181 results match your criteria mechanism' [journal

Heat shock proteins-driven stress granule dynamics: yet another avenue for cell survival.

Apoptosis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, 110029, India.

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are evolutionary conserved 'stress-response' proteins that facilitate cell survival against various adverse conditions. HSP-mediated cytoprotection was hitherto reported to occur principally in two ways. Firstly, HSPs interact directly or indirectly with apoptosis signaling components and suppress apoptosis. Read More

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Hyocholic acid and glycemic regulation: comments on 'Hyocholic acid species improve glucose homeostasis through a distinct TGR5 and FXR signaling mechanism'.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai 200233, China.

Hyocholic acid species (HCA, hyodeoxycholic acid, and their glycine and taurine conjugated forms) comprise 80% of the composition of pig bile (Haslewood, 1956). An interesting fact about pigs is that they do not get diabetes even though they eat almost anything and in abundant amounts, a diabetes-promoting diet. The first use of pig bile for treatment of 'xiao-ke', a condition known today as diabetes, was recorded ∼400 years ago by the Chinese medical practitioners in the Compendium of Materia Medica (Li, 1573‒1593). Read More

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Exploring how children subjected to violence in the home cope with experiences in Secure Training Centres.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 23;117:105076. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute for Social Innovation and Impact, University of Northampton, University Drive Waterside Campus, Northampton NN1 5PH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Violence in the home is recognised as a significant problem, with around 29.5 % of children subjected to violence in the home at some point in the United Kingdom (Radford et al., 2013). Read More

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Corrigendum to 'Silver nanoparticles synthesis from Bacillus sp KFU36 and its anticancer effect in breast cancer MCF-7 cells via induction of apoptotic mechanism' [Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 204, March 2020, 111786].

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 May 14;218:112190. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Electronic address:

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iTRAQ-based comparative proteome analyses of different growth stages revealing the regulatory role of reactive oxygen species in the fruiting body development of .

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e10940. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine Resources in Sichuan Province-Key Laboratory Breeding Base founded by Sichuan Province, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

In this study, using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ ) approach coupled with LC-MS / MS and bioinformatics, the proteomes were analyzed for the crucial three stages covering the fruiting body development of , including sclerotium (ST), primordium (PR) and mature fruiting body (MF), with a focus on fruiting body development-related proteins and the potential mechanisms of the development. A total of 1,875 proteins were identified. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the protein patterns between PR and MF were more similar than ST. Read More

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The use of sequential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute major depression: a scoping review.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Feb 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Introduction: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a chronic, relapsing, and remitting disorder affecting over 250 million persons each year worldwide. More than 50% of the patients do not respond to their initial antidepressant treatment and may benefit from sequential pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of their MDD. Although guidelines outline options for next-step treatments, there is a paucity of evidence to select specific second- or third-step treatments. Read More

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February 2021

Cardiac myosin super relaxation (SRX): a perspective on fundamental biology, human disease and therapeutics.

Biol Open 2021 Feb 15;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

The fundamental basis of muscle contraction 'the sliding filament model' (Huxley and Niedergerke, 1954; Huxley and Hanson, 1954) and the 'swinging, tilting crossbridge-sliding filament mechanism' (Huxley, 1969; Huxley and Brown, 1967) nucleated a field of research that has unearthed the complex and fascinating role of myosin structure in the regulation of contraction. A recently discovered energy conserving state of myosin termed the super relaxed state (SRX) has been observed in filamentous myosins and is central to modulating force production and energy use within the sarcomere. Modulation of myosin function through SRX is a rapidly developing theme in therapeutic development for both cardiovascular disease and infectious disease. Read More

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February 2021

Construction and screening of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol protein deletion library in Pichia pastoris.

BMC Microbiol 2020 08 24;20(1):262. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Fermentation and Enzyme Engineering, School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China.

Background: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins have diverse intrinsic functions in yeasts, and they also have different uses in vitro. In this study, the functions of potential GPI proteins in Pichia pastoris were explored by gene knockout approaches.

Results: Through an extensive knockout of GPI proteins in P. Read More

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Comparison of Macrophage Activation Using γ-Globulin and Serum-derived Macrophage Activating Factor.

Anticancer Res 2020 Aug;40(8):4707-4710

Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe, Japan

Background/aim: Serum-derived macrophage activating factor (serum-MAF) can rapidly activate macrophage phagocytic activity by inducing characteristic membrane ruffles designated as Frill-like structures. Serum-MAF contains γ-globulin, an activator of phagocytosis. This study examined whether serum-MAF and γ-globulin activate macrophages similarly. Read More

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Foot stiffening during the push-off phase of human walking is linked to active muscle contraction, and not the windlass mechanism.

J R Soc Interface 2020 07 15;17(168):20200208. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.

The rigidity of the human foot is often described as a feature of our evolution for upright walking and is bolstered by a thick plantar aponeurosis that connects the heel to the toes. Previous descriptions of human foot function consider stretch of the plantar aponeurosis via toe extension (windlass mechanism) to stiffen the foot as it is levered against the ground for push-off during walking. In this study, we applied controlled loading to human feet , and studied foot function during the push-off phase of walking, with the aim of carefully testing how the foot is tensioned during contact with the ground. Read More

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A review of the latest insights into the mechanism of action of strontium in bone.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 24;12:100273. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto M5B 2K3, Ontario, Canada.

Interest in strontium (Sr) has persisted over the last three decades due to its unique mechanism of action: it simultaneously promotes osteoblast function and inhibits osteoclast function. While this mechanism of action is strongly supported by studies and small animal trials, recent large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated that orally administered strontium ranelate (SrRan) may have no anabolic effect on bone formation in humans. Yet, there is a strong correlation between Sr accumulation in bone and reduced fracture risk in post-menopausal women, suggesting Sr acts a purely physiochemical mechanism to enhance bone strength. Read More

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Immediate effect of individual bars of insoles and their combination on gait parameters in asymptomatic healthy adults.

Somatosens Mot Res 2020 Jun 21;37(2):125-131. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

: The way how individual bars of sensorimotor insoles influence the gait kinematics is not fully understood yet. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of three sensorimotor orthotic conditions (the medial calcaneal and retrocapital lateral bars and their combination) on the gait parameters in healthy adults during the stance phase of gait cycle.: Twenty-six young adults performed 20 gait cycles in each condition using their self-selected cadence and provided standardised shoes with the base-sole and the three types of orthotics. Read More

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Noise-Induced Changes of the Auditory Brainstem Response to Speech-a Measure of Neural Desynchronisation?

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2020 04 13;21(2):183-197. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Science Road, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

It is commonly assumed that difficulty in listening to speech in noise is at least partly due to deficits in neural temporal processing. Given that noise reduces the temporal fidelity of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to speech, it has been suggested that the speech ABR may serve as an index of such neural deficits. However, the temporal fidelity of ABRs, to both speech and non-speech sounds, is also known to be influenced by the cochlear origin of the response, as responses from higher-frequency cochlear regions are faster and more synchronous than responses from lower-frequency regions. Read More

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Surface enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization solid-state NMR spectroscopy sheds light on Brønsted-Lewis acid synergy during the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbon process.

Chem Sci 2019 Oct 21;10(39):8946-8954. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology , KAUST Catalysis Center , Advanced Catalytic Materials , Thuwal 23955 , Saudi Arabia . Email: ; Email:

After a prolonged effort over two decades, the reaction mechanism of the zeolite-catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) process is now well-understood: the so-called 'direct mechanism' ( direct coupling of two methanol molecules) is responsible for the formation of the initial carbon-carbon bonds, while the hydrocarbon pool (HCP)-based dual cycle mechanism is responsible for the formation of reaction products. While most of the reaction events occur at zeolite Brønsted acid sites, the addition of Lewis acid sites (, the introduction of alkaline earth cations like calcium) has been shown to inhibit the formation of deactivating coke species and hence increase the catalyst lifetime. With the aim to have an in-depth mechanistic understanding, herein, we employ magic angle spinning surface-enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization solid-state NMR spectroscopy to illustrate that the inclusion of Lewis acidity prevents the formation of carbene/ylide species on the zeolite, directly affecting the equilibrium between arene and olefin cycles of the HCP mechanism and hence regulating the ultimate product selectivity and catalyst lifetime. Read More

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October 2019

The jumping mechanism of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Alticini), its application to bionics and preliminary design for a robotic jumping leg.

Zookeys 2020 24;915:87-105. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) are a hyperdiverse group of organisms with approximately 9900 species worldwide. In addition to walking as most insects do, nearly all the species of flea beetles have an ability to jump and this ability is commonly understood as one of the key adaptations responsible for its diversity. Our investigation of flea beetle jumping is based on high-speed filming, micro-CT scans and 3D reconstructions, and provides a mechanical description of the jump. Read More

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February 2020

What we know and what we need to know about adenovirus 36-induced obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2020 06 15;44(6):1197-1209. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, 14662, Republic of Korea.

Background: Many internal and external factors are related to obesity. Pathogens that can induce obesity are the most interesting external factors. While the relationship between pathogenic human intestinal microbiota and obesity has been extensively studied, viruses have received relatively little attention. Read More

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A Novel Mechanical Metamaterial Exhibiting Auxetic Behavior and Negative Compressibility.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Dec 22;13(1). Epub 2019 Dec 22.

Metamaterials Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta.

Auxetics (negative Poisson's ratio) and materials with negative linear compressibility (NLC) exhibit the anomalous mechanical properties of getting wider rather than thinner when stretched and expanding in at least one direction under hydrostatic pressure, respectively. A novel mechanism-termed the 'triangular elongation mechanism'-leading to such anomalous behavior is presented and discussed through an analytical model. Amongst other things, it is shown that this novel mechanism, when combined with the well-known 'rotating squares' model, can generate giant negative Poisson's ratios when the system is stretched. Read More

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December 2019

Realist approach to evaluating an interprofessional education program for medical students in clinical practice at a community hospital.

Med Teach 2020 01 9;42(1):101-110. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

We examined the interrelationships between context, mechanism, and outcome using a realist approach following the introduction of interprofessional education (IPE) to clinical practice for medical students in the community. Through participant observation and interviews, a working hypothesis was developed. To evaluate IPE in clinical practice, medical students' reports were thematically analyzed, and configuration on contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes were identified using a realist approach. Read More

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January 2020

Complement-independent bystander injury in AQP4-IgG seropositive neuromyelitis optica produced by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 07 11;7(1):112. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California, 1246 Health Sciences East Tower, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0521, USA.

Cellular injury in AQP4-IgG seropositive neuromyelitis spectrum disorder (herein called NMO) involves AQP4-IgG binding to astrocytes, resulting in astrocyte injury by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanisms. The rapid disease progression, severe tissue damage, and abundant leukocyte infiltration seen in some NMO patients suggest a more direct mechanism for demyelination and neurologic deficit than secondary injury from astrocyte loss. Here, we report evidence for an 'ADCC bystander mechanism' in NMO involving injury to nearby cells by leukocytes following their activation by AQP4-bound AQP4-IgG on astrocytes. Read More

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Transcriptome profiling of mouse brain and lung under Dip2a regulation using RNA-sequencing.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(7):e0213702. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Transgenic Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Disconnected interacting protein 2 homolog A (DIP2A) is highly expressed in nervous system and respiratory system of developing embryos. However, genes regulated by Dip2a in developing brain and lung have not been systematically studied. Transcriptome of brain and lung in embryonic 19. Read More

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February 2020

Eley-Rideal model of heterogeneous catalytic carbamate formation based on CO-MEA absorptions with CaCO, MgCO and BaCO.

R Soc Open Sci 2019 May 1;6(5):190311. Epub 2019 May 1.

Clean Energy Technology Research Institute (CETRI), Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada.

The mechanism was proposed of heterogeneous catalytic CO absorptions with primary/secondary amines involving 'catalytic carbamate formation'. Compared with the non-catalytic 'Zwitterion mechanism', this Eley-Rideal model was proposed for CO + RR'NH with MCO (M = Ca, Mg, and Ba) with four elementary reaction steps: (B1) amine adsorption, (B2) Zwitterion formation, (B3) carbamate formation, and (B4) carbamate desorption. The rate law if determining step of each elementary step was generated based on 'steady-state approximation'. Read More

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Tripeptidyl-peptidase II: Update on an oldie that still counts.

Biochimie 2019 Nov 17;166:27-37. Epub 2019 May 17.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 582, SE-751 23, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

The huge exopeptidase, tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPP II), appears to be involved in a large number of important biological processes. It is present in the cytosol of most eukaryotic cells, where it removes tripeptides from free amino termini of longer peptides through a 'molecular ruler mechanism'. Its main role appears to be general protein degradation, together with the proteasome. Read More

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November 2019

The mechanistic role of active site residues in non-stereo haloacid dehalogenase E (DehE).

J Mol Graph Model 2019 07 8;90:219-225. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; Research Unit for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (RUBIC), Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Dehalogenase E (DehE) is a non-stereospecific enzyme produced by the soil bacterium, Rhizobium sp. RC1. Till now, the catalytic mechanism of DehE remains unclear although several literature concerning its structure and function are available. Read More

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Single tungsten atom supported on N-doped graphyne as a high-performance electrocatalyst for nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Jan 8;21(3):1546-1551. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen molecules (N) to value-added ammonia by using renewable electricity under mild conditions is regarded as a sustainable and promising strategy for N fixation. However, the lack of efficient, robust and inexpensive electrocatalysts for such electrochemical reduction has prevented its wide application. Herein, we report a novel single-atom catalyst, i. Read More

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January 2019

District-level implementation of British Columbia's school food and beverage sales policy: a realist evaluation exploring intervention mechanisms in urban and rural contexts.

Can J Public Health 2019 02 7;110(1):21-30. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Sustainable Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Intervention: British Columbia's (BC) provincial school food and beverage sales policy.

Research Question: What are the processes associated with district-level implementation of BC's school food and beverage sales policy?

Methods: We adopted a realist approach and a qualitative, multiple case study design that included three urban and two rural BC school districts. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with health, education, and industry stakeholders, observations, document analysis and website scans. Read More

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February 2019

Mechanistic insights into boron-catalysed direct amidation reactions.

Chem Sci 2018 Jan 2;9(4):1058-1072. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Centre for Sustainable Chemical Processes , Department of Chemistry , Durham University , Science Site , South Road , Durham , DH1 3LE , UK . Email:

The generally accepted monoacyloxyboron mechanism of boron-catalysed direct amidation is brought into question in this study, and new alternatives are proposed. We have carried out a detailed investigation of boron-catalysed amidation reactions, through study of the interaction between amines/carboxylic acids and borinic acids, boronic acids and boric acid, and have isolated and characterised by NMR/X-ray crystallography many of the likely intermediates present in catalytic amidation reactions. Rapid reaction between amines and boron compounds was observed in all cases, and it is proposed that such boron-nitrogen interactions are highly likely to take place in catalytic amidation reactions. Read More

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January 2018

The dual-gate model for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels activation and desensitization.

J Physiol 2018 05 17;596(10):1873-1902. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Channel Receptors Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3571, Paris, France.

Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast neurotransmission in the nervous system. Their dysfunction is associated with psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding their biophysical and pharmacological properties, at both the functional and the structural level, thus holds many therapeutic promises. Read More

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AKT-mTOR signaling modulates the dynamics of IRE1 RNAse activity by regulating ER-mitochondria contacts.

Sci Rep 2017 11 28;7(1):16497. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Dynamical Cell Systems Team, Division of Cancer Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research-Chester Beatty laboratories, 237 Fulham Rd, SW3 6JB, London, United Kingdom.

Inositol Requiring Enzyme-1 (IRE1) is the most conserved transducer of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a surveillance mechanism that ensures homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes. IRE1 activation orchestrates adaptive responses, including lipid anabolism, metabolic reprogramming, increases in protein folding competency, and ER expansion/remodeling. However, we still know surprisingly little regarding the principles by which this ER transducer is deactivated upon ER stress clearance. Read More

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November 2017

Correction: Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 attenuates type 2 diabetes via a gut microbiota dependent mechanism.

Food Funct 2017 10;8(10):3814

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China.

Correction for 'Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 attenuates type 2 diabetes via a gut microbiota dependent mechanism' by Gang Wang et al., Food Funct., 2017, DOI: 10. Read More

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October 2017

Retraction: Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism.

Annie Harvey

Nanoscale 2017 09;9(35):13343

Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WF, UK.

Retraction of 'Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism' by Zhiwen Chen et al., Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 15532-15552. Read More

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September 2017