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DNA damage response and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in ovarian cancer.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Apr 1;102:103112. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300052, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Health and Eugenics, Tianjin, 300052, China. Electronic address:

Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to drug resistance, relapse and metastasis. In recent years, immunotherapy has been applied in numerous cancers clinically. However, the effect of immunotherapy monotherapy in ovarian cancer is limited. Read More

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E-cigarette Vape and Lung ACE2 Expression: Implications for coronavirus vulnerability.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:103656. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Evidence in humans suggests a correlation between nicotine smoking and severe respiratory symptoms with COVID-19 infection. In lung tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears to mechanistically underlie viral entry. Here, we investigated whether e-cigarette vapor inhalation alters ACE2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in male and female mice. Read More

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Unveiling the Pathogenesis of Perineural Invasion from the Perspective of Neuroactive molecules.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114547. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized by an encounter between the cancer cells and neuronal fibers and holds an extremely poor prognosis for malignant tumors. The exact molecular mechanism behind PNI yet remains to be explored. However, it is worth-noting that an involvement of the neuroactive molecules plays a major part in this process. Read More

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Depletion of aneuploid cells in human embryos and gastruloids.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9;23(4):314-321. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Molecular Embryology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Chromosomal instability leading to aneuploidy is pervasive in early human embryos and is considered as a major cause of infertility and pregnancy wastage. Here we provide several lines of evidence that blastocysts containing aneuploid cells are worthy of in vitro fertilization transfer. First, we show clinically that aneuploid embryos can lead to healthy births, suggesting the presence of an in vivo mechanism to eliminate aneuploidy. Read More

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Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing mechanism of the COVID-19 epidemic in Shandong province, China.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7811. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710127, China.

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak that emerged in late 2019 has posed a severe threat to human health and social and economic development, and thus has become a major public health crisis affecting the world. The spread of COVID-19 in population and regions is a typical geographical process, which is worth discussing from the geographical perspective. This paper focuses on Shandong province, which has a high incidence, though the first Chinese confirmed case was reported from Hubei province. Read More

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Biosensor-based multi-gene pathway optimization for enhancing the production of glycolate.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology (NELCF), Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China;

Glycolate is widely used in industry, especially in the fields of chemical cleaning, cosmetics, and medical materials, and has broad market prospects for the future. Recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have significantly improved the titer and yield of glycolate. However, an expensive inducer was used in previous studies that is not feasible for use in large-scale industrial fermentations. Read More

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Identification of co-expression network correlated with different periods of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA).

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 10;22(1):254. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, RWTH Aachen University Clinic, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Background: The differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is a complex and dynamic process. The gene expression pattern and mechanism of different periods of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. Additionally, the interaction between these two lineage determination requires further exploration. Read More

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Attention-embedded complementary-stream CNN for false positive reduction in pulmonary nodule detection.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Mar 30;133:104357. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610054, China; Laboratory of Imaging Detection and Intelligent Perception, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China. Electronic address:

False positive reduction plays a key role in computer-aided detection systems for pulmonary nodule detection in computed tomography (CT) scans. However, this remains a challenge owing to the heterogeneity and similarity of anisotropic pulmonary nodules. In this study, a novel attention-embedded complementary-stream convolutional neural network (AECS-CNN) is proposed to obtain more representative features of nodules for false positive reduction. Read More

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The effects of maternal SSRI exposure on the serotonin system, prefrontal protein expression and behavioral development in male and female offspring rats.

Neurochem Int 2021 Apr 6:105041. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Rehabilitation, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine (FLX), a commonly used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is often used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, prenatal exposure to FLX has been associated with a series of neuropsychiatric illnesses. The use of a rodent model can provide a clear indication as to whether prenatal exposure to SSRIs, independent of maternal psychiatric disorders or genetic syndromes, can cause long-term behavioral abnormalities in offspring. Read More

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Boosting light-driven CO reduction towards solar fuels: Mainstream avenues for engineering ZnO-based photocatalysts.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 6:111134. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Biotechnology, Binh Duong University, Thu Dau Mot, Vietnam. Electronic address:

The realization of artificial photosynthesis in the photocatalytic CO transformation into valuable chemicals or solar fuels (such as CO, CH, HCOOH, and CHOH) by solar-light harvesting is a promising solution to both global-warming and energy-supply issues. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) has emerged as an excellent oxidative photocatalyst among non-titanium metal oxide due to its availability, outstanding semiconducting and optical properties, non-toxicity, affordability, and ease of synthesis. However, its wide bandgap and inability to absorb in the visible region has demanded particular modification for its practical use as a sustainable photocatalyst. Read More

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Perovskite Quantum Dots as Multifunctional Interlayers in Perovskite Solar Cells with Dopant-Free Organic Hole Transporting Layers.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Preparation Technology of Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pen-Tung Sah Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with organic hole transporting layers (o-HTLs) have been widely studied due to their convenient solution processing, but it remains a big challenge to improve the hole mobilities of commercially available organic hole transporting materials without ion doping while maintaining the stability of PSCs. In this work, we demonstrated that the introduction of perovskite quantum dots (QDs) as interlayers between perovskite layers and dopant-free o-HTLs (P3HT, PTAA, Spiro-OMeTAD) resulted in a significantly enhanced performance of PSCs. The universal role of QDs in improving the efficiency and stability of PSCs was validated, exceeding that of lithium doping. Read More

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Mechanism of antimicrobial activity of honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom on Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp.

AMB Express 2021 Apr 9;11(1):54. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Honeybee venom (Apitoxin, BV), a secretion substance expelled from the venom gland of bees, has being reported as antimicrobial against various bacterial species; however, the mechanism of action remains uncharacterized. In this study, the antibacterial activity of BV was investigated on hygiene indicator Escherichia coli and the environmental pathogen and spoilage bacterial species, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens. An array of methods was combined to elucidate the mode of action of BV. Read More

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Two-Qubit Engine Fueled by Entanglement and Local Measurements.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):120605

Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, Institut Néel, 38000 Grenoble, France.

We introduce a two-qubit engine that is powered by entanglement and local measurements. Energy is extracted from the detuned qubits coherently exchanging a single excitation. Generalizing to an N-qubit chain, we show that the low energy of the first qubit can be up-converted to an arbitrarily high energy at the last qubit by successive neighbor swap operations and local measurements. Read More

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White Matter-Based Structural Brain Network of Major Depression.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:35-55

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is frequently characterized as a disorder of the disconnection syndrome. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has played a critical role in supporting this view, with much investigation providing a large amount of evidence of structural connectivity abnormalities in the disorder. Recent research on the human connectome combined neuroimaging techniques with graph theoretic methods to highlight the disrupted topological properties of large-scale structural brain networks under depression, involving global metrics (e. Read More

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Polyethylene Glycol Ointment Alleviates Psoriasis-Like Inflammation Through Down-Regulating the Function of Th17 Cells and MDSCs.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 22;7:560579. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

To explore the possible mechanism of improving the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) ointment. We evaluated the appearance of psoriasis lesions by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), observed the epidermal proliferation by histopathological staining and immunohistochemical staining, and explored the key molecules and signaling pathways of improving psoriasis-like inflammation treated with PEG ointment by RNA sequencing. Finally, we verified the expression of inflammatory cells and inflammatory factors by flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and Q-PCR. Read More

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The Role of Unfolded Protein Response in Human Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Perk and IRE1- as Two Potential Therapeutic Targets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 24;2021:6492879. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sixth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Inflammation plays a key role in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). The association between inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been observed in many diseases. However, whether ER stress plays an important role in IDD remains unclear. Read More

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Interferon-λ3 Exacerbates the Inflammatory Response to Microbial Ligands: Implications for SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenesis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 1;14:1257-1270. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Blacktown Clinical School, Western Sydney University, Blacktown, NSW, 2148, Australia.

Introduction: Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs) are antiviral cytokines that restrict pathogen infection and dissemination at barrier surfaces. Controlled expression of IFN-λs efficiently eliminates acute infections by activating a suite of interferon stimulated genes that inhibit viral propagation and activate local immune cells. Excessive or prolonged production of IFN-λs can however mediate tissue inflammation and disrupt epithelial barriers in both viral and non-viral disease. Read More

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Novel LncRNA OXCT1-AS1 indicates poor prognosis and contributes to tumorigenesis by regulating miR-195/CDC25A axis in glioblastoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 8;40(1):123. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contribute to multiple biological processes in human glioblastoma (GBM). However, identifying a specific lncRNA target remains a challenge. In this study, bioinformatics methods and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network regulatory rules were used to identify GBM-related lncRNAs and revealed that OXCT1 antisense RNA 1 (OXCT1-AS1) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. Read More

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Carbon materials for extraction of uranium from seawater.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;278:130411. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, PR China. Electronic address:

With the rapid growth of population and industrialization, the energy crisis and environmental pollution as two main difficulties urgently need to be solved nowadays. The development and utilization of nuclear energy is of great significance for solving energy support, national security and environmental protection. As the raw material of nuclear energy, a lot of uranium in seawater provide a guarantee for the sustainable and green development of nuclear power plants. Read More

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Synchronization of memristive neural networks with unknown parameters via event-triggered adaptive control.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 22;139:255-264. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Artificial Intelligence and Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control of Education Ministry of China, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

This paper considers the drive-response synchronization of memristive neural networks (MNNs) with unknown parameters, where the unbounded discrete and bounded distributed time-varying delays are involved. Aiming at the unknown parameters of MNNs, the updating law of weight in response system and the gain of adaptive controller are proposed to realize the synchronization of delayed MNNs. In view of the limited communication and bandwidth, the event-triggered mechanism is introduced to adaptive control, which not only decreases the times of controller update and the amount of data sending out but also enables synchronization when parameters of MNNs are unknown. Read More

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Regulatory Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 in the Cardiovascular System and Related Disease.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 5:105596. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Nursing and Rehabilitation, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has a critical regulatory role in the development of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and is strongly associated with the progression or treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the regulatory mechanisms of FGF1 in CVS and CVD have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this review article summarized the existing literature reports on the role of FGF1 in CVS under physiological and pathological conditions. Read More

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Antiallergic drug Mebhydrolin ameliorates glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice by functioning as a selective FXR antagonist.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 5:154771. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Medicine& Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with hallmarks of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages the functions of multiple tissues and organs leading to a series of complications and disability or even death. Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonism has been recently discovered to exhibit beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in T2DM mice, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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The rise of the longitudinal arch when sitting, standing, and walking: Contributions of the windlass mechanism.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249965. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Human Locomotion, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.

The original windlass mechanism describes a one-to-one coupling between metatarsal joint dorsiflexion and medial longitudinal arch rise. The description assumes a sufficiently stiff plantar aponeurosis and absence of foot muscle activity. However, recent research calls for a broader interpretation of the windlass mechanism that accounts for an extensible plantar aponeurosis and active foot muscles. Read More

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ddcP, pstB, and excess D-lactate impact synergism between vancomycin and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecium 1,231,410.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249631. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens that cause life-threatening infections. To control hospital-associated infections, skin antisepsis and bathing utilizing chlorhexidine is recommended for VRE patients in acute care hospitals. Previously, we reported that exposure to inhibitory chlorhexidine levels induced the expression of vancomycin resistance genes in VanA-type Enterococcus faecium. Read More

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Event-Triggered Adaptive Neural Network Sensor Failure Compensation for Switched Interconnected Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Coefficients.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 8;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

In this article, a decentralized adaptive neural network (NN) event-triggered sensor failure compensation control issue is investigated for nonlinear switched large-scale systems. Due to the presence of unknown control coefficients, output interactions, sensor faults, and arbitrary switchings, previous works cannot solve the investigated issue. First, to estimate unmeasured states, a novel observer is designed. Read More

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Latent Correlation Representation Learning for Brain Tumor Segmentation with Missing MRI Modalities.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 8;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used imaging technique to assess brain tumor. Accurately segmenting brain tumor from MR images is the key to clinical diagnostics and treatment planning. In addition, multi-modal MR images can provide complementary information for accurate brain tumor segmentation. Read More

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Protective effects of Astragaloside IV against oxidative injury and apoptosis in cultured astrocytes by regulating Nrf2/JNK signaling.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, Zhejiang, China.

Ischemic stroke is a worldwide complex brain disease that results in numerous disabilities and deaths. It leads to the deprivation of oxygen and glucose, which causes energy failure and neuronal death. The activation of astrocytes contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion, although astrocytes get little attention as potential drug targets. Read More

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The spleen as a sanctuary site for residual leukemic cells following ABT-199 monotherapy in ETP-ALL.

Blood Adv 2021 Apr;5(7):1963-1976

Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) has recently emerged as a therapeutic target for early T-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL), a high-risk subtype of human T-cell ALL. The major clinical challenge with targeted therapeutics, such as the BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-199, is the development of acquired resistance. We assessed the in vivo response of luciferase-positive LOUCY cells to ABT-199 monotherapy and observed specific residual disease in the splenic microenvironment. Read More

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Too Many Cooks: Bayesian Inference for Coordinating Multi-Agent Collaboration.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Collaboration requires agents to coordinate their behavior on the fly, sometimes cooperating to solve a single task together and other times dividing it up into sub-tasks to work on in parallel. Underlying the human ability to collaborate is theory-of-mind (ToM), the ability to infer the hidden mental states that drive others to act. Here, we develop Bayesian Delegation, a decentralized multi-agent learning mechanism with these abilities. Read More

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Microtubules and Dynein Regulate Human Neutrophil Nuclear Volume and Hypersegmentation During Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:653100. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Inflammation Program of the University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) are heterogeneous and can exhibit considerable phenotypic and functional plasticity. In keeping with this, we discovered previously that infection induces N1-like subtype differentiation of human PMNs that is notable for profound nuclear hypersegmentation. Herein, we utilized biochemical approaches and confocal and super-resolution microscopy to gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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