5,113 results match your criteria maternal circulating

One vaccine for life: Lessons from immune ontogeny.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Systems Vaccinology, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

There remains a general misconception that the immune status of the fetus and neonate is immature or insufficient. However, emerging research in immune ontogeny prompts reconsideration of this orthodoxy, reframing this period instead as one of unique opportunity. Vaccine responses (qualitative and quantitative) vary between individuals, and across demographic cohorts. Read More

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Maternal diet high in linoleic acid alters offspring fatty acids and cardiovascular function in a rat model.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-37. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal growth and development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and how it relates to circulating FAs and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1. Read More

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Autism-associated synaptic vesicle transcripts are differentially expressed in maternal plasma exosomes of physiopathologic pregnancies.

J Transl Med 2021 Apr 15;19(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Sino-US Center of Translational Medicine for Development Disabilities, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: During intrauterine development, the formation and function of synaptic vesicles (SVs) are thought to be fundamental conditions essential for normal development of the brain. Lacking advanced technology during the intrauterine period, such as longitudinal real-time monitoring of the SV-associated transcripts (SVATs), which include six pairs of lncRNA-mRNA, has limited acquisition of the dynamic gene expression profile (GEP) of SVATs. We previously reported the differential expression of SVATs in the peripheral blood of autistic children. Read More

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Use of amplicon-based sequencing for testing fetal identity and monogenic traits with Single Circulating Trophoblast (SCT) as one form of cell-based NIPT.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249695. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States of America.

A major challenge for cell-based non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is to distinguish individual presumptive fetal cells from maternal cells in female pregnancies. We have sought a rapid, robust, versatile, and low-cost next-generation sequencing method to facilitate this process. Toward this goal, single isolated cells underwent whole genome amplification prior to genotyping. Read More

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Clinical implications of placenta-derived angiogenic/anti-angiogenic biomarkers in pre-eclampsia.

Biomark Med 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gangnam CHA Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul, Korea.

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a devastating systemic disease which results in maternal hypertension with multi-organ failure due to angiogenic imbalance, characterized by lack of circulating pro-angiogenic factors and excess of anti-angiogenic factors. These factors are crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of PE since they serve as a critical link from placental dysfunction to the clinical syndrome of systemic endothelial dysfunction in the disease. Moreover, utilizing these angiogenic/anti-angiogenic biomarkers can be helpful in risk stratifying and the early detection of PE, which allows for timely intervention to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Read More

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Maternal Late-Pregnancy Serum Unmetabolized Folic Acid Concentrations Are Not Associated with Infant Allergic Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

Background: The increase in childhood allergic disease in recent decades has coincided with increased folic acid intakes during pregnancy. Circulating unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) has been proposed as a biomarker of excessive folic acid intake.

Objective: We aimed to determine if late-pregnancy serum UMFA and total folate concentrations were associated with allergic disease risk in the offspring at 1 y of age in a population at high risk of allergy. Read More

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Dietary Macronutrient Composition in Relation to Circulating HDL and Non-HDL Cholesterol: A Federated Individual-Level Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data from Adolescents and Adults in 8 European Studies.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Associations between increased dietary fat and decreased carbohydrate intake with circulating HDL and non-HDL cholesterol have not been conclusively determined.

Objective: We assessed these relations in 8 European observational human studies participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) using harmonized data.

Methods: Dietary macronutrient intake was recorded using study-specific dietary assessment tools. Read More

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Correlations between alterations of T-helper 17 cells and treatment efficacy after concurrent radiochemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IIB-IIIB): a 3-year prospective study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 8;134(8):954-962. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Gynecological Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, Shandong 250117, China.

Background: Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been proved to play an important role in promoting cervical cancer. But, till now, few study has been carried out to understand the involvement of these cells in efficacy of anti-tumor treatments. This study aimed to investigate the alterations in the percentage of circulating Th17 cells and related cytokines in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients before and after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) and to analyze the correlations between the alterations in Th17 cells and treatment efficacy. Read More

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Elevated serotonin coordinates mammary metabolism in dairy cows.

Physiol Rep 2021 Apr;9(7):e14798

Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Serotonin plays a diverse role in maternal and mammary metabolism. Recent research in the dairy cow has shown a relationship between serotonin and calcium, with increased serotonin concentrations improving calcium homeostasis in the peri-partum dairy cow. Therefore, the objective was to elucidate how administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin, altered serotonin and calcium metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Read More

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Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis: Expanded NIPT that includes conditions otherthan trisomies 13, 18, and 21 should be offered.

Prenat Diagn 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Dept. of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on analysis of cell free DNA circulating in the maternal plasma has been available clinically to screen for chromosomal abnormalities since 2011. There is significant evidence to suggest that NIPT has revolutionised prenatal screening for the common trisomies 13, 18 and 21. However, the evidence in favour of its extended use to screen for conditions other than these trisomies remains a topic of debate with no national or international organisation supporting clinical implementation for these indications. Read More

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A comparative study of two immunoassays of maternal placental growth factor.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2021 Apr 6:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Circulating maternal levels of placental growth factor correlates well with placental function and numerous studies advocate its role to help rule-out preterm pre-eclampsia. A number of automated immunoassay platforms to quantify placental growth factors are currently available. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of developing and validating appropriate reference ranges and clinical cut-offs for immunoassays, by comparing the results obtained from two different immunoassays of placental growth factor; the Quantikine ELISA and the automated Triage test. Read More

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Algorithm development and diagnostic accuracy testing for non-invasive foetal RHD genotyping: an Indian experience.

Blood Transfus 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, ICMR-National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, India.

Background: The discovery of the cell-free foetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in the maternal plasma enabled prediction of foetal RHD thus eliminating the risks associated with invasive procedures. Non-invasive foetal RHD genotyping has now become the standard approach in developed countries for management of alloimmunised women and is also used for targeted antenatal prophylaxis in non-alloimmunised women.

Materials And Methods: cffDNA was extracted from the plasma of 217 RhD negative pregnant women at a gestational age of 10-34 weeks. Read More

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Clustering Longitudinal Blood Pressure Trajectories to Examine Heterogeneity in Outcomes Among Preeclampsia Cases and Controls.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 5:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016239. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (K.R.R., S.M.E.).

Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous disease characterized by new onset of hypertension along with signs of organ damage, affects 2% to 8% of pregnancies, and can result in serious complications to the mother and her child. There is little empirical evidence on the clinical importance of differences in blood pressure trajectories over the course of pregnancy, particularly in pregnancies affected by preeclampsia. We undertook an investigation of longitudinal changes in gestational blood pressure in a nested case-control study of preeclampsia in MoBa (Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study). Read More

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Drug Metab Dispos 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, United States of America.

Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is an investigational drug that shows promise in the treatment of acquired and congenital mitochondrial diseases, including myocardial ischemia and failure. DCA activates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) to increase energy production and decrease circulating lactate concentrations. In a sheep model of chronic hypercortisolemia in pregnancy, PDK4 mRNA was increased and fetal bradycardia was evident at birth in the affected fetuses. Read More

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Maternal Prenatal Hair Cortisol Is Associated with Child Wheeze among Mothers and Infants with Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Who Face High Socioeconomic Adversity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 9;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

The association of co-occurring prenatal stress and tobacco exposures on childhood wheezing and asthma are not well established. In this study, we compared maternal prenatal hair cortisol concentration (HCC) to the maternal report of infant wheezing (y/n) in the first year of life among mother-infant dyads exposed to tobacco smoke and socioeconomic adversity. Data were obtained from the Vitamin C to Decrease Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function study. Read More

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The Potential Role of Exosomes in Child and Adolescent Obesity.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

University Research Institute of Maternal and Child Health and Precision Medicine, UNESCO Chair on Adolescent Health Care, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 8 Livadias Street, Goudi, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Child and adolescent obesity constitute one of the greatest contemporary public health menaces. The enduring disproportion between calorie intake and energy consumption, determined by a complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, finally leads to the development of overweight and obesity. Child and adolescent overweight/obesity promotes smoldering systemic inflammation ("para-inflammation") and increases the likelihood of later metabolic and cardiovascular complications, including metabolic syndrome and its components, which progressively deteriorate during adulthood. Read More

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Maternal and Postnatal High Linoleic Acid Diet Impacts Lipid Metabolism in Adult Rat Offspring in a Sex-Specific Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is essential for fetal growth and development. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal and postnatal high LA (HLA) diet on plasma FA composition, plasma and hepatic lipids and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of adult offspring. Female rats were fed with low LA (LLA; 1. Read More

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Mutations that confer resistance to broadly-neutralizing antibodies define HIV-1 variants of transmitting mothers from that of non-transmitting mothers.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 2;17(4):e1009478. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Despite considerable reduction of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through use of maternal and infant antiretroviral therapy (ART), over 150,000 infants continue to become infected with HIV annually, falling far short of the World Health Organization goal of reaching <20,000 annual pediatric HIV cases worldwide by 2020. Prior to the widespread use of ART in the setting of pregnancy, over half of infants born to HIV-infected mothers were protected against HIV acquisition. Yet, the role of maternal immune factors in this protection against vertical transmission is still unclear, hampering the development of synergistic strategies to further reduce MTCT. Read More

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Oestrogen receptor α in T cells controls the T cell immune profile and glucose metabolism in mouse models of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Diabetologia 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Aims/hypothesis: The imbalance between maternal insulin resistance and a relative lack of insulin secretion underlies the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Alterations in T cell subtypes and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as potential mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in GDM. Since oestrogen modulates T cell immunity, we hypothesised that oestrogen plays a homeostatic role in visceral adipose tissue by coordinating T cell immunity through oestrogen receptor α (ERα) in T cells to prevent GDM. Read More

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Investigations of follicular fluid biomarkers in patients undergoing

Orv Hetil 2021 03 30;162(14):523-529. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

3 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szentágothai János Kutatóközpont, Humán Reprodukciós Kutatócsoport, Pécs.

Összefoglaló. A szerzők ismertetik vizsgálataik eredményeit, melyeket a közelmúltban az in vitro fertilizációs kezelésben részesülő betegeikben a tüszőfolyadék biomarkereinek analízisével értek el. A vizsgálatok célja annak feltárása volt, hogy az in vitro fertilizációs eljárás során a petesejtek aspirációjakor nyert tüszőfolyadék-biomarkerek lokális/ovarialis vagy szisztémás eredetűek, és milyen összefüggést mutatnak az in vitro fertilizáció eredményességét jelző paraméterekkel. Read More

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Circulating levels of Elabela in pregnant women complicated with intrauterine growth restriction.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Mar 26;50(8):102127. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Eyüpsultan Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to detect Elabela concentrations in the serum of normotensive pregnant women complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and compare them with the uncomplicated healthy pregnancies.

Material And Methods: This prospective case-control study was performed from May 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020. Of the 92 pregnant patients included in the study, we enrolled 49 normotensive patients complicated with IUGR as the study group, and 43 normotensive healthy gestational age-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched patients without IUGR or additional pregnancy complication as the control group. Read More

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Alterations of Circulating Biomarkers During Late Term Pregnancy Complications in the Horse Part II: Steroid Hormones and Alpha-Fetoprotein.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 04 3;99:103395. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Preterm labor and/or abortion causes considerable economic impact on the equine industry. Unfortunately, few experimental models exist for the induction of various pregnancy-related complications, and therefore extrapolations are made from the experimental model for ascending placentits, although inferences may be minimal. Certain steroid hormones (progestogens, estrogens) and fetal proteins (alpha-fetoprotein; AFP) might improve the diagnostics for abnormal pregnancy, but the utility of these markers in the field is unknown. Read More

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Evaluation of the Arabin cervical pessary for prevention of preterm birth in women with a twin pregnancy and short cervix (STOPPIT-2): An open-label randomised trial and updated meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2021 Mar 29;18(3):e1003506. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Multiple Births Foundation, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Preterm-labour-associated preterm birth is a common cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in twin pregnancy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the Arabin pessary would reduce preterm-labour-associated preterm birth by 40% or greater in women with a twin pregnancy and a short cervix.

Methods And Findings: We conducted an open-label randomised controlled trial in 57 hospital antenatal clinics in the UK and Europe. Read More

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Association Between Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product and Endogenous Secretory Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product Levels and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) are novel biomarkers that are associated with vascular disease. We carried out a systematic review to provide a more complete picture of sRAGE, esRAGE, carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes.

Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase databases. Read More

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January 2021

Neutrophils recognize and amplify IFNT signals derived from day 7 bovine embryo for stimulation of ISGs expression in vitro: A possible implication for the early maternal recognition of pregnancy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 22;553:37-43. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Global Agromedicine Research Center, Obihiro University of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan. Electronic address:

Previously, we reported that the presence of multiple day 7 (D7) bovine embryos in the uterus induces systemic immune responses in circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), but with unknown mechanism. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the direct impact of D7 bovine embryo on PMNs' immune responses in vitro and whether these PMNs can amplify and transfer embryo signals further to another PMN population. PMNs were directly stimulated by embryo culture media (ECM) or interferon tau (IFNT) (10 ng/ml) followed by evaluating mRNA expression by real-time PCR and phenotypic analysis by flow cytometry. Read More

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Associations of Early Pregnancy and Neonatal Circulating Folate, Vitamin B-12, and Homocysteine Concentrations with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children at 10 y of Age.

J Nutr 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Higher circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and lower circulating homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy seem to be associated with fetal development. These micronutrients may also be associated with cardiometabolic health.

Objective: We examined the associations of circulating folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy and in neonates with childhood cardiometabolic outcomes. Read More

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Broad phenotypic alterations and potential dysfunction of lymphocytes in individuals clinically recovered from COVID-19.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

Although millions of patients have clinically recovered from COVID-19, little is known about the immune status of lymphocytes in these individuals. In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a clinically recovered (CR) cohort were comparatively analyzed with those of an age- and sex-matched healthy donor (HD) cohort. We found that CD8+ T cells in the CR cohort had higher numbers of effector T cells and effector memory T cells but lower Tc1 (IFN-γ+), Tc2 (IL-4+), and Tc17 (IL-17A+) cell frequencies. Read More

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Galectin-4 as a Novel Biomarker of Neonatal Intestinal Injury.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: Neonates are at risk of gastrointestinal emergencies including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Identifying biomarkers to aid in diagnosis is imperative. We hypothesized that circulating intestinal-specific protein concentrations would distinguish infants with intestinal injury from controls. Read More

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Low CETP activity and unique composition of large VLDL and small HDL in women giving birth to small-for-gestational age infants.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6213. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and HDL-C is essential for fetal development. We hypothesized that women giving birth to large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants differed in longitudinal changes in lipoproteins, CETP activity and HDL-C and that placentas from women with higher or lower circulating HDL-C displayed differential expression of mRNAs involved in cholesterol/nutrient transport, insulin signaling, inflammation/ extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Circulating lipids and CETP activity was measured during pregnancy, NMR lipidomics in late pregnancy, and associations with LGA and SGA infants investigated. Read More

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Extracellular vesicle microRNA in early versus late pregnancy with birth outcomes in the MADRES study.

Epigenetics 2021 Mar 18:1-17. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Circulating miRNA may contribute to the development of adverse birth outcomes. However, few studies have investigated extracellular vesicle (EV) miRNA, which play important roles in intercellular communication, or compared miRNA at multiple time points in pregnancy. In the current study, 800 miRNA were profiled for EVs from maternal plasma collected in early (median: 12. Read More

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