13,101 results match your criteria measuring direct

Measuring compartmental T-orientational dependence in human brain white matter using a tiltable RF coil and diffusion-T correlation MRI.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 9:117967. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

The anisotropy of brain white matter microstructure manifests itself in orientational-dependence of various MRI contrasts, and can result in significant quantification biases if ignored. Understanding the origins of this orientation-dependence could enhance the interpretation of MRI signal changes in development, ageing and disease and ultimately improve clinical diagnosis. Using a novel experimental setup, this work studies the contributions of the intra- and extra-axonal water to the orientation-dependence of one of the most clinically-studied parameters, apparent transverse relaxation T. Read More

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Validity of GENEActiv Accelerometer Wear and Nonwear Time for Use in Infants.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Apr 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Background: Tummy time is recommended by the World Health Organization as part of its global movement guidelines for infant physical activity. To enable objective measurement of tummy time, accelerometer wear and nonwear time requires validation. The purpose of this study was to validate GENEActiv wear and nonwear time for use in infants. Read More

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Measuring the news and its impact on democracy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Microsoft Research, Cambridge, MA 02142.

Since the 2016 US presidential election, the deliberate spread of misinformation online, and on social media in particular, has generated extraordinary concern, in large part because of its potential effects on public opinion, political polarization, and ultimately democratic decision making. Recently, however, a handful of papers have argued that both the prevalence and consumption of "fake news" per se is extremely low compared with other types of news and news-relevant content. Although neither prevalence nor consumption is a direct measure of influence, this work suggests that proper understanding of misinformation and its effects requires a much broader view of the problem, encompassing biased and misleading-but not necessarily factually incorrect-information that is routinely produced or amplified by mainstream news organizations. Read More

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Pholedrine is a marker of direct disposal of methamphetamine.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146839. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Health and Biomedical Innovation, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Consumption of methamphetamine has primarily been estimated in wastewater-based epidemiology by measuring the parent compound. However, this could lead to overestimation when methamphetamine is directly disposed into the sewer system. In this respect, it would be advantageous to measure a specific metabolite of methamphetamine instead. Read More

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Measuring Topological Invariants in a Polaritonic Analog of Graphene.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):127403

Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523-PhLAM-Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille, France.

Topological materials rely on engineering global properties of their bulk energy bands called topological invariants. These invariants, usually defined over the entire Brillouin zone, are related to the existence of protected edge states. However, for an important class of Hamiltonians corresponding to 2D lattices with time-reversal and chiral symmetry (e. Read More

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Terahertz scanning of the rabbit cornea with experimental UVB-induced damage: in vivo assessment of hydration and its verification.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

Moscow Pedagogical State University, Department of Physics, Moscow, Russia.

Significance: Water content plays a vital role in the normally functioning visual system; even a minor disruption in the water balance may be harmful. Today, no direct method exists for corneal hydration assessment, while it could be instrumental in early diagnosis and control of a variety of eye diseases. The use of terahertz (THz) radiation, which is highly sensitive to water content, appears to be very promising. Read More

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Making the choice between bioelectrical impedance measures for body hydration status assessment.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7685. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Aura Devices Inc., 1013 Centre Road, Suite 403-B, Wilmington, DE, 19805, USA.

Situational or persistent body fluid deficit (i.e., de- or hypo-hydration) is considered a significant health risk factor. Read More

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Integrative review and evaluation of quality of life related instruments in pediatric urology.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Pediatric Urology, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: While most paediatric urologists consider patients' quality of life (QOL) important, few actually measure this outcome. Our goal was to assess instruments used in the pediatric urology QOL literature, specifically looking at whether they captured QOL.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with a self-described primary outcome of measuring QOL. Read More

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NUTM2A-AS1 silencing alleviates LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation in dental pulp cells through targeting let-7c-5p/HMGB1 axis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 5;96:107497. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Oral & Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NUTM2A antisense RNA 1 (NUTM2A-AS1) has been reported to be abnormally up-regulated in pulpitis tissues. However, the function of NUTM2A-AS1 in pulpitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and working mechanism of NUTM2A-AS1 in pulpitis using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Read More

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Molecular mechanisms of self-regulation in multiannual rodent populations: Experimental test of an updated hypothesis.

W Ian Montgomery

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr;90(4):780-783

Institute of Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK.

In Focus: Edwards, P. D., Frenette-Ling, C. Read More

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Neural network for 3D inertial confinement fusion shell reconstruction from single radiographs.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):033547

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray radiography is a critical diagnostic for measuring implosion dynamics, which contain rich three-dimensional (3D) information. Traditional methods for reconstructing 3D volumes from 2D radiographs, such as filtered backprojection, require radiographs from at least two different angles or lines of sight (LOS). In ICF experiments, the space for diagnostics is limited, and cameras that can operate on fast timescales are expensive to implement, limiting the number of projections that can be acquired. Read More

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Exploring three levels of interoception in people with functional motor disorders.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Mar 29;86:15-18. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurosciences Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Introduction: A three-level model of interoception has recently been defined. We aim to study the interoceptive processing in individuals with functional motor disorder (FMD).

Methods: Twenty-two patients with FMD were compared to 23 healthy controls. Read More

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Sizing of airborne particles in an operating room.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(4):e0249586. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Medical procedures that produce aerosolized particles are under great scrutiny due to the recent concerns surrounding the COVID-19 virus and increased risk for nosocomial infections. For example, thoracostomies, tracheotomies and intubations/extubations produce aerosols that can linger in the air. The lingering time is dependent on particle size where, e. Read More

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Circ_0091579 enhances the malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma via miR-1287/PDK2 axis.

Open Life Sci 2021 25;16(1):69-83. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of General Surgery, Ankang People's Hospital of Shanxi Province, Ankang, 6-1-3302, Shifu Courtyard, High-Tech Zone, Ankang 725000, Shanxi Province, China.

Several articles have indicated that circular RNAs are involved in pathogenesis of human cancers. Nevertheless, the role of circ_0091579 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remains to be revealed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was carried out to examine the expression of circ_0091579 and miR-1287. Read More

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January 2021

A Clot Twist: Extreme Variation in Coagulotoxicity Mechanisms in Mexican Neotropical Rattlesnake Venoms.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:612846. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Rattlesnakes are a diverse clade of pit vipers (snake family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae) that consists of numerous medically significant species. We used validated assays measuring venom-induced clotting time and strength of any clots formed in human plasma and fibrinogen to assess the coagulotoxic activity of the four medically relevant Mexican rattlesnake species , and . We report the first evidence of true procoagulant activity by Neotropical rattlesnake venom in . Read More

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A Toolbox for the Determination of Nitroaromatic Explosives in Marine Water, Sediment, and Biota Samples on Femtogram Levels by GC-MS/MS.

Toxics 2021 Mar 16;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 10, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

To determine the amount of the explosives 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and its metabolites in marine samples, a toolbox of methods was developed to enhance sample preparation and analysis of various types of marine samples, such as water, sediment, and different kinds of biota. To achieve this, established methods were adapted, improved, and combined. As a result, if explosive concentrations in sediment or mussel samples are greater than 10 ng per g, direct extraction allows for time-saving sample preparation; if concentrations are below 10 ng per g, techniques such as freeze-drying, ultrasonic, and solid-phase extraction can help to detect even picogram amounts. Read More

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Low Power Contactless Bioimpedance Sensor for Monitoring Breathing Activity.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Computer Systems Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

An electronic circuit for contactless detection of impedance changes in a tissue is presented. It operates on the principle of resonant frequency change of the resonator having the observed tissue as a dielectric. The operating frequency reflects the tissue dielectric properties (i. Read More

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A New Method to Perform Direct Efficiency Measurement and Power Flow Analysis in Vibration Energy Harvesters.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Control and Instrumentation, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communications, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3082/12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Measuring the efficiency of piezo energy harvesters (PEHs) according to the definition constitutes a challenging task. The power consumption is often established in a simplified manner, by ignoring the mechanical losses and focusing exclusively on the mechanical power of the PEH. Generally, the input power is calculated from the PEH's parameters. Read More

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Hand Areas Which Are Commonly Missed during Hand Disinfection by Nursing Students Who Completed a Basic Educational Course in Hand Hygiene.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Nursing Management and Epidemiological Nursing, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-501 Kraków, Poland.

Background: Teaching nursing students how to correctly perform hand hygiene procedures may guarantee a reduction in transmitting pathogens through direct contact and, thus, it may lead to a decrease in the number of hospital infections. The aim of the study, which was conducted in low fidelity simulation conditions, was to assess the performance and the efficiency of a hand-rubbing disinfection technique among nursing students on the last day of their course.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 190 nursing students studying at the Jagiellonian University and it focused on the performed hand-rubbing disinfection procedure. Read More

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Development and Comparative Analysis of Electrochemically Etched Tungsten Tips for Quartz Tuning Fork Sensor.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60011, Pakistan.

Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) based sensors are used for Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPM), in particular for near-field scanning optical microscopy. Highly sharp Tungsten (W) tips with larger cone angles and less tip diameter are critical for SPM instead of platinum and iridium (Pt/Ir) tips due to their high-quality factor, conductivity, mechanical stability, durability and production at low cost. Tungsten is chosen for its ease of electrochemical etching, yielding high-aspect ratio, sharp tips with tens of nanometer end diameters, while using simple etching circuits and basic electrolyte chemistry. Read More

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Measuring Pre- and Post-Copulatory Sexual Selection and Their Interaction in Socially Monogamous Species with Extra-Pair Paternity.

Cells 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Sex and Evolution Research Group, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway.

When females copulate with multiple males, pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection may interact synergistically or in opposition. Studying this interaction in wild populations is complex and potentially biased, because copulation and fertilization success are often inferred from offspring parentage rather than being directly measured. Here, I simulated 15 species of socially monogamous birds with varying levels of extra-pair paternity, where I could independently cause a male secondary sexual trait to improve copulation success, and a sperm trait to improve fertilization success. Read More

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Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry for measuring telomere length of human leukocytes.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Mar;66(3):154-159

National Research Center for hematology.

Telomere length can be measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allowing to obtain the absolute length of telomeres (ALT) in base pair, and by flow cytometry, which can only estimate the relative telomere length. The aim of the study was to compare the results of the two methods and to develop an accurate and reliable way of converting the relative telomere length to absolute. The peripheral blood from 21 donors was analyzed. Read More

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Characteristics of Non-Ablative Resurfacing of Soft Tissues by Repetitive Er:YAG Laser Pulse Irradiation.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6 SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background And Objectives: Recently, several minimally invasive gynecological, ENT and esthetic procedures have been introduced that are based on delivering "smooth" sequences of Er:YAG laser pulses to cutaneous or mucosal tissue at moderate cumulative fluences that are not only below the ablation threshold but typically also do not require local anesthesia.  To explain the observed clinical results using "smooth-resurfacing," it has been suggested that in addition to the direct heat injury to deeper-lying connective tissues, there is an additional mechanism based on indirect triggering of tissue regeneration through short-exposure, intense heat shocking of epithelia. The goal of this study is to improve understanding of the complex dynamics of the exposure of tissues to a series of short Er:YAG laser pulses, during which the thermal exposure times transition from extremely short to long durations. Read More

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An unusually diverse genus of Collembola in the Cape Floristic Region characterised by substantial desiccation tolerance.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Trait-environment interactions have contributed to the remarkable plant radiations in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa. Whether such interactions have also resulted in the diversification of the invertebrate fauna, independently of direct associations with plants is, however, not clear. One candidate where this may be the case is the unusually diverse Collembola genus Seira. Read More

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Native Mass Spectrometry for the study of PROTAC GNE-987-containing ternary complexes.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Griffith University, Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Nathan Campus, 4111, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA.

PRO teolysis TA rgeting C himeras (PROTACs) promote the degradation, rather than inhibition, of a drug target as a mechanism for therapeutic treatment. Bifunctional PROTAC molecules allow simultaneous binding of both the target protein and an E3-Ubiquitin ligase, bringing the two proteins into close spatial proximity to allow ubiquitinylation and degradation of the target protein via the cell's endogenous protein degradation pathway. We utilize native MS to study the ternary complexes promoted by the previously reported PROTAC GNE-987 between Brd4 bromodomains 1 and 2, and Von Hippel Lindeau E3-Ubiquitin Ligase. Read More

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Assessing Skin Parasite Load: A Proof of Concept Study of a Microbiopsy Device in an Indian Setting.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 11;11:645121. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: In the endgame of the elimination initiative of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent, one of the main questions remaining is whether asymptomatically infected individuals also contribute to transmission. We piloted a minimally invasive microbiopsy device that could help answer this question. While the potential of this device has been previously illustrated in Ethiopia, no such information is available for the setting of the Indian subcontinent. Read More

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Direct single-molecule imaging for diagnostic and blood screening assays.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Applied Research and Technology, Abbott Diagnostics Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064

Every year, over 100 million units of donated blood undergo mandatory screening for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis worldwide. Often, donated blood is also screened for human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus, Chagas, dengue, Babesia, cytomegalovirus, malaria, and other infections. Several billion diagnostic tests are performed annually around the world to measure more than 400 biomarkers for cardiac, cancer, infectious, and other diseases. Read More

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Effects of sheared chromatin length on ChIP-seq quality and sensitivity.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel, high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the method of choice for genome-wide identification of DNA segments bound by specific transcription factors or in chromatin with particular histone modifications. However, the quality of ChIP-seq datasets varies widely, with a substantial fraction being of intermediate to poor quality. Thus, it is important to discern and control the factors that contribute to variation in ChIP-seq. Read More

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High-Throughput Raman Flow Cytometry and Beyond.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan.

ConspectusFlow cytometry is a powerful tool with applications in diverse fields such as microbiology, immunology, virology, cancer biology, stem cell biology, and metabolic engineering. It rapidly counts and characterizes large heterogeneous populations of cells in suspension (e.g. Read More

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Global Analyses to Identify Direct Transcriptional Targets of p53.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2267:19-56

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

The transcription factor p53 controls a gene expression program with pleiotropic effects on cell biology including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Identifying direct p53 target genes within this network and determining how they influence cell fate decisions downstream of p53 activation is a prerequisite for designing therapeutic approaches that target p53 to effectively kill cancer cells. Here we describe a comprehensive multi-omics approach for identifying genes that are direct transcriptional targets of p53. Read More

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January 2021