Results: Forty-eight BALB/c male mice were used to establish ALI by intratracheal-instilled 2. Read More

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January 2022