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Multiple sclerosis is associated with higher comorbidity and healthcare resource use: a population-based, case-control study in a western Mediterranean region.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Servei de Neurología-Neuroimmunología, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased healthcare resource usage. We studied the frequency of comorbidities and adverse health behaviors (AHB) in MS patients in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia.

Methods: Population-based, case-control study using primary healthcare information covering 80% of Catalonia's population. Read More

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Urban green spaces and childhood leukemia incidence: A population-based case-control study in Madrid.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19;202:111723. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Epidemiology Centre, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública - CIBERESP), Spain; European and Latin American Environment, Survival and Childhood Cancer Network (ENSUCHICA), Spain.

Background: Childhood leukemia is the most common childhood cancer. To date, few risk factors related to predisposition have been identified; therefore, new hypotheses should be considered.

Objective: To explore the possible relationship of residential proximity to urban green spaces on childhood leukemia. Read More

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Anti-microbial antibody response is associated with future onset of Crohn's disease independent of biomarkers of altered gut barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and genetic risk.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: /Aim: Altered host immune reactivity to microbial antigens is hypothesized to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether increased serum anti-microbial antibody response in asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDR) of CD patients is an independent risk factor for future CD development.

Methods: We measured host serum antibody response to six microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus ELISA test: ASCA IgA/IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS). Read More

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Cognitive interference processing in adults with childhood craniopharyngioma using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Endocrine 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose: To assess cognitive interference processing in adults with childhood craniopharyngioma (CP), with and without hypothalamic injury, respectively, in terms of behavioral performance and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity, using the multi-source interference task (MSIT).

Methods: Twenty-eight CP patients (median age 34.5 [29. Read More

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Theory, methods, and operational results of the Young Women's Health History Study: a study of young-onset breast cancer incidence in Black and White women.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, 3939 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Purpose: The etiology of young-onset breast cancer (BC) is poorly understood, despite its greater likelihood of being hormone receptor-negative with a worse prognosis and persistent racial and socioeconomic inequities. We conducted a population-based case-control study of BC among young Black and White women and here discuss the theory that informed our study, exposures collected, study methods, and operational results.

Methods: Cases were non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and White (NHW) women age 20-49 years with invasive BC in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles County SEER registries 2010-2015. Read More

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Interleukin19 gene polymorphism and its serum level in acne vulgaris patients.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

Numerous cytokines are involved in acne vulgaris pathogenesis, though few studies correlate interleukin IL-19 to acne vulgaris. So this study aimed to assess the IL-19 (rs 2243191) gene polymorphism and its serum level in acne vulgaris. This case-control study involved 90 acne vulgaris cases and 90 age- and sex-matched controls. Read More

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Underreporting of mesothelioma, asbestosis and pleural plaques in Brazil.

Occup Med (Lond) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fundacentro, Brazil.

Background: Brazil has a long history of heavy asbestos consumption. However, the number of asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) falls far below the one expected compared with other asbestos consumer countries.

Aims: To examine underreporting of ARDs, that is mesothelioma, asbestosis and pleural plaques, in Brazil's Mortality Information System (SIM). Read More

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Metabolomics of the tryptophan-kynurenine degradation pathway and risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure: potential modification effect of Mediterranean diet.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation. We hypothesize that metabolites implicated in this pathway may be associated with the risk of heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: We aimed to prospectively analyze the associations of kynurenine-related metabolites with the risk of HF and AF and to analyze a potential effect modification by the randomized interventions of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Read More

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Treatment options of Adolescent Gestational Diabetes: Effect on Outcome.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jul-Aug;37(4):1139-1144

Maisaa Anees Wahbi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Bab Al-Moaddam, Baghdad, Iraq.

Objectives: Teenage pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) offers a real challenge to the health system and needs a special care. We aimed to evaluate possible obstetrical and neonatal adverse events of different treatment protocols in adolescent GDM including lifestyle, metformin (MTF), and insulin.

Methods: All teen pregnant women ≤ 19 years old visiting Baghdad Teaching Hospital throughout four years (from June 1, 2016 till May 31, 2020) diagnosed with GDM were included in this cohort study and followed-up closely throughout pregnancy and after delivery. Read More

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December 2020

Effect of cataract surgery on vision-related quality of life among cataract patients with high myopia: a prospective, case-control observational study.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of cataract surgery on vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in cataract patients with high myopia (HM).

Methods: In this prospective study, 90 patients with bilateral HM (HM group, mean [SD] age, 62.9 [9. Read More

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Myocardial infarctions, subtypes and coronary atherosclerosis in SLE: a case-control study.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 07;8(1)

Unit of Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Patients with SLE have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Few studies have investigated the characteristics of SLE-related MIs. We compared characteristics of and risk factors for MI between SLE patients with MI (MI-SLE), MI patients without SLE (MI-non-SLE) and SLE patients without MI (non-MI-SLE) to understand underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Discharge communication study: a realist evaluation of discharge communication experiences of patients, general practitioners and hospital practitioners, alongside a corresponding discharge letter sample.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 21;11(7):e045465. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Objectives: To develop a programme theory for the intervention of patients receiving discharge letters.

Design: We used a realist evaluation approach and captured multiple perspectives of hospital discharge to refine our previously developed programme theory. General practitioner (GP), patient and hospital clinician views of a single discharge event in which they were all involved were collected using semi-structured interviews and surveys. Read More

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Dual versus single long-acting bronchodilator use could raise acute coronary syndrome risk by over 50%: A population-based nested case-control study.

J Intern Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Pharmacoepidemiology Research Network, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Coronary heart disease occurs more frequently among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to those without COPD. While some research suggests that long-acting bronchodilators might confer an additional risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), information from real-world clinical practice about the cardiovascular impact of using two versus one long-acting bronchodilator for COPD is limited. We undertook a population-based nested case-control study to estimate the risk of ACS in users of both a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) relative to users of a LAMA. Read More

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Worth it or not? Primary tumor resection for stage IV pancreatic cancer patients: A SEER-based analysis of 15,836 cases.

Cancer Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of General Surgery, Pancreatic Disease Center, Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Primary tumor resection (PTR) as a treatment option for patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer (PC) is controversial.

Patients And Methods: Stage IV PC patients, with treatment data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), were screened. The main outcomes were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Read More

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Post-ictal psychosis in epilepsy: A clinico-genetic study.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Objective: Psychoses affecting people with epilepsy increase disease burden and diminish quality of life. We characterised post-ictal psychosis, which comprises about one-quarter of epilepsy-related psychoses, and has unknown causation.

Methods: We conducted a case-control cohort study including patients diagnosed with post-ictal psychosis, confirmed by psychiatric assessment, with available data regarding epilepsy, treatment, psychiatric history, psychosis profile and outcomes. Read More

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Association between Use of Pharmacokinetic-Interacting Drugs and Effectiveness and Safety of Direct Acting Oral Anticoagulants: Nested Case-Control Study.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel.

Concomitant use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and medications with inhibition/induction effect on P-gp/CYP3A might increase risk of bleeding/treatment failure, respectively. We designed a nested case-control study within a Clalit cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and a cohort of venous thromboembolic patients, new users of a DOAC (1.1. Read More

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Sleep Characteristics Among Children with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Polysomnography-Based Study.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Pt B D Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, 124001, India.

This study was designed to describe the sleep profile in a cohort of children 5-15 y with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) using polysomnography (PSG) and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The controls included age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 30 cases of IGE and matched 30 controls were enrolled in study. Read More

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Association of Alcohol Use Disorder on Alcohol-related Cancers, Diabetes, Ischemic Heart Disease, and Death: A Population-based, Matched Cohort Study.

Addiction 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background And Aims: High-risk alcohol consumption is associated with compromised health. This study aimed to compare the incidence of alcohol-related cancers, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and mortality between those with and without an indication of alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Design: Retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study using data from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository. Read More

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Dynamic heterogeneity and viscosity decoupling: origin and analytical prediction.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur - 208 016, UP, India.

The molecular-level structure and dynamics decide the functionality of solvent media. Therefore, a significant amount of effort is being dedicated continually over time in understanding their structural and dynamical features. One intriguing aspect of solvent structure and dynamics is heterogeneity. Read More

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Epidemiology, risk factors, and prediction score of carbapenem resistance among inpatients colonized or infected with 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacterales.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14757. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.

In this study, we determined the incidence and risk factors of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) acquisition in inpatients with 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Enterobacterales at a tertiary-care hospital in Lebanon, and suggested a risk prediction score for it. This is a retrospective matched case-control study of inpatients with 3GCR Enterobacterales that are carbapenem resistant (cases) versus those with carbapenem-sensitive isolates (controls). Data analysis was performed on IBM SPSS program, version 23. Read More

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A comparison of cognitive performance in the Suffolk County cohort and their unaffected siblings.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Jul 14;303:114111. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

People diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychoses demonstrate impaired neuropsychological performance. Their unaffected siblings exhibit mild impairments relative to unrelated controls, suggesting genetic and shared environmental risk for psychosis account for some portion of cognitive impairments observed in cases. However, most sibling studies were conducted early in illness course. Read More

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Human neuropathology confirms projection neuron and interneuron defects and delayed oligodendrocyte production and maturation in FOXG1 syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jul 17;64(9):104282. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institut Imagine-Inserm UMR-1163, Genetics and Development of the Cerebral Cortex, 75015, Paris, France; Paris Descartes - Sorbonne Paris Cite University, 75006, Paris, France; Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Pediatric Neurology, 75015, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The Forkhead transcription factor FOXG1 is a prerequisite for telencephalon development in mammals and is an essential factor controlling expansion of the dorsal telencephalon by promoting neuron and interneuron production. Heterozygous FOXG1 gene mutations cause FOXG1 syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, motor delay, dyskinetic movements and epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies in patients disclose constant features including microcephaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis and delayed myelination. Read More

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Hypotension develops one to two hours before other symptoms in peptic ulcer rebleeding; a matched cohort study.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Gastroenterology S, Odense University Hospital, Odence C, Denmark.

Background: Rebleeding is a frequent complication of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and is associated with increased mortality. Blood pressure and heart rate are two easy non-invasive measurements to evaluate the hemodynamics and therefore a standard observation during hospitalization.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the dynamics of systolic blood pressure and heart rate up to time of peptic ulcer rebleeding. Read More

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Prevention of COVID-19 by mRNA-based vaccines within the general population of California.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States.

Background: Estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions, and understanding of barriers to uptake, are necessary to inform vaccine rollout.

Methods: We enrolled cases (testing positive) and controls (testing negative) from among the population whose SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic test results from 24 February-29 April 2021 were reported to the California Department of Public Health. Participants were matched on age, sex, and geographic region. Read More

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Neuroblastoma Molecular Risk-Stratification of DNA Copy Number and Genotyping via Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Advanced Molecular Diagnostics, Children's Cancer Research Unit, Kids Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia.

Background: amplification (MNA), segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and activating mutations are biomarkers for risk-group stratification and for targeted therapeutics for neuroblastoma, both of which are currently assessed on tissue biopsy. Increase in demand for tumor genetic testing for neuroblastoma diagnosis is posing a challenge to current practice, as the small size of the core needle biopsies obtained are required for multiple molecular tests. We evaluated the utility of detecting these biomarkers in the circulation. Read More

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Role of Ki-67, MRE11, and PD-L1 as Predictive Biomarkers for Recurrence Pattern in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2021 Aug;41(8):3851-3857

Department of Radiation Oncology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is an aggressive disease with high rates of local recurrence following radical cystectomy (RC). Currently, there are no clinically validated biomarkers to predict local only recurrence (LOR) and guide adjuvant treatment decisions. This pilot study evaluated the role of Ki-67, MRE11 and PD-L1 as predictive biomarkers for recurrence patterns in patients undergoing RC for MIBC. Read More

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Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Equine Asthma in Texas.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 Aug 30;103:103644. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Electronic address:

Equine asthma is a common condition in horses, for which few host-related risk factors have been identified. The objective of this study was to identify host-related risk factors for the development of equine asthma. A retrospective, case-control study was performed, utilizing horses presented to the Texas A&M University, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from January 2014 December 2018. Read More

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Predictors of Taste Dysfunction and Its Severity Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jul 19:1455613211019708. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, 113092University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often complain of taste dysfunction. The prevalent taste dysfunction among patients with CKD predisposes them to malnutrition, poor quality of life, and worsen disease prognoses. To appropriately treat the taste dysfunction in this group of patients, it's imperative that factors that predict taste dysfunction and its severity are identified for prompt treatment. Read More

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Association of Chronic Liver Disease and Mortality in Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2021 Jul 20:STROKEAHA121034136. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (Y.Z., L.L., L.J., C.Y., Y.C., F.F.).

Background And Purpose: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in acutely ill patients. For patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the association between CLD and mortality remains unknown.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed consecutive aSAH patients admitted to the West China Hospital between 2009 and 2019. Read More

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Innate Immune Anti-Inflammatory Response in Human Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2021 Jul 20:STROKEAHA121034673. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, United Kingdom (A.S., L.R.B., A.C.P., A.H.H.).

Background And Purpose: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is a common form of hemorrhagic stroke, with high mortality and morbidity. Pathophysiological mechanisms in sICH are poorly understood and treatments limited. Neuroinflammation driven by microglial-macrophage activation contributes to brain damage post-sICH. Read More

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