4,556 results match your criteria measures pathogenicity

Genotype-phenotype correlations of heterozygous HTRA1-related cerebral small vessel disease: case report and systematic review.

Neurogenetics 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nephrology, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Immunology, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is caused by biallelic HTRA1 pathogenic variants. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). However, large studies evaluating heterozygous HTRA1 carriers are lacking and the genotype-phenotype correlation is unknown. Read More

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Virus Detection: A Review of the Current and Emerging Molecular and Immunological Methods.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:637559. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Viruses are ubiquitous in the environment. While many impart no deleterious effects on their hosts, several are major pathogens. This risk of pathogenicity, alongside the fact that many viruses can rapidly mutate highlights the need for suitable, rapid diagnostic measures. Read More

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Genome-wide comparison of coronaviruses derived from veterinary animals: A canine and feline perspective.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 24;76:101654. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

NTT High-Tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 298-300A Nguyen Tat Thanh Street, Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Feline- and canine-derived coronaviruses (FCoVs and CCoVs) are widespread among dog and cat populations. This study was to understand the route of disease origin and viral transmission in veterinary animals and in human through comparative pan-genomic analysis of coronavirus sequences, especially retrieved from genomes of FCoV and CCoV. Average nucleotide identity based on complete genomes might clustered CoV strains according to their infected host, with an exception of type II of CCoV (accession number KC175339) that was clustered closely to virulent FCoVs. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Blight of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Andong National University, 34920, Department of Plant Medicals, Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (the Republic of);

Severe disease with leaf spots and necrotic symptoms were observed in Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel) Hara (A. triphylla) during the survey in July 2020 on a field in Andong, Gyeongbuk province, Korea. Read More

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Common bacterial blight of bean: a model of seed transmission and pathological convergence.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Univ Angers, Institut Agro, INRAE, IRHS, SFR QUASAV, F-49000 Angers, France.

Background: Xanthomonas citri pv. fuscans (Xcf) and Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli (Xpp) are the causal agents of common bacterial blight of bean (CBB), an important disease worldwide that remains difficult to control. Read More

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SARS-COV-2: The Second Wave in Europe.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Academy of Athens, Mathematics Research Center, Athens, GR.

Unstructured: Although the SARS CoV-2 virus has already undergone several mutations, the impact of these mutations on infectivity and virulence remains controversial. In this viewpoint we present arguments suggesting less virulence but much higher infectivity. This suggestion is based on the results of the forecasting and mechanistic models developed by our group. Read More

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Burden, Antibiotic Resistance, and Clonality of spp. Implicated in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrhoea in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, 9038 Tromsø, Norway.

Although numerous studies have investigated diarrhoea aetiology in many sub-Saharan African countries, recent data on species' involvement in community-acquired acute diarrhoea (CA-AD) in Malawi are scarce. This study investigated the incidence, antibiotic susceptibility profile, genotypic characteristics, and clonal relationships of among 243 patients presenting with acute diarrhoea at a District Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. spp. Read More

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Avian Pathogenic (APEC): An Overview of Virulence and Pathogenesis Factors, Zoonotic Potential, and Control Strategies.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 12;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Food Animal Health, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Avian pathogenic (APEC) causes colibacillosis in avian species, and recent reports have suggested APEC as a potential foodborne zoonotic pathogen. Herein, we discuss the virulence and pathogenesis factors of APEC, review the zoonotic potential, provide the current status of antibiotic resistance and progress in vaccine development, and summarize the alternative control measures being investigated. In addition to the known virulence factors, several other factors including quorum sensing system, secretion systems, two-component systems, transcriptional regulators, and genes associated with metabolism also contribute to APEC pathogenesis. Read More

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Virulence and Infectivity of UC, MD, and L Strains of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) in Four Populations of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon.

Viruses 2021 04 18;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Western Fisheries Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) infects juvenile salmonid fish in conservation hatcheries and aquaculture facilities, and in some cases, causes lethal disease. This study assesses intra-specific variation in the IHNV susceptibility of Chinook salmon () in the Columbia River Basin (CRB), in the northwestern United States. The virulence and infectivity of IHNV strains from three divergent virus genogroups are measured in four Chinook salmon populations, including spring-run and fall-run fish from the lower or upper regions of the CRB. Read More

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From the Farms to the Dining Table: The Distribution and Molecular Characteristics of Antibiotic-Resistant spp. in Intensive Pig Farming in South Africa.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 21;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Foodborne pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant species, constitute a severe menace to food safety globally, especially food animals. Identifying points of concern that need immediate mitigation measures to prevent these bacteria from reaching households requires a broad understanding of these pathogens' spread along the food production chain. We investigated the distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, molecular characterization and clonality of spp. Read More

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Case-control study of patient characteristics, knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, risk behaviour and mental state in patients visiting an emergency room with COVID-19 symptoms in the Netherlands.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0249847. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a serious respiratory virus pandemic. Patient characteristics, knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, risk behaviour and mental state will differ between individuals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate these variables in patients visiting an emergency department in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare the "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) with the "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group) and to compare in the "COVID-19 suspected" group, the positive and negative tested patients. Read More

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Phenotypic and Genomic Variability of Serial Peri-Lung Transplantation Isolates From Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:604555. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

BioMérieux, La Balme les Grottes, France.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) represents one of the major genetic and chronic lung diseases affecting Caucasians of European descent. Patients with CF suffer from recurring infections that lead to further damage of the lungs. Pulmonary infection due to is most prevalent, further increasing CF-related mortality. Read More

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Neuraminidase-associated plasminogen recruitment enables systemic spread of natural avian Influenza viruses H3N1.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 23;17(4):e1009490. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Repeated outbreaks due to H3N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) in Belgium were associated with unusually high mortality in chicken in 2019. Those events caused considerable economic losses and prompted restriction measures normally implemented for eradicating high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Initial pathology investigations and infection studies suggested this virus to be able to replicate systemically, being very atypical for H3 LPAIV. Read More

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Acute Ischemic Stroke During the Convalescent Phase of Asymptomatic COVID-2019 Infection in Men.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 04 1;4(4):e217498. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore.

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19.

Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Read More

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COVID-19 Management in Clinical Dental Care. Part I: Epidemiology, Public Health Implications, and Risk Assessment.

Int Dent J 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a viral disease declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, has posed great changes to many sectors of society across the globe. Its virulence and rapid dissemination have forced the adoption of strict public health measures in most countries, which, collaterally, resulted in economic hardship. This article is the first in a series of 3 that aims to contextualise the clinical impact of COVID-19 for the dental profession. Read More

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February 2021

Prevention and control measures of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in low-risk departments: The spine surgery department example.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211009670

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads globally, hospital departments will need take steps to manage their treatment procedures and wards. The preparations of high-risk departments (infection, respiratory, emergency, and intensive care unit) were relatively well within this pandemic, while low-risk departments may be unprepared. The spine surgery department in The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in Hefei, China, was used as an example in this study. Read More

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Complete genome sequence analysis of the peanut pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum strain Rs-P.362200.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 19;21(1):118. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, Fujian, China.

Background: Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is an important soil-borne disease worldwide that affects more than 450 plant species, including peanut, leading to great yield and quality losses. However, there are no effective measures to control bacterial wilt. The reason is the lack of research on the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial wilt. Read More

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SARS-Cov-2: The relevance and Prevention of Aerosol Transmission.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Department of Pulmonary Medicine, ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has claimed many victims worldwide due to its high virulence and contagiousness.The person to person transmission of SARS-Cov-2 when in close contact is facilitated by respiratory droplets containing the virus particles, and by skin contact with contaminated surfaces. However, the large number of COVID-19 infections cannot be explained only by droplet deposition or contact contamination. Read More

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Analysis of Selection Methods to Develop Novel Phage Therapy Cocktails Against Antimicrobial Resistant Clinical Isolates of Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:613529. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major problem globally. The main bacterial organisms associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) associated sepsis are and along with species. These all have AMR strains known as ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase), which are featured on the WHO priority pathogens list as "critical" for research. Read More

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Levels of pathogen virulence and host resistance both shape the antibody response to an emerging bacterial disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8209. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK.

Quantifying variation in the ability to fight infection among free-living hosts is challenging and often constrained to one or a few measures of immune activity. While such measures are typically taken to reflect host resistance, they can also be shaped by pathogen effects, for example, if more virulent strains trigger more robust immune responses. Here, we test the extent to which pathogen-specific antibody levels, a commonly used measure of immunocompetence, reflect variation in host resistance versus pathogen virulence, and whether these antibodies effectively clear infection. Read More

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Review of infective dose, routes of transmission and outcome of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-COV-2: comparison with other respiratory viruses.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 04 14;149:e96. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. Prevention and control strategies require an improved understanding of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. We did a rapid review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with a focus on infective dose. Read More

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TLRs in Mycobacterial Pathogenesis: Black and White or Shades of Gray.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Life Sciences, South Asian University, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, India.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical role in the innate recognition of pathogens besides orchestrating innate and adaptive immune responses. These receptors exhibit exquisite specificity for different pathogens or their products and, through a complex network of signalling, generate appropriate immune responses. TLRs induce both pro- and anti-inflammatory signals depending on interactions with the adapter molecules thereby impacting the outcome of infection. Read More

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Scientific Hypothesis for Treatment of COVID-19's Lung Lesions by Adjusting ACE/ACE2 Imbalance.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 06 9;21(6):498-503. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pharmaceutical Department, Usl Umbria 1, A.Migliorati street, 06132, Perugia, Italy.

In March 2019 began the global pandemic COVID-19 caused by the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in November-19 in Wuhan, China. The preventive measures taken did not prevent the rapid spread of the virus to all countries around the world. Read More

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An online survey and review about the awareness, coping style, and exercise behavior during the "COVID-19 pandemic situation" by implementing the cloud-based medical treatment technology system in China among the public.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211000889

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yan'an Hospital Affiliate to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

To examine basic COVID-19 knowledge, coping style and exercise behavior among the public including government-provided medical cloud system treatment app based on the internet during the outbreak. Besides, to provide references for developing targeted strategies and measures on prevention and control of COVID-19. We conducted an online survey from 11th to 15th March 2020 via WeChat App using a designed questionnaire. Read More

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Abundance and Expression of Shiga Toxin Genes in at the Recto-Anal Junction Relates to Host Immune Genes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:633573. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of Shiga toxin-producing  (STEC), and ruminants are the main reservoir of STEC. This study assessed the abundance and expression of genes and the expression of host immune genes, aiming to determine factors affecting these measures and potential gene markers to differentiate gene expression in the recto-anal junction of feedlot beef cattle. Rectal tissue and content samples were collected from 143 feedlot steers of three breeds (Angus, Charolais, and Kinsella Composite) over 2 consecutive years 2014 (n=71) and 2015 (n=72). Read More

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Increasing temperature alters the within-host competition of viral strains and influences virus genetic variability.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 23;7(1):veab017. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Departamento de Biología del Estrés y Patología Vegetal, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS), CSIC, PO Box 164, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Environmental conditions can affect viral accumulation, virulence and adaptation, which have implications in the disease outcomes and efficiency of control measures. Concurrently, mixed viral infections are relevant in plants, being their epidemiology shaped by within-host virus-virus interactions. However, the extent in which the combined effect of variations in abiotic components of the plant ecological niche and the prevalence of mixed infections affect the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations is not well understood. Read More

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January 2021

Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 E Protein: Sequence, Structure, Viroporin, and Inhibitors.

Protein Sci 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

National Supercomputer Center in Tianjin, TEDA-Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

The COVID-19 epidemic is one of the most influential epidemics in history. Understanding the impact of coronaviruses (CoVs) on host cells is very important for disease treatment. The SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein is a small structural protein involved in many aspects of the viral life cycle. Read More

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Identification and Characterization of a Novel Splice Site Mutation Associated with Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI in Two Unrelated Turkish Families.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of General Paediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Centre University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

Introduction: Glycogen storage disease type VI (GSD VI) is a disorder of glycogen metabolism due to mutations in the gene. Patients with GSD VI usually present with hepatomegaly, recurrent hypoglycemia, and short stature.

Results: We report on two non-related Turkish patients with a novel homozygous splice site variant, c. Read More

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in Intensive Pig Production in South Africa: Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Determinants, and Clonality.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 8;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Although is a major threat to the veterinary, agricultural, and public health sectors because of its zoonotic potential, studies on its molecular characterisation in intensive animal production are rare. We phenotypically and genotypically characterised antibiotic-resistant in intensive pig production in South Africa, using the farm-to-fork approach. Samples ( = 461) were collected from the farm, transport vehicles, and the abattoir using the World Health Organisation on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (WHO-AGISAR) sampling protocol. Read More

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Case fatality rates of COVID-19 across the globe: are the current draconian measures justified?

Z Gesundh Wiss 2021 Mar 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, P O Box 4184, Ajman, UAE.

Aim: The current study assessed the case fatality rate (CFR) across different income level countries of the world, and the virulence pattern of COVID-19, against the backdrop of panic and uncertainty faced by many governments, who are trying to impose draconian containment measures to control the outbreak. Subjects and Methods: Data on confirmed cases and number of deaths due to coronavirus infection were retrieved from the WHO as on 30 March 2020, and examined for the various income level countries, per the World Bank criteria. The CFR was calculated country-wise and estimated for the various groups such as low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income, and the data was analyzed. Read More

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