16,000 results match your criteria mature state


Environmental activation of a hypothalamic BDNF-adipocyte IL-15 axis regulates adipose- natural killer cells.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, The James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH 43210; Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

Physical and social environments influence immune homeostasis within adipose tissue, yet the mechanisms remain poorly defined. We report that an enriched environment (EE) housing modulates the immune cell population in white adipose tissue of mice including an increase in the abundance of natural killer (NK) cells. EE upregulates the expression of IL-15 and its receptor IL-15Rα specifically within mature adipocytes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Natural Killer Cell Subpopulations and Inhibitory Receptor Dynamics in Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:665541. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Hematology Laboratory, Universitary Hospital of Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France.

Natural killer (NK) cells are key innate immunity effectors that play a major role in malignant cell destruction. Based on expression patterns of CD16, CD56, CD57, and CD94, three distinct NK cell maturation stages have been described, which differ in terms of cytokine secretion, tissue migration, and the ability to kill target cells. Our study addressed NK cell maturation in bone marrow under three conditions: a normal developmental environment, during pre-leukemic state (myelodysplastic syndrome, MDS), and during leukemic transformation (acute myeloblastic leukemia, AML). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuronal and Glial Distribution of Tau Protein in the Adult Rat and Monkey.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 27;14:607303. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, United States.

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein for which the physiological functions remain a topic of vigorous investigation. Additionally, tau is a central player in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and several frontotemporal dementias. A critical variable to understanding tau in physiological and disease contexts is its normal localization within cells of the adult CNS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Priority list of biodiversity metrics to observe from space.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Monitoring global biodiversity from space through remotely sensing geospatial patterns has high potential to add to our knowledge acquired by field observation. Although a framework of essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) is emerging for monitoring biodiversity, its poor alignment with remote sensing products hinders interpolation between field observations. This study compiles a comprehensive, prioritized list of remote sensing biodiversity products that can further improve the monitoring of geospatial biodiversity patterns, enhancing the EBV framework and its applicability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influenza A virus hemagglutinin is produced in different disulfide-bonded states.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centenary Institute, 6022, Centenary Institute, Building 93 RPA Missenden Road, Camperdown, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia, 2042;

Aims: Influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) binding to sialic acid on lung epithelial cells triggers membrane fusion and infection. Host thiol isomerases have been shown to play a role in Influenza A virus infection and we hypothesised this role involved manipulation of disulfide bonds in HA.

Results: Analysis of HA crystal structures revealed that three of the six HA disulfides occur in high energy conformations and four of the six bonds can exist in unformed states, suggesting that the disulfide landscape of HA is generally strained and the bonds may be labile. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multi-omics approach identifies germline regulatory variants associated with hematopoietic malignancies in retriever dog breeds.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009543. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Histiocytic sarcoma is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy of mature tissue histiocytes with a poorly understood etiology in humans. A histologically and clinically similar counterpart affects flat-coated retrievers (FCRs) at unusually high frequency, with 20% developing the lethal disease. The similar clinical presentation combined with the closed population structure of dogs, leading to high genetic homogeneity, makes dogs an excellent model for genetic studies of cancer susceptibility. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid ATF4 depletion resets synaptic responsiveness after cLTP.

eNeuro 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032

Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4/CREB2), in addition to its well-studied role in stress responses, is proposed to play important physiologic functions in regulating learning and memory. However, the nature of these functions has not been well defined and is subject to apparently disparate views. Here, we provide evidence that ATF4 is a regulator of excitability during synaptic plasticity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extreme growth plasticity in the early branching sauropodomorph .

Biol Lett 2021 May 12;17(5):20200843. Epub 2021 May 12.

Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050 South Africa.

There is growing evidence of developmental plasticity in early branching dinosaurs and their outgroups. This is reflected in disparate patterns of morphological and histological change during ontogeny. In fossils, only the osteohistological assessment of annual lines of arrested growth (LAGs) can reveal the pace of skeletal growth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sexual Dimorphism in the Functional Development of the Cochlear Amplifier in Humans.

Ear Hear 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

1Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA 2Department of Communication Disorders, NM State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA 3Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA and 4School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA.

Objectives: Otoacoustic emissions, a byproduct of active cochlear mechanisms, exhibit a higher magnitude in females than in males. The relatively higher levels of androgen exposure in the male fetus are thought to cause this difference. Postnatally, the onset of puberty is also associated with the androgen surge in males. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Regulation of plasmodesmata in leaves of Arabidopsis: ATP, NADPH and chlorophyll b levels matter.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Ecological Physiology, Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Professora Popova 2, 197376 St.-Petersburg, Russia.

In mature leaves, cell-to-cell transport via plasmodesmata (PD) between mesophyll cells links assimilate production in photosynthesis with their export to sink organs. This study addresses the question how signals derived from chloroplasts and photosynthesis influence PD permeability. Cell-to-cell transport was analyzed in leaves of Arabidopsis chlorophyll b-less ch1-3 mutant, the same mutant complemented with a cyanobacterial CAO gene (PhCAO) over-accumulating chlorophyll b, the trxm3 mutant lacking plastidial thioredoxin m3, and the ntrc mutant lacking functional NADPH : thioredoxin reductase C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The clinical and histopathologic effects of potentiated chlorhexidine in the upper respiratory tract of horses.

Vet Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To describe the bactericidal and fungicidal properties of a 0.0005% chlorhexidine (CHD) solution potentiated with EDTA-Tris buffers (CHD-EDTA-Tris) and evaluate the safety of 0.0005% CHD-EDTA-Tris in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of normal horses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

First Report of Diplodia Shoot Blight and Canker Disease caused by Diplodia sapinea on Ponderosa Pine in Wyoming, USA.

Plant Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Forest and Wildlife Ecology, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, United States, 53706;

Diplodia sapinea is a common fungal pathogen that causes shoot blight and canker of naturally occurring and planted pines and other conifers throughout the world. Damage can be severe severe, affectingand affect needles, new shoots, branches, and main stems, often leading to mortality. In August 2018, aerial surveys revealed 1,659 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) displaying varying degrees of crown necrosis in Crook County, Wyoming (WY). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

EXOC1 plays an integral role in spermatogonia pseudopod elongation and spermatocyte stable syncytium formation in mice.

Elife 2021 May 11;10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Trans-border Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

The male germ cells must adopt the correct morphology at each differentiation stage for proper spermatogenesis. The spermatogonia regulates its differentiation state by its own migration. The male germ cells differentiate and mature with the formation of syncytia, failure of forming the appropriate syncytia results in the arrest at the spermatocyte stage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differentially expressed microRNAs that target functional genes in mature soybean nodules.

Plant Genome 2021 May 10:e20103. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Life Sciences and Center for Soybean Research of the State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, HKSAR, Hong Kong.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of biological functions in plants. To find out what roles miRNAs play in regulating symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regulatory signaling pathways in hematopoietic stem cell development.

Yi Chuan 2021 Apr;43(4):295-307

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

The blood system provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, maintains the homeostasis of the internal environment through material exchange, and keeps the body with immune defense and protection. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are pluripotent adult stem cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential, are the origin of mature blood cells in the body. The production, development and maturation processes of HSCs and their derivatives are the so-called 'hematopoiesis', which begins in the early embryonic development and throughout the life course; any abnormality during these processes can cause the occurrence of hematological diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The expression of mimecan in adrenal tissue plays a role in an organism's responses to stress.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 10;13. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Core Laboratory in Medical Center of Clinical Research, Department of Molecular Diagnostic and Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiao tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Mimecan encodes a secretory protein that is secreted into the human serum as two mature proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 12 kDa. We found 12-kDa mimecan to be a novel satiety hormone mediated by the upregulation of the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the hypothalamus. Mimecan was found to be expressed in human pituitary corticotroph cells and was up-regulated by glucocorticoids, while the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells was induced by mimecan. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling Breast Cancer in Human Breast Tissue using a Microphysiological System.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 23(170). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center;

Breast cancer (BC) remains a leading cause of death for women. Despite more than $700 million invested in BC research annually, 97% of candidate BC drugs fail clinical trials. Therefore, new models are needed to improve our understanding of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CRISPR/Cas9-Induced and Mutations Stacked With Confer High Oleic Acid Seed Oil in Pennycress ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:652319. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, United States.

Pennycress ( L.) is being domesticated as an oilseed cash cover crop to be grown in the off-season throughout temperate regions of the world. With its diploid genome and ease of directed mutagenesis using molecular approaches, pennycress seed oil composition can be rapidly tailored for a plethora of food, feed, oleochemical and fuel uses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opposing Epigenetic Signatures in Human Sperm by Intake of Fast Food Versus Healthy Food.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:625204. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States.

Animal experiments have demonstrated that diets high in fats create a harmful environment for developing sperm cells, contributing to impaired reproductive health and induced risk for chronic diseases in the next generation. Changes at the level of the epigenome have been suggested to underlie these observations. Human data are limited to verify this hypothesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modified lignocellulose and rich starch for complete saccharification to maximize bioethanol in distinct polyploidy potato straw.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 20;265:118070. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Herbage & Endemic Crop Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation & Breeding of Grassland Livestock, College of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010021, China. Electronic address:

Potato is a major food crop with enormous biomass straw, but lignocellulose recalcitrance causes a costly bioethanol conversion. Here, we selected the cytochimera (Cyt) potato samples showing significantly-modified lignocellulose and much increased soluble sugars and starch by 2-4 folds in mature straws. Under two pretreatments (8 min liquid hot water; 5% CaO) at minimized conditions, the potato Cyt straw showed complete enzymatic saccharification. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decreased urothelial cytoskeleton and cell proliferation protein expression suggest interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients with Hunner's lesion and grade 3 glomerulation might be different from other types of patients.

Int J Urol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Objectives: To explore the expression of cytoskeletal and cell proliferation proteins in urothelial cells of patients diagnosed with various clinical subtypes of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

Methods: Biopsy specimens from 85 interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients were classified according to findings on cystoscopy. Cytokeratins and cell proliferation proteins detected in the specimens were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining and quantified with western blotting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extracts of herbs and spices as feed additives mitigate ruminal methane production and improve fermentation characteristics in West African Dwarf sheep.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 9;53(2):312. Epub 2021 May 9.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Edo de México, México.

The study aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of three herbs, namely, neem (Azadirachta indica), drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and scent (Ocimum gratissimum), and three spices garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and onion leaflets (Allium cepa) on ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics. The feed samples (200 mg substrates plus extracts of the selected herbs and spices) were incubated with rumen liquor taken from three mature West African dwarf ewes at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h. The results show that extracts of the selected herbs and spices increased the gas produced, from the insoluble fraction, degradability rate, volume of gas produced at time and time of most rapid change in gas produced. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Research on rapid cultivation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) with different feast-famine strategies in continuous flow reactor and achieving high-level denitrification via utilization of soluble microbial product (SMP).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 22;786:147237. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Water Science and Water Environment Recovery Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100123, China; State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

The mixture of partial AGS and flocculent sludge in continuous flow reactors were operated with periodic famine (PF) strategy and continuous feast (CF) strategy to reveal the impact of the feast-famine strategies on cultivation of AGS and the dynamics of microbial communities. The experimental results showed that the mature AGS were cultivated with PF and CF strategy on the 31st and the 71st days respectively, which was the result of good extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion with PF strategy. It could accelerate the formation of microbial aggregates due to the conditions of periodic famine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

p-Coumaric acid loaded into liquid crystalline systems as a novel strategy to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 5:120658. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common type of vaginal infection, which is mainly caused by Candida albicans. However, non-albicans Candida species are frequently more resistant to conventional antifungal agents and can represent up to 30% of cases. Due to side effects and increasing antifungal resistance presented by standard therapies, phenolic compounds, such as p-coumaric acid (p-CA), have been studied as molecules from natural sources with potential antifungal activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A novel additional carbon source derived from rotten fruits: Application for the denitrification from mature landfill leachate and evaluation the economic benefits.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 1;334:125244. Epub 2021 May 1.

The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, 1515 North Zhongshan Rd. (No. 2), Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Rotten fruits could be used as an available resource due to the high organic content and low pollution introduction. In this study, four kinds of rotten fruits including banana, apple, pear and grape, were utilized as additional carbon source to improve the nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate. With the optimal condition of carbon-nitrogen ratio 6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Growing up after childhood cancer: maturity and life satisfaction in young adulthood.

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Biobehavioral Health, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute At Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Purpose: Young individuals face a variety of developmental tasks as they mature into adulthood. For survivors of childhood cancer, growing up may be more difficult due to their illness and late effects from treatment. This study is the first to quantitatively examine perceptions of maturity and how these perceptions contribute to satisfaction with life among young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector PPE36 attenuates host cytokine storm damage via inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious global public health threat. Macrophage polarization is crucial for the innate immunity against M. tuberculosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Derivation of Thyroid Follicular Cells From Pluripotent Stem Cells: Insights From Development and Implications for Regenerative Medicine.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:666565. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, Boston University and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

Stem cell-based therapies to reconstitute organ function hold great promise for future clinical applications to a variety of diseases. Hypothyroidism resulting from congenital lack of functional thyrocytes, surgical tissue removal, or gland ablation, represents a particularly attractive endocrine disease target that may be conceivably cured by transplantation of long-lived functional thyroid progenitors or mature follicular epithelial cells, provided a source of autologous cells can be generated and a variety of technical and biological challenges can be surmounted. Here we review the emerging literature indicating that thyroid follicular epithelial cells can now be engineered from the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) of mice, normal humans, or patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cardiac organoid - a promising perspective of preclinical model.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 6;12(1):272. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital & Institute for Cardiovascular Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215000, China.

Human cardiac organoids (hCOs), three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs similar to in vivo organ, are new-generation models. To a large extent, a hCO retains the biological characteristics and functions of cells in vivo more accurately than previous models. With the continuous development of biotechnology, the hCO model is becoming increasingly complex and mature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Global miRNA dosage control of embryonic germ layer specification.

Nature 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stem Cell Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have essential functions during embryonic development, and their dysregulation causes cancer. Altered global miRNA abundance is found in different tissues and tumours, which implies that precise control of miRNA dosage is important, but the underlying mechanism(s) of this control remain unknown. The protein complex Microprocessor, which comprises one DROSHA and two DGCR8 proteins, is essential for miRNA biogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF