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Molecular mechanisms underlying health benefits of tea compounds.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Tea is one of the three most widely consumed beverages in the world, not only because of its unique flavor but also due to its various health benefits. The bioactive components in tea, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, polypeptides, pigments, and alkaloids, are the main contributors to its health functions. Based on epidemiological surveys, the consumption of tea and its compounds in daily life has positive effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, hepatopathy, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Leojaponin inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation through restoration of autophagy via upregulating RAPTOR phosphorylation.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114322. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education; Yunnan Provincial Center for Research & Development of Natural Products; School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Duan Teng Yimu decoction is a Chinese herbal medicine compound with proven therapeutic effects on inflammasome-related diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. This decoction consists of three Chinese herbal medicines, including Leonurus japonicus (L. japonicus), which promotes the blood circulation and exhibits detumescence activity, traditionally curing gynecologic and inflammasome diseases. Read More

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Biological activity of 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene on glucose homeostasis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 9:174250. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

We studied the effect and the mechanisms of action of 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene (THO), from Croton heterodoxus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), in glucose uptake in hyperglycemic rats. The effect of in vivo pretreatment with THO in hyperglycemic rats was analyzed. Read More

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Bridging the Gap Between Nature and Antioxidant Setbacks: Delivering Gallic Acid to Mitochondria.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:161-172

CIQUP/Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Research on mitochondria-targeted active molecules became a hot topic in the past decade. Development of mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP )-targeting agents with clinical applications is needed not only because of the importance of the target in several diseases but also due to the fact that the current developed molecules have shown poor clinical success. In fact, only a reduced percentage reach mitochondria , effectively preventing pathological mPTP opening. Read More

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January 2021

Thermal sensitivity of Axolotl feeding behaviors.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Musculoskeletal movement results from muscle contractions, recoil of elastic tendons, aponeuroses, and ligaments, or combinations thereof. Muscular and elastic contributions can vary both across behaviors and with changes in temperature. Skeletal muscles reach peak contraction speed at a temperature optimum with performance declining away from that optimum by approximately 50% per 10 °C, following the Q10 principle. Read More

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Zebrafish disease models in drug discovery: from preclinical modelling to clinical trials.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Research Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Numerous drug treatments that have recently entered the clinic or clinical trials have their genesis in zebrafish. Zebrafish are well established for their contribution to developmental biology and have now emerged as a powerful preclinical model for human disease, as their disease characteristics, aetiology and progression, and molecular mechanisms are clinically relevant and highly conserved. Zebrafish respond to small molecules and drug treatments at physiologically relevant dose ranges and, when combined with cell-specific or tissue-specific reporters and gene editing technologies, drug activity can be studied at single-cell resolution within the complexity of a whole animal, across tissues and over an extended timescale. Read More

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Structural basis for plazomicin antibiotic action and resistance.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):729. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, McIntyre Medical Building, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The approval of plazomicin broadened the clinical library of aminoglycosides available for use against emerging bacterial pathogens. Contrarily to other aminoglycosides, resistance to plazomicin is limited; still, instances of resistance have been reported in clinical settings. Here, we present structural insights into the mechanism of plazomicin action and the mechanisms of clinical resistance. Read More

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Harnessing life's slings and arrows: The science and opportunities for mindfulness meditation during a global pandemic and beyond.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health Mindfulness Center at Brown University Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Healthy Minds, University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.

Abstract: We are at a difficult time in history with societal increases in stress, loneliness, and psychopathology, along with high rates of obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and chronic pain. Mindfulness interventions offer promise to address these societal issues. However, in order to make best use of the opportunities revealed by our current challenges, we must: (1) tackle these issues head-on with inclusive, innovative, and creative experimental designs and interventions, and (2) collectively adhere to rigorous, high quality methods so as to provide an evidence-based integration of mindfulness interventions into mainstream medicine and public health. Read More

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Peer recovery services for persons returning from prison: Pilot randomized clinical trial investigation of SUPPORT.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 27;126:108339. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Indiana University, 410 W. 10th St., Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States of America. Electronic address:

Previously incarcerated persons with substance use disorder (SUD) need recovery supports, given the overrepresentation of this population in prison and community supervision. Peer support programs have the potential to fill gaps in postrelease support for persons with SUD. To assess the effectiveness of peer support approaches, this pilot study randomized access to peer recovery coaches within a well-established community reentry program. Read More

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Stem Cell Therapy in Single-Ventricle Physiology: Recent Progress and Future Directions.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2021 ;24:67-76

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University, Feinburg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Current surgical and medical treatment options for single ventricle physiology conditions remain palliative. On the long term, despite treatment, the systemic ventricle has a significant risk of developing failure. There are unmet needs to develop novel treatment modalities to help ameliorate the ventricular dysfunction. Read More

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January 2021

Medicinal Plants for Insomnia Related to Anxiety: An Updated Review.

Planta Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain.

Sleep disorders are common among the general population and can generate health problems such as insomnia and anxiety. In addition to standard drugs and psychological interventions, there are different complementary plant-based therapies used to treat insomnia and anxiety. This review aimed to find and examine the most recent research on the use of herbal medicines for treating anxiety and insomnia as compiled from clinical trials, as well as to assess the safety and efficacy of these medicines and to elucidate their possible mechanisms of action. Read More

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Methionine enkephalin (MENK) suppresses lung cancer by regulating the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway and enhancing natural killer cell-driven tumor immunity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107837. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate how methionine enkephalin (MENK) regulates the biological behavior of lung cancer cells and to further explore its anti-lung cancer mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that MENK enhanced the expression of opioid receptor (OGFr) and induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells by activating the Bcl-1/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. However, the regulatory effects of MENK disappeared after blockade of the OGFr. Read More

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Stress, memory, and implications for major depression.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jun 8:113410. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Laboratory of Hormone Measures, Department of Physiology & Behavior, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil; Postgraduate Program of Psychobiology, Center for Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil; National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The stress response comprises a phylogenetically conserved set of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses that evolved as a survival strategy. In this context, the memory of stressful events would be adaptive as it could avoid re-exposure to an adverse event, otherwise the event would be facilitated in positively stressful or non-distressful conditions. However, the interaction between stress and memory comprises complex responses, some of them which are not yet completely understood, and which depend on several factors such as the memory system that is recruited, the nature and duration of the stressful event, as well as the timing in which this interaction takes place. Read More

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Leishmanicidal potentials of extract and its fractions on in a murine model: parasite burden, gene expression, and histopathological profile.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Jun;70(6)

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical and subtropical disease caused by over 20 protozoan species. Treatment of this complex disease with traditional synthetic drugs is a major challenge worldwide. Natural constituents are unique candidates for future therapeutic development. Read More

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[Use of fluorides for caries prevention].

Authors:
Ulrich Schiffner

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Zentrum für Zahn‑, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde, Poliklinik für Parodontologie, Präventive Zahnmedizin und Zahnerhaltung, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland.

For a few decades, a decrease in the caries burden in all age groups has been observed in Germany. The regular use of fluoride preparations is described as the main reason for the caries decline. It is well established that topical fluoride application directly to the tooth surfaces in the oral cavity, in particular fluoride-containing toothpastes and fluoride varnishes, is responsible for the decline. Read More

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Apigenin restores endothelial function by ameliorating oxidative stress, reverses aortic stiffening, and mitigates vascular inflammation with aging.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 06 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Integrative Physiology, Boulder, Colorado, United States.

We assessed the efficacy of oral supplementation with the flavanoid apigenin on arterial function during aging and identified critical mechanisms of action. Young (6 months) and old (27 months) C57BL/6N mice (model of arterial aging) consumed drinking water containing vehicle (0.2% carboxymethylcellulose; 10 young, 7 old) or apigenin (0. Read More

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Single-cell transcriptome profiling of thyroid hormone effectors in the human fetal neocortex: expression of SLCO1C1, DIO2, and THRB in specific cell types.

Thyroid 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 16379, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Thyroid hormones are crucial for brain development, acting through the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TR) α1 and β to control gene expression. T3, the receptor-ligand, is transported into the brain from the blood by the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). Another source of brain T3 is from the local deiodination of T4 by type 2 deiodinase (DIO2). Read More

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The mechanism of full activation of tumor suppressor PTEN at the phosphoinositide-enriched membrane.

iScience 2021 May 17;24(5):102438. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Computational Structural Biology Section, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in the Laboratory of Cancer Immunometabolism, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Tumor suppressor PTEN, the second most highly mutated protein in cancer, dephosphorylates signaling lipid PIP produced by PI3Ks. Excess PIP promotes cell proliferation. The mechanism at the membrane of this pivotal phosphatase is unknown hindering drug discovery. Read More

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Post-Transformation IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells: Implications for Mutational Mechanisms and Impact on Clinical Course.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:640731. Epub 2021 May 25.

The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY, United States.

Analyses of IGHV gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have had a major impact on the prognostication and treatment of this disease. A hallmark of IGHV-mutation status is that it very rarely changes clonally over time. Nevertheless, targeted and deep DNA sequencing of IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ regions has revealed intraclonal heterogeneity. Read More

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Gene Expression Profile of the Human Colorectal Carcinoma LoVo Cells Treated With Sporamin and Thapsigargin.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:621462. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University (CMU), Beijing, China.

Sporamin, a proteinase inhibitor isolated from the sweet potato (), has shown promising anticancer effect against colorectal cancer (CRC) and but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was applied to explore the transcriptomic changes induced by sporamin in the presence of thapsigargin (TG), a non-12-O-tetradecanolphorbol-13-acetate type cancer promoter, in the LoVo human CRC cells. Cellular total RNA was extracted from the cells after they were treated with vehicle (CTL), 1 μM of thapsigargin (TG), or 1 μM of TG plus 30 μM of sporamin (TGSP) for 24 h. Read More

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Case of Resistance to Thyroid Hormones With a Relatively Rare Mutation in Thyroid Hormones Receptor.

Cureus 2021 May 8;13(5):e14911. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Endocrinology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

Normal thyroid hormone level is essential to maintain the normal physiologic function of the human body. Disturbances of these hormone levels have variable clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome characterized by reduced intracellular action of T3, the active thyroid hormone. Read More

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A review on ultrasonic neuromodulation of the peripheral nervous system: enhanced or suppressed activities?

Appl Sci (Basel) 2019 Apr 19;9(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Ultrasonic (US) neuromodulation has emerged as a promising therapeutic means by delivering focused energy deep into the tissue. Low-intensity ultrasound (US) directly activates and/or inhibits neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). US neuromodulation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is less developed and rarely used clinically. Read More

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Autophagy as a Target for Drug Development Of Skin Infection Caused by Mycobacteria.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:674241. Epub 2021 May 25.

Leprosy Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Pathogenic mycobacteria species may subvert the innate immune mechanisms and can modulate the activation of cells that cause disease in the skin. Cutaneous mycobacterial infection may present different clinical presentations and it is associated with stigma, deformity, and disability. The understanding of the immunopathogenic mechanisms related to mycobacterial infection in human skin is of pivotal importance to identify targets for new therapeutic strategies. Read More

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Understanding the Factors Affecting Sustainable Energy Action Plan: A Case Study From the Covenant of Mayors Signatory Municipality in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:635980. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Logistics Management, İzmir University of Economics, İzmir, Turkey.

This study presents the case of a Metropolitan Municipality in the Aegean Region of Turkey, which undertook a series of initiatives to conduct projects on environmental protection and sustainability. This case study was conducted as two separate studies as a part of Horizon 2020-funded ECHOES project under Work Package 6, aiming to gain insight into the collective magnitudes of energy-related choices and behavior. The starting point of the process is marked, in 2015, by the municipality becoming a party to the Covenant of Mayors movement, joining around 8,000 signatories from over 50 countries. Read More

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Global Research Trends of Herbal Medicine for Pain in Three Decades (1990-2019): A Bibliometric Analysis.

J Pain Res 2021 4;14:1611-1626. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

System Complexity Research Center of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the global research trends of herbal medicine for pain from 1990 to 2019, using bibliometric methods, and explore international collaborations, intellectual structure, the evolution of active topics, emerging trends, and research frontiers.

Methods: Articles on herbal medicine for pain were retrieved from WoSCC. Two information visualization softwares including CiteSpace and HistCite were used to process bibliographic catalogs. Read More

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Effectiveness of Switching Biologics for Severe Asthma Patients in Japan: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 3;14:609-618. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In Japan, biologic therapy was initiated for patients with severe asthma in 2009. In recent years, four biologics with different mechanisms of action have become available in the clinical setting. However, the efficacy of switching between biologics remains uncertain. Read More

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Identifying molecular targets for reverse aging using integrated network analysis of transcriptomic and epigenomic changes during aging.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12317. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Aging is associated with widespread physiological changes, including skeletal muscle weakening, neuron system degeneration, hair loss, and skin wrinkling. Previous studies have identified numerous molecular biomarkers involved in these changes, but their regulatory mechanisms and functional repercussions remain elusive. In this study, we conducted next-generation sequencing of DNA methylation and RNA sequencing of blood samples from 51 healthy adults between 20 and 74 years of age and identified aging-related epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Read More

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Antidiabetic potential of dietary polyphenols: A mechanistic review.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 5;145:110383. Epub 2021 May 5.

Bioflavors and Bioactive Compounds Laboratory, Department of Food Science, School of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brazil.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that has caused enormous harm to the public health worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the potential of phenolic compounds on diabetes management, addressing their mechanisms of action, in addition to discussing the digestion, absorption, metabolism, bioavailability, and toxic effects of these compounds. The intake of phenolic compounds can play a fundamental role on diabetes management, since they can reduce blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, protein glycation, inhibit the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase - IV and other key enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism, activate various biochemical pathways to improve pancreatic β-cell functions, increase insulin secretion, and improve insulin resistance. Read More

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Conservation and diversity of the eukaryotic SAGA coactivator complex across kingdoms.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2021 Jun 10;14(1):26. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, USA.

The SAGA complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression through its histone acetyltransferase and deubiquitylase activities, recognition of specific histone modifications, and interactions with transcription factors. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the existence of distinct variants of SAGA among organisms as well as within a species, permitting diverse functions to dynamically regulate cellular pathways. Our co-expression analysis of genes encoding human SAGA components showed enrichment in reproductive organs, brain tissues and the skeletal muscle, which corresponds to their established roles in developmental programs, emerging roles in neurodegenerative diseases, and understudied functions in specific cell types. Read More

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Impaired Binding to Junctophilin2 and Nanostructural Alteration in CPVT Mutation.

Circ Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Inserm UMR-S 1180, FRANCE.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare disease, manifested by syncope or sudden death in children or young adults under stress conditions. Mutations in the Ca release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene account for about 60% of the identified mutations. Recently, we found and described a mutation in RyR2 N-terminal domain, RyR2. Read More

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