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Hidden mover-stayer model for disease progression accounting for misclassified and partially observed diagnostic tests: Application to the natural history of human papillomavirus and cervical precancer.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been proposed to model the natural history of diseases while accounting for misclassification in state identification. We introduce a discrete time HMM for human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical precancer/cancer where the hidden and observed state spaces are defined by all possible combinations of HPV, cytology, and colposcopy results. Because the population of women undergoing cervical cancer screening is heterogeneous with respect to sexual behavior, and therefore risk of HPV acquisition and subsequent precancers, we use a mover-stayer mixture model that assumes a proportion of the population will stay in the healthy state and are not subject to disease progression. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin in previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer (innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Belgium and Luxembourg Gynaecological Oncology Group and University of Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Few effective second-line treatments exist for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin, a tissue factor-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in this patient population.

Methods: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was done across 35 academic centres, hospitals, and community practices in Europe and the USA. Read More

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Wearable Technologies for Children with Chronic Illnesses: An Exploratory Approach.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Marys Hospital, Manchester, UK.

Objective: To determine the utility of wearable technologies in physical activity assessment in three paediatric diseases, namely, Niemann-Pick C (NP-C), Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).

Design: Exploratory study SETTING AND PATIENTS: Thirty children were recruited across three UK hospitals (Royal Manchester's Children Hospital, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, and the Great North Children's Hospital). Ten were diagnosed with NP-C, eight with DMD and twelve with JIA. Read More

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Co-quantification of crAssphage increases confidence in wastewater-based epidemiology for SARS-CoV-2 in low prevalence areas.

Water Res X 2021 Apr 6:100100. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is increasingly being incorporated into public health efforts to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from these efforts, approaches to wastewater monitoring need to be rapid, sensitive, and relatable to relevant epidemiological parameters. In this study, we present an ultracentrifugation-based method for the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater RNA and use crAssphage, a bacteriophage specific to the human gut, to help account for RNA loss during transit in the wastewater system and sample processing. Read More

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Concurrent Validation and Reference Values of Gluteus Medius Clinical Test.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Apr 1;16(2):335-341. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Head of the Physical Therapy Department, Minas Tenis Clube.

Context: The hip abductor muscles, mainly the gluteus medius, are responsible for controlling hip adduction in a closed kinetic chain. Frontal plane knee alignment, assessed during functional activities such squatting, jumping and running, may overload joint structures, like the anterior cruciate ligament and patellofemoral joint. The hand-held dynamometer is reliable and effective for testing the muscular strength of the hip abductors. Read More

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Effect of Boiss. essential oil, NaCl, acid, time, and temperature on the growth of strains in broth and minced rainbow trout.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 27;9(4):2290-2298. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Food Sciences & Technology Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology National Nutrition & Food Technology Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

The small outbreaks of listeriosis as one of the leading causes of food poisoning-associated deaths occur more than previously reported. In current study, the growth ability of strains isolated from different sources of food and human origin was measured under salt stress (0.5%, 2. Read More

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Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char ( populations in lakes of arctic Alaska.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 5;11(7):3040-3057. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Watershed Sciences and the Ecology Center Utah State University Logan UT USA.

Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Read More

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Brain size variation along altitudinal gradients in the Asiatic Toad ().

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 26;11(7):3015-3027. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Chengdu Institute of Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences Chengdu China.

Size changes in brain and brain regions along altitudinal gradients provide insight into the trade-off between energetic expenditure and cognitive capacity. We investigated the brain size variations of the Asiatic Toad () across altitudes from 700 m to 3,200 m. A total of 325 individuals from 11 sites and two transects were sampled. Read More

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SMIXnorm: Fast and Accurate RNA-Seq Data Normalization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

Front Genet 2021 24;12:650795. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Population and Data Sciences, Quantitative Biomedical Research Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive quantification of transcriptomic activities in biological samples. Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples are collected as part of routine clinical procedure, and are the most widely available biological sample format in medical research and patient care. Normalization is an essential step in RNA-seq data analysis. Read More

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Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of the Shaggy Soft-Haired Mouse (Cricetidae; Abrotrichini).

Front Genet 2021 24;12:642504. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Genetic information on species can inform decision making regarding conservation of biodiversity since the response of organisms to changing environments depend, in part, on their genetic makeup. Territories of central-southern Chile and Argentina have undergone a varying degree of impact during the Quaternary, where the response of local fauna and flora was rather species-specific. Here, we focus on the sigmodontine rodent , distributed from 35° S in Chile and Argentina to northern Tierra del Fuego. Read More

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Reproductive Health.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:642755. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the lives of the global population. It is known that periods of stress and psychological distress can affect women's menstrual cycles. We therefore performed an observational study of women's reproductive health over the course of the pandemic thus far. Read More

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Cardiovascular Risk Is Increased in Miner's Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure From 0 to 2,500 m?

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:647976. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Laboratorio de Fisiología, Hipoxia y Función Vascular, Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile.

Over the past 40 years, mining activities in Chile have relocated miners who normally live at sea level to work at high altitudes. This results in a form of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) characterized by alternating periods of work at high altitude and rest periods at sea level. Previous studies performed in our laboratory showed that aerobic capacity is reduced at 3,800 m, even when oxygen content is maintained. Read More

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Comparison of non-exercise cardiorespiratory fitness prediction equations in apparently healthy adults.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):142-148

Fisher Institute of Health and Well-Being, Ball State University, USA.

Aims: A recent scientific statement suggests clinicians should routinely assess cardiorespiratory fitness using at least non-exercise prediction equations. However, no study has comprehensively compared the many non-exercise cardiorespiratory fitness prediction equations to directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness using data from a single cohort. Our purpose was to compare the accuracy of non-exercise prediction equations to directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness and evaluate their ability to classify an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness. Read More

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Biology and ecology of sea catfish (Ariidae) of estuarine, lagoon and coastal ecosystems in West Africa.

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

IRD, Univ Brest, CNRS, Ifremer, LEMAR, Plouzané, France.

The family Ariidae, sea catfish of the order Siluriformes, is widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The three species of Ariidae found on the coasts and estuaries of West Africa are the smoothmouth catfish Carlarius heudelotii (Valenciennes 1840), the rough-head catfish Carlarius latiscutatus (Günther 1864) and the Guinean sea catfish Carlarius parkii (Günther 1864). They have been increasingly exploited by artisanal and industrial coastal fisheries in recent decades, but there is still little information available on their ecology and biology. Read More

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Sequence analysis and ontogenetic expression patterns of cone opsin genes in the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei).

J Hered 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.

Sensory systems allow for the transfer of environmental stimuli into internal cues that can alter physiology and behaviour. Many studies of visual systems focus on opsins to compare spectral sensitivity among individuals, populations, and species living in different lighting environments. This requires an understanding of the cone opsins, which can be numerous. Read More

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A Phase I/Ib Trial of PD 0332991 (Palbociclib) and T-DM1 in HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer After Trastuzumab and Taxane Therapy.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

West Palm Beach VA Medical Center, West Palm Beach, FL.

Background: Preclinical breast cancer models with acquired HER2 resistance exhibit decreased proliferation with CDK4/6 inhibition in tumors with intact Rb and low p16 levels. Adding cytotoxic agents like T-DM1 enhances the inhibitory CDK4/6 cytostatic effect.

Patients And Methods: A phase I/Ib 3+3 dose escalation/expansion trial of palbociclib and T-DM1 identified 150 mg on days 5 to 18 as the palbociclib maximal tolerated dose combined with day 1 intravenous T-DM1 in 21-day treatment cycles. Read More

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Comparison of the performance of the dry eye questionnaire (DEQ-5) to the ocular surface disease index in a non-clinical population.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021 Apr 6:101441. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Optometry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the performance of the dry eye questionnaire (DEQ-5) with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and further validate the DEQ-5 questionnaire.

Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ghana. OSDI and DEQ-5 questionnaires were administered to participants. Read More

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Impact of high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic parameters in older adults: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 6:111345. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Sport Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can effectively increase peak oxygen consumption, body composition, physical fitness, and health-related characteristics of adults; however, its impact in the older population remains highly debated. This review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, physical fitness, and health-related outcomes in older adults. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science) were searched (until July 2020) for randomized trials comparing the effect of HIIT on physical fitness, metabolic parameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults. Read More

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Internal-external cross-validation helped to evaluate the generalizability of prediction models in large clustered datasets.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Health Data Research UK and Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: To illustrate how to evaluate the need of complex strategies for developing generalizable prediction models in large clustered datasets.

Study Design And Setting: We developed eight Cox regression models to estimate the risk of heart failure using a large population-level dataset. These models differed in the number of predictors, the functional form of the predictor effects (non-linear effects and interaction) and the estimation method (maximum likelihood and penalization). Read More

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Pharmacokinetics, safety, activity, and biomarker analysis of palbociclib plus letrozole as first-line treatment for ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer in Chinese women.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pfizer Inc, San Diego, CA, USA.

Purpose: This phase 1, open-label, single-arm clinical trial evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety, and biomarker activity of palbociclib-letrozole as first-line treatment for estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) in postmenopausal Chinese women to support palbociclib approval in China.

Methods: Patients received palbociclib 125 mg once daily (3/1 schedule) plus letrozole 2.5 mg once daily. Read More

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Ankle fractures involving the posterior malleolus: patient characteristics and 7-year results in 100 cases.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University Center of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Introduction: The presence of a posterior malleolar (PM) fragment has a negative prognostic impact in ankle fractures. The best treatment is still subject to debate. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-to-long-term clinical and functional outcome of ankle fractures with a PM fragment in a larger patient population. Read More

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Pesticide Residue Analysis of Khat Leaves and Health Risks among Khat Chewers in the Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia.

J Environ Public Health 2021 24;2021:4680573. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Farmers use a large number of pesticides to increase the productivity of Khat cultivation. Since Khat is consumed by many Ethiopians as a habit, there may be a significant concentration of pesticide residues in Khat leaves which result in adverse effects among the exposed population. Excess use of pesticides in Khat causes cancer, genotoxicity, and endocrine disturbances. Read More

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The incubation period during the pandemic of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2021 04 8;10(1):101. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia.

Background: The aim of our study was to determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis the incubation period of COVID-19. It was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Criteria for eligibility were all published population-based primary literature in PubMed interface and the Science Direct, dealing with incubation period of COVID-19, written in English, since December 2019 to December 2020. Read More

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Remnant Cholesterol and Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 9:CIRCIMAGING120010953. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China (S.Q., T.X., C.Z.).

Background: Remnant cholesterol makes great contribution to residual risk of cardiovascular disease, but population-based evidence on the relationship between remnant cholesterol and atherosclerosis is rare. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an imaging marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. We aimed to explore the association between remnant cholesterol levels and cIMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Read More

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State-resolved rotational distributions and collision dynamics of CO molecules made in a tunable optical centrifuge.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134307

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

State-resolved distributions and collision dynamics of optically centrifuged CO molecules with orientated angular momentum are investigated by probing the CO J = 29-80 rotational levels using high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. An optical centrifuge with tunable bandwidth is used to control the extent of rotational excitation in the sample. The rotational distributions are inverted with a maximum population in J = 62. Read More

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Bayesian latent class model estimates of diagnostic accuracy for three test methods designed to detect spring viremia of carp virus.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Mar 23;190:105338. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Box 28, Group 30, RR2, Ste Anne, Manitoba, R5H 1R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a systemic hemorrhagic disease that poses a significant risk to wild and cultured fish and is listed as notifiable by the World Organization for Animal Health. Validated molecular diagnostic tools for SVCV are required to accurately describe and analyze the ecology of the virus. Here, the diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) (i. Read More

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Interactive effects of acute exercise and carbohydrate-energy replacement on insulin sensitivity in healthy adults.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of Bath, 1555, Department for Health, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

This study investigated whether carbohydrate-energy replacement immediately after prolonged endurance exercise attenuates insulin sensitivity the following morning, and whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity the following morning independent of an exercise-induced carbohydrate deficit. Oral glucose tolerance and whole-body insulin sensitivity were compared the morning after three evening conditions, involving: (1) treadmill exercise followed by carbohydrate replacement drink (200 or 150 g maltodextrin for males and females, respectively; CHO-replace); (2) treadmill exercise followed by a non-caloric, taste-matched placebo (CHO-deficit); or (3) seated rest with no drink provided (Rest). Treadmill exercise involved 90 minutes at ~80% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Read More

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Effects of changes in regular physical activity status on hip fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249819. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Korea University Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Hip fracture incidence is increasing with rapid aging of the population and regular physical activity (RPA) is an important modifiable protective factor for fracture. However, the association between the risk of hip fractures and changes in RPA status in the general population remains unknown. Thus, we explore the association between the risk of hip fracture and changes in RPA status. Read More

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Genetic diversity and structure of Saussurea polylepis (Asteraceae) on continental islands of Korea: Implications for conservation strategies and management.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249752. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Saussurea polylepis Nakai is an herbaceous perennial endemic to Korea and is highly restricted to several continental islands in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula. Given its very narrow geographical distribution, it is more vulnerable to anthropogenic activities and global climate changes than more widely distributed species. Despite the need for comprehensive genetic information for conservation and management, no such population genetic studies of S. Read More

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The risk of malignancy in secukinumab-treated psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients: analysis of up to five-year clinical trial and post-marketing surveillance data.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Rheumatology, Swedish Medical Center/Providence St, Joseph Health and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Data on the use of biologic therapy and malignancy risk are inconsistent due to limited long-term robust studies.

Objective: To assess the malignancy risk in secukinumab-treated psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients.

Methods: This integrated safety analysis from both the secukinumab clinical trial program and post-marketing safety surveillance data included any patient receiving at least one approved dose of secukinumab with a maximum of five years follow-up. Read More

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