3,185,163 results match your criteria mastitisconclusion cytology

Validation of BRCA testing on cytologic samples of high-grade serous carcinoma.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Testing for BRCA1/2 gene alterations in patients with high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is a critical determinant of treatment eligibility for poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in addition to providing vital information for genetic counselling. Many patients present with effusions necessitating therapeutic drainage, and this makes cytologic specimens (CySs) the initial diagnostic material for HGSC, often before histologic sampling. Initiating somatic BRCA testing on a CyS allows the BRCA status to be determined sooner, and this affects clinical management. Read More

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Topical treatment of multiple erosive, ulcerative skin lesions in an Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2021 Jun 22;49(3):210-214. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilian University.

A 30-year-old, intact female Indian rhinoceros () was presented with ongoing erosive, ulcerative skin lesions over a 4-year-period. The lesions appeared to be non-pruritic and non-seasonal. A systemic antibiotic therapy had been unsuccessful. Read More

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An update on methods and approaches for interrogating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

Ryan J Mailloux

Redox Biol 2021 Jun 16;45:102044. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

The School of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Canada. Electronic address:

The chief ROS formed by mitochondria are superoxide (O) and hydrogen peroxide (HO). Superoxide is converted rapidly to HO and therefore the latter is the chief ROS emitted by mitochondria into the cell. Once considered an unavoidable by-product of aerobic respiration, HO is now regarded as a central mitokine used in mitochondrial redox signaling. Read More

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Role of STIM2 and Orai proteins in regulating TRPC1 channel activity upon calcium store depletion.

Cell Calcium 2021 Jun 8;97:102432. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Tikhoretsky Avenue, St. Petersburg 194064, Russia. Electronic address:

Store-operated calcium channels are the major player in calcium signaling in non-excitable cells. Store-operated calcium entry is associated with the Orai, stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) protein families. Researchers have provided conflicting data about TRPC1 channel regulation by Orai and STIM. Read More

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Salt stress on Lotus tenuis triggers cell wall polysaccharide changes affecting their digestibility by ruminants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 12;166:405-415. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Biología Aplicada y Alimentos, Cátedra de Química de Biomoléculas. Av. San Martín, 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas- Centro de Investigación de Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR-CONICET, UBA), Av. San Martín, 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Lotus tenuis is a glycophytic forage legume (Fabaceae) used in feeding ruminants that can grow under salinity and waterlogging stresses. Plants obtained in controlled conditions were affected negatively in their growth by the effect of salt. Results from sequential extraction of plant cell wall polysaccharides and chemical characterization were related to those from nutritional parameters used to assess ruminants feedstuffs (Van Soest detergent system). Read More

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Miltoncostaea marina gen. nov. sp. nov., and Miltoncostaea oceani sp. nov., a novel deep branching phylogenetic lineage within the class Thermoleophilia isolated from marine environments, and proposal of Miltoncostaeaceae fam. nov. and Miltoncostaeales ord. nov.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 2;44(4):126216. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510301, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 511458, China. Electronic address:

Two novel marine actinobacteria, designated as SCSIO 60955 and SCSIO 61214, were isolated from deep-sea sediment samples collected from the South China Sea. The cells of these organisms stained Gram-negative and were rod shaped. These strains were aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Read More

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Predictive markers based on transcriptome modules for vinorelbine-based adjuvant chemotherapy for lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jun 10;158:115-125. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Translational Informatics, Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Microtubule inhibitors (MTIs) are widely used as anti-cancer drugs for various types of tumors. Vinorelbine, an MTI, is utilized in postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, especially for lung adenocarcinoma. However, no molecular markers are able to identify patients for whom MTIs would be effective. Read More

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Differences in berry skin and pulp cell wall polysaccharides from ripe and overripe Shiraz grapes evaluated using glycan profiling reveals extensin-rich flesh.

Food Chem 2021 May 24;363:130180. Epub 2021 May 24.

South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa. Electronic address:

Shiraz is a widely planted cultivar in many of the world's top wine regions where it is used for the production of top-quality single varietal or blended red wines. Cell wall changes during grape ripening and over-ripening have been investigated, particularly in the context of understanding berry deconstruction thereby facilitating the release of favorable compounds during winemaking. However, no information is available on cell wall changes during berry shrinkage in Shiraz. Read More

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Whole slide imaging is a high-throughput method to assess Candida biofilm formation.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 10;250:126806. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

New strategies that enable fast and accurate visualization of Candida biofilms are necessary to better study their structure and response to antifungals agents. Here, we applied whole slide imaging (WSI) to study biofilm formation of Candida species. Three relevant biofilm-forming Candida species (C. Read More

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Expression regulation and function of PD-1 and PD-L1 in T lymphoma cells.

Cell Immunol 2021 Jun 17;366:104397. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA 30904, USA. Electronic address:

T lymphoma cells may constitutively express PD-1 and PD-L1. The relative role of PD-1 and PD-L1 in T lymphoma is incompletely understood. We report here that PD-1 PDL-1 human T lymphoma cells exhibit constitutive hyperactivation of the TCR signaling and do not respond to PD-L1-mediated suppression in vitro. Read More

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Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 19:105738. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Professor of Neurology and Biochemistry; Georgetown University Medical Center; Washington, DC, 20057. Electronic address:

This paper describes evidence establishing that ultra-low doses of diverse chemical agents at concentrations from 10 to 10 M (e.g., approaching and/or less than 1 atom or molecule of a substance/cell based on Avogadro's constant - 6. Read More

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Nerve excitability and neuropathic pain is reduced by BET protein inhibition after spared nerve injury.

J Pain 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute of Neurosciences, Dept. Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Electronic address:

Neuropathic pain is a common disability produced by enhanced neuronal excitability after nervous system injury. The pathophysiological changes that underlie the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain require modifications of transcriptional programs. In particular, there is an induction of pro-inflammatory neuromodulators levels, and changes in the expression of ion channels and other factors intervening in the determination of the membrane potential in neuronal cells. Read More

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Caveolin-1 facilitates cell migration by upregulating nuclear receptor 4A2/retinoid X receptor α-mediated β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I expression in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Jun 19:106027. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

School of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) acts as a tumor promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous studies showed that Cav-1 promoted mouse hepatocarcinoma cell adhesion to fibronectin by upregulating β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal-I) expression. However, the detailed mechanism by which Cav-1 regulates ST6Gal-I is not fully understood. Read More

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A mouse model of microglia-specific ablation in the embryonic central nervous system.

Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Microglia, which migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) during the early embryonic stages, are considered to play various roles in CNS development. However, their embryonic roles are largely unknown, partly due to the lack of an effective microglial ablation system in the embryo. Here, we show a microglial ablation model by injecting diphtheria toxin (DT) into the amniotic fluid of Siglech mice, in which the gene encoding DT receptor is knocked into the microglia-specific gene locus Siglech. Read More

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Exploring the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts against Malassezia furfur.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 19:114354. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Rhizomes from members of Zingiberaceae have long been used in Thai traditional medicine to treat cutaneous fungal infections, including Malassezia-related skin disorders. Alpinia galanga, Curcuma longa, Zingiber cassumunar, and Zingiber officinale are particularly popular in folk remedies.

Aim Of The Study: On account of the application background in traditional medicine, the present study aims to screen and determine the composition and possible mechanism of the rhizome extracts of selected Zingiberaceae and corresponding fractions against M. Read More

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Drug delivery to the inflamed intestinal mucosa- targeting technologies and human cell culture models for better therapies of IBD.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Jun 19:113828. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany; Department of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:

Current treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seek to alleviate the undesirable symptoms of the disorder. Despite the higher specificity of newer generation therapeutics, e.g. Read More

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Genome-wide mapping of human DNA replication by optical replication mapping supports a stochastic model of eukaryotic replication.

Mol Cell 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:

The heterogeneous nature of eukaryotic replication kinetics and the low efficiency of individual initiation sites make mapping the location and timing of replication initiation in human cells difficult. To address this challenge, we have developed optical replication mapping (ORM), a high-throughput single-molecule approach, and used it to map early-initiation events in human cells. The single-molecule nature of our data and a total of >2,500-fold coverage of the human genome on 27 million fibers averaging ∼300 kb in length allow us to identify initiation sites and their firing probability with high confidence. Read More

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Understanding totipotency: A role for alternative splicing.

Dev Cell 2021 Jun;56(12):1697-1699

School of Biomedical Science, Stem Cell and Regenerative Consortium, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Center for Translational Stem Cell Biology, Hong Kong Science and Technology Park, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Totipotency refers to single cells' developmental capacity to form an entire organism. Understanding how totipotent stem cells form has implications for chimera generation. In a recent Cell study, Shen et al. Read More

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A local regulatory T cell feedback circuit maintains immune homeostasis by pruning self-activated T cells.

Cell 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Lymphocyte Biology Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1892, USA. Electronic address:

A fraction of mature T cells can be activated by peripheral self-antigens, potentially eliciting host autoimmunity. We investigated homeostatic control of self-activated T cells within unperturbed tissue environments by combining high-resolution multiplexed and volumetric imaging with computational modeling. In lymph nodes, self-activated T cells produced interleukin (IL)-2, which enhanced local regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation and inhibitory functionality. Read More

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The role of PLCγ2 in immunological disorders, cancer and neurodegeneration.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 19:100905. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Inflammation Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia; Immunology Laboratory, Guangzhou Institute of Paediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Centre, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510623, China. Electronic address:

PLCγ2 is a critical signalling molecule activated downstream from a variety of cell surface receptors that contain an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). These receptors recruit kinases such as Syk, BTK and BLNK to phosphorylate and activate PLCγ2, which then generates 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These well known second messengers are required for diverse membrane functionality including cellular proliferation, endocytosis and calcium flux. Read More

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Molecular determinants for α-tubulin methylation by SETD2.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 19:100898. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI; Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI. Electronic address:

Post-translational modifications to tubulin are important for many microtubule-based functions inside cells. It was recently shown that methylation of tubulin by the histone methyltransferase SETD2 occurs on mitotic spindle microtubules during cell division, with its absence resulting in mitotic defects. However, the catalytic mechanism of methyl addition to tubulin is unclear. Read More

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Human and viral membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases MARCH1 and MIR2 recognize different features of CD86 to downregulate surface expression.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 19:100900. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Immune-stimulatory ligands, such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the T-cell costimulatory ligand CD86 are central to productive immunity. Endogenous mammalian membrane-associated RING-CHs (MARCH) act on these and other targets to regulate antigen presentation and activation of adaptive immunity, while virus-encoded homologs target the same molecules to evade immune responses. Substrate specificity is encoded in or near the membrane-embedded domains of MARCHs and the proteins they regulate, but the exact sequences that distinguish substrates from non-substrates are poorly understood. Read More

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Microbiome: Insulin signaling shapes gut community composition.

Patrick J Hu

Curr Biol 2021 Jun;31(12):R803-R806

Departments of Medicine and Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

In a C. elegans model of host-microbiome interactions, interrogation of a genetically diverse panel of host strains with a defined, complex bacterial community reveals an important role for a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway in shaping the phylogenetic composition of the gut microbiome. Read More

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Plant immunity: Crosstalk between plant immune receptors.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun;31(12):R796-R798

Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology and Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK. Electronic address:

Plant immunity has long been divided into two 'tiers', involving cell-surface versus intracellular immune receptors. Although both systems can induce similar diagnostic responses, they have been considered independent pathways. Recent work challenges this view, showing a striking requirement for both recognition layers to achieve maximum immune output. Read More

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Plant biology: Plant formins roll out the welcome wagon for microbes.

Michael J Deeks

Curr Biol 2021 Jun;31(12):R788-R791

Biosciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK. Electronic address:

The interactions of microbes with plant cells can radically change plant-cell form and function. A new study shows how a specialised formin protein paves the way for nitrogen-fixing bacteria to make homes in legumes. Read More

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalling and immune regulation: insights into disease pathogenesis and clinical implications.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 2010, Darlinghurst, Australia.

Introduction: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase that plays a key role in fundamental aspects of cell biology including survival, metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. Thus, balanced PI3K signalling is critical for multiple aspects of human health. The initial discovery that germline variants in genes in the PI3K pathway resulted in inborn errors of immunity highlighted the non-redundant role of these signalling proteins in the human immune system. Read More

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Resveratrol suppresses cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats associated with the inhibition of TGFβ1-Smad3-miR21 axis and profibrogenic and hepatic injury biomarkers.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Departments of Physiology Kasr Al-Aini Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Cholestasis caused by slowing or blockage of bile flow is a serious liver disease that can lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The link between transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), Smad family member 3 (Smad3), and microRNA 21 (miR21) in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis in the presence and absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, resveratrol (RSV) has not been previously studied. Therefore, we tested whether RSV can protect against BDL-induced liver fibrosis associated with the inhibition of TGFβ1-Smad3-miR21 axis and profibrogenic and hepatic injury biomarkers. Read More

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Deep and accurate detection of m6A RNA modifications using miCLIP2 and m6Aboost machine learning.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS) & Faculty of Biological Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt 60438, Germany.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal RNA modification in eukaryotic mRNAs and influences many aspects of RNA processing. miCLIP (m6A individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) is an antibody-based approach to map m6A sites with single-nucleotide resolution. However, due to broad antibody reactivity, reliable identification of m6A sites from miCLIP data remains challenging. Read More

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Rrp1 translocase and ubiquitin ligase activities restrict the genome destabilising effects of Rad51 in fission yeast.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wrocław, Poland.

Rad51 is the key protein in homologous recombination that plays important roles during DNA replication and repair. Auxiliary factors regulate Rad51 activity to facilitate productive recombination, and prevent inappropriate, untimely or excessive events, which could lead to genome instability. Previous genetic analyses identified a function for Rrp1 (a member of the Rad5/16-like group of SWI2/SNF2 translocases) in modulating Rad51 function, shared with the Rad51 mediator Swi5-Sfr1 and the Srs2 anti-recombinase. Read More

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Gene Expression at a Single Molecule Level: Implications for MDS and AML.

Blood 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States.

Non-genetic heterogeneity, or gene expression stochasticity, is an important source of variability in biological systems. With the advent and improvement of single molecule resolution technologies, it has been shown that transcription dynamics and resultant transcript number fluctuations generate significant cell-to-cell variability that has important biological effects and may contribute substantially to both tissue homeostasis and disease. In this respect, the pathophysiology of stem cell-derived malignancies such as AML and MDS, which has historically been studied at the ensemble level, may require re-evaluation. Read More

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