4,834 results match your criteria mechanisms achieving

Gonadal steroid hormone receptors in the medial amygdala contribute to experience-dependent changes in stress vulnerability.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 3;129:105249. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States.

Social experience can generate neural plasticity that changes how individuals respond to stress. Winning aggressive encounters alters how animals respond to future challenges and leads to increased plasma testosterone concentrations and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the social behavior neural network. In this project, our aim was to identify neuroendocrine mechanisms that account for changes in stress-related behavior following the establishment of dominance relationships over a two-week period. Read More

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Flexibility Effects of a Flapping Mechanism Inspired by Insect Musculoskeletal System on Flight Performance.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:612183. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Flying animals such as insects display great flight performances with high stability and maneuverability even under unpredictable disturbances in natural and man-made environments. Unlike man-made mechanical systems like a drone, insects can achieve various flapping motions through their flexible musculoskeletal systems. However, it remains poorly understood whether flexibility affects flight performances or not. Read More

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Achieving oncology mental health providers' usage of an empirically supported treatment: Lessons learned.

Psychooncology 2021 May;30(5):794-803

Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: There is a need for oncology mental health providers to receive training to use empirically supported psychological treatments (ESTs) with their patients. The purpose of this editorial is to describe "lessons learned" from disseminating-conducting EST trainings-and supporting providers' capacity and confidence to use the EST.

Method: Processes and outcomes from conducting six, 3-days (18 h) EST training institutes from 2012-2016 are discussed. Read More

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Back to the future: Reintegrating biology to understand how past eco-evolutionary change can predict future outcomes.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota,

During the last few decades, biologists have made remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental processes that shape life. But despite the unprecedented level of knowledge now available, large gaps still remain in our understanding of the complex interplay of eco-evolutionary mechanisms across scales of life. Rapidly changing environments on Earth provide a pressing need to understand the potential implications of eco-evolutionary dynamics, which can be achieved by improving existing eco-evolutionary models and fostering convergence among the sub-fields of biology. Read More

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Multiple social network influences can generate unexpected environmental outcomes.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9768. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Canterbury, School of Biological Sciences, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

Understanding the function of social networks can make a critical contribution to achieving desirable environmental outcomes. Social-ecological systems are complex, adaptive systems in which environmental decision makers adapt to a changing social and ecological context. However, it remains unclear how multiple social influences interact with environmental feedbacks to generate environmental outcomes. Read More

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Mechanisms of neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke and their therapeutic implications.

Med Res Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Ischemic stroke caused by arterial occlusion is the most common type of stroke, which is among the most frequent causes of disability and death worldwide. Current treatment approaches involve achieving rapid reperfusion either pharmacologically or surgically, both of which are time-sensitive; moreover, blood flow recanalization often causes ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, even though neuroprotective intervention is urgently needed in the event of stroke, the exact mechanisms of neuronal death during ischemic stroke are still unclear, and consequently, the capacity for drug development has remained limited. Read More

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Understanding the Integrated Pathways and Mechanisms of Transporters, Protein Kinases, and Transcription Factors in Plants under Salt Stress.

Int J Genomics 2021 12;2021:5578727. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Bioresources, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, India.

Abiotic stress is the major threat confronted by modern-day agriculture. Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that influence geographical distribution, survival, and productivity of various crops across the globe. Plants perceive salt stress cues and communicate specific signals, which lead to the initiation of defence response against it. Read More

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News from Mars: Two-Tier Paradox, Intracellular PCR, Chimeric Junction Shift, Dark Matter mRNA and Other Remarkable Features of Mammalian RNA-Dependent mRNA Amplification. Implications for Alzheimer's Disease, RNA-Based Vaccines and mRNA Therapeutics.

Ann Integr Mol Med 2021 ;2:131-173

Division of Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, USA.

Molecular Biology, a branch of science established to examine the flow of information from "letters" encrypted into DNA structure to functional proteins, was initially defined by a concept of DNA-to-RNA-to-Protein information movement, a notion termed the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification, a novel mode of eukaryotic protein-encoding RNA-to-RNA-to-Protein genomic information transfer, constitutes the extension of the Central Dogma in the context of mammalian cells. It was shown to occur in cellular circumstances requiring exceptionally high levels of production of specific polypeptides, e. Read More

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January 2021

The Charming World of the Extracellular Matrix: A Dynamic and Protective Network of the Intestinal Wall.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 16;8:610189. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

The intestinal extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex network of proteins that not only forms a support structure for resident cells but also interacts closely with them by modulating their phenotypes and functions. More than 300 molecules have been identified, each of them with unique biochemical properties and exclusive biological functions. ECM components not only provide a scaffold for the tissue but also afford tensile strength and limit overstretch of the organ. Read More

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Modified nucleoside triphosphates in bacterial research for and live-cell applications.

RSC Chem Biol 2020 Dec 14;1(5):333-351. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Modified nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are invaluable tools to probe bacterial enzymatic mechanisms, develop novel genetic material, and engineer drugs and proteins with new functionalities. Although the impact of nucleobase alterations has predominantly been studied due to their importance for protein recognition, sugar and phosphate modifications have also been investigated. However, NTPs are cell impermeable due to their negatively charged phosphate tail, a major hurdle to achieving live bacterial studies. Read More

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December 2020

Climate change, 24-hour movement behaviors, and health: a mini umbrella review.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 Apr 29;6(1):15. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, KHS 307, 28 Division St, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6, Canada.

Background: The worsening climate change and alarming prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases continue to threat human life and existence. Accumulating evidence suggests that favorable patterns of 24-h movement behaviors, high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, and adequate sleep, may positively contribute to achieving dual benefits of climate change mitigation and disease prevention. The purposes of this mini umbrella review were to summarize the most up-to-date, high-level evidence exploring the relationships between climate change, 24-h movement behaviors, and health and elaborate on the mechanisms linking the three variables of interest. Read More

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Development of a High-Throughput Method to Study the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals on Trimethylamine Formation.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 26;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Plants for Human Health Institute, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

Choline is metabolized by the gut microbiota into trimethylamine (TMA), the precursor of pro-atherosclerotic molecule trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). A reduction in TMA formation has shown cardioprotective effects, and some phytochemicals may reduce TMA formation. This study aimed to develop an optimized, high-throughput anaerobic fermentation methodology to study the inhibition of choline microbial metabolism into TMA by phenolic compounds with healthy human fecal starter. Read More

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Low-Temperature Induced Enhancement of Photoelectric Performance in Semiconducting Nanomaterials.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.

The development of light-electricity conversion in nanomaterials has drawn intensive attention to the topic of achieving high efficiency and environmentally adaptive photoelectric technologies. Besides traditional improving methods, we noted that low-temperature cooling possesses advantages in applicability, stability and nondamaging characteristics. Because of the temperature-related physical properties of nanoscale materials, the working mechanism of cooling originates from intrinsic characteristics, such as crystal structure, carrier motion and carrier or trap density. Read More

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Bergamottin and 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin Cooperate in the Cytotoxic Effect of (Bergamot) Essential Oil in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cell Line.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 10;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy.

The plant kingdom has always been a treasure trove for valuable bioactive compounds, and fruits stand out among the others. Bergamottin (BRG) and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5-G-7-MOC) are two coumarins found in different species with well-acknowledged pharmacological properties. Previously, they have been claimed to be relevant in the anti-proliferative effects exerted by bergamot essential oil (BEO) in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Read More

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Spider Web-Inspired Lightweight Membrane-Type Acoustic Metamaterials for Broadband Low-Frequency Sound Isolation.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) has exhibited superior sound isolation properties, as well as thin and light characteristics. However, the anti-resonance modes of traditional MAMs are generated intermittently in a wide frequency range causing discontinuities in the anti-resonance modes. Achieving broadband low-frequency sound attenuation with lightweight MAM design is still a pivotal research aspect. Read More

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The Prognostic Value of Pain Phenotyping in Relation to Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis Treated in Clinical Practice: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 2;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Section for Biostatistics and Evidence-Based Research, The Parker Institute, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Despite the control of inflammation, many patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) still report pain as a significant concern. Our objective was to explore the prognostic value of the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) in relation to treatment outcomes in axSpA patients treated in clinical practice. AxSpA patients with high disease activity initiating or switching a biological Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug (bDMARD) were eligible. Read More

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Chronically Elevated Exogenous Glucose Elicits Antipodal Effects on the Proteome Signature of Differentiating Human iPSC-Derived Pancreatic Progenitors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

The past decade revealed that cell identity changes, such as dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation, accompany the insulin-producing β-cell decay in most diabetes conditions. Mapping and controlling the mechanisms governing these processes is, thus, extremely valuable for managing the disease progression. Extracellular glucose is known to influence cell identity by impacting the redox balance. Read More

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Pulse Root Ideotype for Water Stress in Temperate Cropping System.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Agriculture Victoria Research, Horsham, VIC 3400, Australia.

Pulses are a key component of crop production systems in Southern Australia due to their rotational benefits and potential profit margins. However, cultivation in temperate cropping systems such as that of Southern Australia is limited by low soil water availability and subsoil constraints. This limitation of soil water is compounded by the irregular rainfall, resulting in the absence of plant available water at depth. Read More

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Rapid exploration of the epitope coverage produced by an Ebola survivor to guide the discovery of therapeutic antibody cocktails.

Antib Ther 2020 Jul 1;3(3):167-178. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

ImmunoPrecise Antibodies Ltd., Fargo, ND 58104, USA.

Background: Development of successful neutralizing antibodies is dependent upon broad epitope coverage to increase the likelihood of achieving therapeutic function. Recent advances in synthetic biology have allowed us to conduct an epitope binning study on a large panel of antibodies identified to bind to Ebola virus glycoprotein with only published sequences.

Methods And Results: A rapid, first-pass epitope binning experiment revealed seven distinct epitope families that overlapped with known structural epitopes from the literature. Read More

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Evaluation of Diagnosis and Management of Omega-5-Gliadin Allergy: A Retrospective Survey.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 20;14:397-403. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Allergy to the omega-5-gliadin component of gluten (O-5-G allergy) often manifests when wheat ingestion is followed by a co-factor, usually exercise. There is no established best approach to management.

Objective: We sought to identify the beneficial effects, firstly of establishing a firm diagnosis, and secondly of stringent management, either by avoiding gluten ingestion altogether or separating it temporally from exercise by at least 4 hours. Read More

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Therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Nat Rev Cancer 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Vaccine and Cell Therapy Laboratory, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Therapeutic cancer vaccines have undergone a resurgence in the past decade. A better understanding of the breadth of tumour-associated antigens, the native immune response and development of novel technologies for antigen delivery has facilitated improved vaccine design. The goal of therapeutic cancer vaccines is to induce tumour regression, eradicate minimal residual disease, establish lasting antitumour memory and avoid non-specific or adverse reactions. Read More

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Embodied Cooperation to Promote Forgiving Interactions With Autonomous Machines.

Front Neurorobot 2021 9;15:661603. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute-Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

During every waking moment, we must engage with our environments, the people around us, the tools we use, and even our own bodies to perform actions and achieve our intentions. There is a spectrum of control that we have over our surroundings that spans the extremes from full to negligible. When the outcomes of our actions do not align with our goals, we have a tremendous capacity to displace blame and frustration on external factors while forgiving ourselves. Read More

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An updated review on cattle thermoregulation: physiological responses, biophysical mechanisms, and heat stress alleviation pathways.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Biometeorology and Environmental Biophysics, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, Brazil.

Heat stress is one of the main obstacles to achieving efficient cattle production systems, and it may have numerous adverse effects on cattle. As the planet undergoes climatic changes, which is predicted to raise the earth's average temperature by 1.5 °C between 2030 and 2052, its impact may trigger several stressful factors for livestock. Read More

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A nanosensor for precise discrimination of nephrotoxic drug mechanisms via dynamic fluorescence fingerprint strategy.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 25;1160:338447. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Research Center for Traceability and Standardization of TCMs, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China. Electronic address:

Drug-induced kidney injury causes structural or functional abnormalities of kidney, seriously affecting clinical practice and drug discovery. However, rapid and effective identification of nephrotoxic drug mechanisms is yet a challenging task arising from the complexity and diversity of various nephrotoxic mechanisms. Herein, we have constructed a polydopamine-polyethyleneimine/quantum dots sensor to instantaneously read out the nephrotoxic drugs mechanisms based on the disparate cell surface phenotypes. Read More

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Drug repurposing for cancer treatment through global propagation with a greedy algorithm in a multilayer network.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Objective: Drug repurposing, the application of existing therapeutics to new indications, holds promise in achieving rapid clinical effects at a much lower cost than that of drug development. The aim of our study was to perform a more comprehensive drug repurposing prediction of diseases, particularly cancers.

Methods: Here, by targeting 4,096 human diseases, including 384 cancers, we propose a greedy computational model based on a heterogeneous multilayer network for the repurposing of 1,419 existing drugs in DrugBank. Read More

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Atavistic Stomatal Responses to Blue Light in Marsileaceae.

Plant Physiol 2020 Nov;184(3):1378-1388

Stomata respond to changes in light environment through multiple mechanisms that jointly regulate the tradeoff between carbon assimilation and water loss. The stomatal response to blue light is highly sensitive, rapid, and not driven by photosynthesis. It is present in most vascular plant groups but is believed to have been lost in the ancestor of leptosporangiate ferns. Read More

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November 2020

The importance of maternal pregnancy vitamin D for offspring bone health: learnings from the MAVIDOS trial.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 8;13:1759720X211006979. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, Hampshire, UK.

Optimisation of skeletal mineralisation in childhood is important to reduce childhood fracture and the long-term risk of osteoporosis and fracture in later life. One approach to achieving this is antenatal vitamin D supplementation. The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study is a randomised placebo-controlled trial, the aim of which was to assess the effect of antenatal vitamin D supplementation (1000 IU/day cholecalciferol) on offspring bone mass at birth. Read More

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Structures and General Transport Mechanisms by the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS).

Chem Rev 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Structural Biology Research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan.

The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest known superfamily of secondary active transporters. MFS transporters are responsible for transporting a broad spectrum of substrates, either down their concentration gradient or uphill using the energy stored in the electrochemical gradients. Over the last 10 years, more than a hundred different MFS transporter structures covering close to 40 members have provided an atomic framework for piecing together the molecular basis of their transport cycles. Read More

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Use of Intra-uterine Injection of Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) for Endometrial Receptivity and Thickness: a Literature Review of the Mechanisms of Action.

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Rejuvenating Fertility Center, New York, NY, USA.

Endometrial receptivity and thickness play an important role in achieving a pregnancy. Intrauterine autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infusion has been used in infertile women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and thin endometrial lining thickness (EMT). Literature search was performed in PubMed for studies including in vitro, animal, and human studies as well as in abstracts presented at national conferences. Read More

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Computational approaches to dissociative chemisorption on metals: towards chemical accuracy.

Geert-Jan Kroes

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 9;23(15):8962-9048. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

We review the state-of-the-art in the theory of dissociative chemisorption (DC) of small gas phase molecules on metal surfaces, which is important to modeling heterogeneous catalysis for practical reasons, and for achieving an understanding of the wealth of experimental information that exists for this topic, for fundamental reasons. We first give a quick overview of the experimental state of the field. Turning to the theory, we address the challenge that barrier heights (E, which are not observables) for DC on metals cannot yet be calculated with chemical accuracy, although embedded correlated wave function theory and diffusion Monte-Carlo are moving in this direction. Read More

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