2,948 results match your criteria mechanism covid-19

Nonlinear dynamics for the spread of pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 20;14(7):817-831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University School of Basic & Applied Sciences (USBAS), Head, Non-Linear Dynamics-Research-Lab, GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses did not invite attention at a global level and responsiveness until the series of 2003-SARS contagion followed by year-2012 MERS plus, most recently, 2019-nCoV eruptions. SARS-CoV &MERS-CoV are painstaking, extremely pathogenic. Also, very evidently, both have been communicated from bats to palm-civets & dromedary camels and further transferred ultimately to humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular mechanism of anti-SARS-CoV2 activity of Ashwagandha-derived withanolides.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

AIST-INDIA DAILAB, DBT-AIST International Center for Translational & Environmental Research (DAICENTER), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305 8565, Japan. Electronic address:

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 corona virus has become a global pandemic. In the absence of drugs and vaccine, and premises of time, efforts and cost required for their development, natural resources such as herbs are anticipated to provide some help and may also offer a promising resource for drug development. Here, we have investigated the therapeutic prospective of Ashwagandha for the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 Diagnosis on CT Scan Images Using a Generative Adversarial Network and Concatenated Feature Pyramid Network with an Attention Mechanism.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China.

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused hundreds of thousands of infections and deaths. Efficient diagnostic methods could help curb its global spread. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a method for accurately diagnosing COVID-19 based on computed tomography (CT) scans in real time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular mechanism of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells and interventional therapy.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 11;6(1):233. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China.

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has resulted in an unprecedented setback for global economy and health. SARS-CoV-2 has an exceptionally high level of transmissibility and extremely broad tissue tropism. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for sustaining this degree of virulence remains largely unexplored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Magnesium treatment on methylation changes of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2).

Nutrition 2021 May 7;89:111340. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 requires host-expressed TMPRSS2 to facilitate the viral spike protein priming. This study aims to test the hypothesis that magnesium (Mg) treatment leads to DNA methylation changes in TMPRSS2.

Methods: This study is nested within the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial, a double-blind 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial, which enrolled 250 participants from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Analysis of the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 5;566:45-52. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

A newly-emergent beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, rapidly has become a pandemic since 2020. It is a serious respiratory disease and caused more than 100 million of deaths in the world. WHO named it COVIA-19 and there is no effective targeted drug for it. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on referral characteristics in a national tertiary spinal injuries unit.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Spinal Injuries Unit, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Ireland.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had profound implications on healthcare institutions.

Aims: This study aims to assess and compare referral patterns during COVID-19 to corresponding dates for the preceding 3 years (2017-2019), in order to preemptively coordinate the logistics of the surgical unit for similar future experiences.

Methods: Retrospective review for our institution, a national tertiary referral centre for spine pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid Curricular Innovations During COVID-19 Clinical Suspension: Maintaining Student Engagement with Simulation Experiences.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Advanced Nursing Practice, Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, Washington, District of Columbia.

Health care education programs were faced with the need to quickly adapt to a new reality during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Students were temporarily suspended from campus and clinical sites, requiring prompt changes in structure to their didactic and clinical learning. This article describes the rapid adjustments that one midwifery and women's health nurse practitioner education program created using both synchronous and asynchronous simulation experiences to promote student learning and ongoing engagement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-FACT: A Fully-Automated Capsule Network-Based Framework for Identification of COVID-19 Cases from Chest CT Scans.

Front Artif Intell 2021 25;4:598932. Epub 2021 May 25.

Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering (CIISE), Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The newly discovered Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been globally spreading and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths around the world as of its first emergence in late 2019. The rapid outbreak of this disease has overwhelmed health care infrastructures and arises the need to allocate medical equipment and resources more efficiently. The early diagnosis of this disease will lead to the rapid separation of COVID-19 and non-COVID cases, which will be helpful for health care authorities to optimize resource allocation plans and early prevention of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

From Information Exposure to Protective Behaviors: Investigating the Underlying Mechanism in COVID-19 Outbreak Using Social Amplification Theory and Extended Parallel Process Model.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:631116. Epub 2021 May 25.

Zijin Media Research Institute, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Ever since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), people have been flooded with vast amounts of information related to the virus and its social consequences. This paper draws on social amplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and assesses the following: (a) how two amplification stations-news media and peoples' personal networks-influence the risk-related perceptions of people (perceived efficacy and perceived threat) and (b) how these risk-related perceptions impact people's health-protective behaviors. This study surveyed 1,946 participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Readiness and early response to COVID-19: achievements, challenges and lessons learnt in Ethiopia.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Director General office, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Declaration of the novel coronavirus disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern necessitated countries to get ready to respond. Here, we describe key achievements, challenges and lessons learnt during the readiness and early response to COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Readiness activities commenced as early as January 2020 with the activation of a national Public Health Emergency Operations Centre and COVID-19 Incident Management System (IMS) by the Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin D attenuates COVID-19 complications via modulation of proinflammatory cytokines, antiviral proteins, and autophagy.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 Saudi Arabia.

: Global emergence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has clearly shown variable severity, mortality, and frequency between and within populations worldwide. These striking differences have made many biological variables attractive for future investigations. One of these variables, vitamin D, has been implicated in COVID-19 with rapidly growing scientific evidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis after BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 25;30(8):105906. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, E.P.E., Porto, Portugal; Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health Department, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Portugal.

The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has raised several concerns regarding venous thromboembolism, namely cerebral venous thrombosis. Although cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported after administration of a viral vector vaccine, due to a possible auto-immune mechanism inducing thrombocytopenia, the same has not happened in mRNA vaccines. We report two cases of cerebral venous thrombosis, shortly after administration of mRNA vaccine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 during Pregnancy: Clinical and In Vitro Evidence against Placenta Infection at Term by SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Pole of Obstetrics, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Brussels, Belgium; Division of Obstetrics, Saint-Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

Despite occasional reports of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy, the question of placental infection and its consequences for the newborn remain questionable. Here, we analyzed the placentas of 31 COVID-19-positive mothers by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. We only detected one case of placental infection, which was associated with intrauterine demise of the fetus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structural basis for accommodation of emerging B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 variants by two potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.

Structure 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10029, USA; Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains, B.1.1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurological Implications of COVID-19: Role of Redox Imbalance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)-Kolkata, Kolkata, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 or COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). Globally, this disease affected 159 million of the population and reported ~ 3.3 million deaths to the current date (May 2021). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Conformational Dynamics in the Interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Papain-like Protease with Human Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 Protein.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 10:5608-5615. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Neutron Scattering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States.

Papain-like protease (PLpro) from SARS-CoV-2 plays essential roles in the replication cycle of the virus. In particular, it preferentially interacts with and cleaves human interferon-stimulated gene 15 (hISG15) to suppress the innate immune response of the host. We used small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering combined with computational techniques to study the mechanism of interaction of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with hISG15. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism of Inhibition of the Reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 and Viruses by Remdesivir.

Biochemistry 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511-8499, United States.

Remdesivir is an antiviral drug initially designed against the virus. The results obtained with it both in biochemical studies and in cell line assays were very promising, but it proved to be ineffective in clinical trials. Remdesivir exhibited far better efficacy when repurposed against SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding the SARS-CoV-2 virus to mitigate current and future pandemic(s).

Virusdisease 2021 Jun 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Peptide and Proteomics Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Defence R&D Organization (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 India.

Micro-organisms form the first pioneer community in the history of biological life, thought to be present in the primordial soup and evolving later with more complex life-forms. Among micro-organisms, viruses form a separate taxon of organisms. Viruses are obligate parasites, being inactive without a host and becoming active once in contact with specific hosts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tofacitinib therapy intercepts macrophage metabolic reprogramming instigated by SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612.

The molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 Spike-protein was characterized, to identify novel therapies. The impact of Tofacitinib, IL-6R Ab or TNFi therapy was determined on Spike-protein or LPS/IFNγ-induced signaling, inflammation and metabolic reprogramming in MΦs and/or RA FLS. ACE2 frequency was markedly expanded in MΦs compared to T-cells and RA FLS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide suppresses SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion by a dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1-independent mechanism.

J Virol 2021 Jun 9:JVI0080721. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Pharma-Science, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan.

The membrane fusion between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host cells is essential for the initial step of infection; therefore, the host cell membrane components, including sphingolipids, influence the viral infection. We assessed several inhibitors of the enzymes pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection. -(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1), suppressed cell-cell fusion, and viral infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inflammation at the Crossroads: the Combined Effects of COVID-19, Ageing, and Air Pollution.

J Frailty Aging 2021 ;10(3):281-285

Dr. Sylvain Billet, Univ. Littoral Côte d'Opale, UR 4492, UCEIV, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque, France. Phone: +33-3 28 23 76 41, E-mail:

The global COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted different vulnerability profiles among individuals. With the highest mortality rate, the elderly are a very sensitive group. With regard to the main symptoms, a failure of the respiratory system, associated with deregulation of the immune system, has been observed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid and Repetitive Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and Human Coronavirus on Self-Disinfecting Anionic Polymers.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 8;8(11):e2003503. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally- and chemically-diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH-drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV-229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative proteomics of hamster lung tissues infected with SARS-CoV-2 reveal host factors having implication in the disease pathogenesis and severity.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21713

Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.

Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) manifests lung pathology. In this study, efforts were made to check the infectivity of a local SARS-CoV-2 isolate in a self-limiting and non-lethal hamster model and evaluate the differential expression of lung proteins during acute infection and convalescence. The findings of this study confirm the infectivity of this isolate in vivo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating the active compounds and mechanism of HuaShi XuanFei formula for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis.

Mol Divers 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Vector Biology and Pathogen Control of Zhejiang Province, School of Medicine, Huzhou University, Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou, People's Republic of China.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has exerted positive effects in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. HuaShi XuanFei Formula (HSXFF) was developed to treat patients with mild and general COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China. The present study seeks to explore its potentially active compounds and pharmacological mechanisms against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A review on nanostructured silver as a basic ingredient in medicine: physicochemical parameters and characterization.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 14;12:440-461. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Institute for Quality Control in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (INCQS, FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Recent studies with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the history of silver metal as a broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal agent, places silver as one of the future biocidal candidates in the field of nanomedicine to eliminate bacteria and viruses, especially multidrug resistant ones. In this review, we have described the various morphologies of AgNPs and correlated the enhanced bactericidal activity with their prominent {111} facets. In addition to prioritizing the characterization we have also discussed the importance of quantifying AgNPs and silver ion content (Ag) and their different mechanisms at the chemical, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SARS-CoV-2 infection activates a subset of intrinsic pathways to inhibit type I interferons and .

Int J Med Sci 2021 28;18(12):2561-2569. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China.

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs and , but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Senolytics reduce coronavirus-related mortality in old mice.

Science 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and Center of Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the pronounced vulnerability of the elderly and chronically-ill to SARS-CoV-2-induced morbidity and mortality. Cellular senescence contributes to inflammation, multiple chronic diseases, and age-related dysfunction, but effects on responses to viral infection are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that senescent cells (SnC) become hyper-inflammatory in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-1, increasing expression of viral entry proteins and reducing anti-viral gene expression in non-SnCs through a paracrine mechanism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High frequency of endoluminal thrombus in patients with ischaemic stroke following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Neurologia 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España. Electronic address:

Background: Ischaemic stroke may be a major complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studying and characterising the different aetiological subtypes, clinical characteristics, and functional outcomes may be valuable in guiding patient selection for optimal management and treatment.

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed acute focal brain ischaemia (between 1 March and 19 April 2020) at a tertiary university hospital in Madrid (Spain). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Active components in Ephedra sinica Stapf disrupt the interaction between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RBD: potent COVID-19 therapeutic agents.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 5:114303. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Research Center for Traceability and Standardization of TCMs, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ephedra sinica Stapf is a widely used folk medicine in Asia to treat lung diseases, such as cold, cough and asthma. Many efforts have revealed that some traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions containing Ephedra sinica could effectively alleviate the symptoms and prevent the fatal deterioration of COVID-19.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aims to discover active compounds in Ephedra sinica disrupting the interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (SARS-CoV-2 RBD) to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF