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Novel treatment of dihydrogen sulfide inhalation using hyperbaric oxygen during mass casualty.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):153-156

U.S. Navy Medical Corps, Naval Hospital Guam.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced via breakdown of organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide exposure can cause symptoms ranging in severity from mild effects (dizziness, headache, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment modalities include oral countermeasures and 100% FiO2 with supportive therapy. Read More

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Male Sex Is a Significant Predictor of All-cause Mortality in Patients with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e120. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: We investigated and compared the initial clinical features at diagnosis and the poor outcomes during follow-up in Korean patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) based on sex.

Methods: The medical records of 223 immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients with AAV were reviewed. Age, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, AAV subtypes, ANCA positivity, clinical manifestations, Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS), five-factor score (FFS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at diagnosis were collected. Read More

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Evaluating the efficacy and safety of ureteral stent placement as a preoperative procedure for gynecological cancer surgeries: A retrospective cohort study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tottori University School of Medicine, Yonago, Tottori Prefecture, Japan.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ureteral stent placement (USP) as a preoperative procedure for gynecological cancer surgeries.

Methods: This was a single-institution retrospective cohort study of 259 patients with gynecological cancer who underwent laparotomy. In 126 patients (USP+ group), a ureteral stent was inserted into the bilateral ureters after the induction of general anesthesia. Read More

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Impact of Protein Intake during Weight Loss on Preservation of Fat-Free Mass, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Physical Function in Overweight Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obes Facts 2021 May 11:1-12. Epub 2021 May 11.

Fulda University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany.

Introduction: Weight loss in old age increases the risk of sarcopenia caused by the age-related reduction of fat-free mass (FFM). Due to the strong correlation between FFM and resting energy expenditure (REE), the maintenance of this must also be considered. Besides, the physical function (PF) must be maintained. Read More

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Leg Joint Mechanics When Hopping at Different Frequencies.

Authors:
Mu Qiao

J Appl Biomech 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Louisiana Tech University.

Although the dynamics of center of mass can be accounted for by a spring-mass model during hopping, less is known about how each leg joint (ie, hip, knee, and ankle) contributes to center of mass dynamics. This work investigated the function of individual leg joints when hopping unilaterally and vertically at 4 frequencies (ie, 1.6, 2. Read More

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Risk Factors and Predictors of Hypothermia and Dropouts During Open-Water Swimming Competitions.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Purpose: To measure core temperature (Tcore) in open-water (OW) swimmers during a 25-km competition and identify the predictors of Tcore drop and hypothermia-related dropouts.

Methods: Twenty-four national- and international-level OW swimmers participated in the study. Participants completed a personal questionnaire and a body fat/muscle mass assessment before the race. Read More

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A novel simple and sensitive approach for determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in aqueous samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometric detection after derivatization with unsubstituted aromatic aldehydes.

Chemosphere 2021 May 3;280:130747. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1-3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

In this work, simple, rapid and highly sensitive method of hazardous chemical 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH) determination based on pre-column derivatization with unsubstituted aromatic aldehydes and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-tandem mass spectrometry (RP HPLC-UV-MS/MS) has been developed. Along with benzaldehyde, commercially available aromatic aldehydes, namely: 2-naphthaldehyde, 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde, were used as derivatizing reagents in the analysis of hydrazines for the first time. The reactions were studied in a wide pH range by varying reaction time and other conditions. Read More

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Study of heterogeneous reaction of dimethyl sulfide on atmospheric-like particulate TiO.

Chemosphere 2021 May 4;280:130771. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Engineering Laboratory for VOCs Pollution Control Material & Technology, Research Center for Environmental Material and Pollution Control Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address:

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) related to solar radiation and greenhouse effect is one of the most important volatile sulfides and its' oxidation products are also important contributors to acid rain. It is of great importance to study the consumption and reactions of DMS in the atmosphere. In this work, atmospheric-like particulate TiO was selected to study the reaction mechanism of DMS on TiO with the purpose to explore the possible heterogeneous oxidation of DMS. Read More

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Primary and secondary aerosols in small passenger vehicle emissions: Evaluation of engine technology, driving conditions, and regulatory standards.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 3;286:117195. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, 17035, South Korea. Electronic address:

The characteristics of primary gas/aerosol and secondary aerosol emissions were identified for small passenger vehicles using typical fuel types in South Korea (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel). The generation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was explored using the potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor. The primary emissions did not vary significantly between fuel types, combustion technologies, or aftertreatment systems, while the amount of NH was higher in gasoline and LPG vehicle emissions than that in diesel vehicle emissions. Read More

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Higher body mass index and body fat percentage correlate to lower joint and functional strength in working age adults.

Appl Ergon 2021 May 8;95:103453. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:

As the prevalence of obesity grows worldwide, it becomes an increasing concern in working populations. Ergonomists are faced with the challenge of accommodating workplace layouts to include this worker demographic. This study investigated the relationship between shoulder and low back isometric joint strengths across body mass index (BMI) groups. Read More

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Pollution level and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine fish from two coastal regions, the South China Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 8;168:112376. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519080, China; Pearl River Estuary Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Ministry of Education, Zhuhai 519082, China. Electronic address:

Marine fishes are consumed in large quantities by humans as nutritious food. However, the intake of fish polluted by chemicals may pose a severe threat to human health. This study measured the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the muscles of 22 species of marine fish from two coastal regions, i. Read More

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The conformational transition during G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and G protein interaction.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 May 8;69:117-123. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seoburo, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The precise structural mechanism of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-G protein coupling has been of significant research interest because it provides fundamental knowledge on cellular signaling and valuable information for GPCR-targeted drug development. Over the last decade, several GPCR-G protein complex structures have been identified. However, these structures are mere snapshots of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-released stable GPCR-G protein complexes, which have limited the understanding of the allosteric conformational transition during receptor binding to GDP release and the GPCR-G protein coupling selectivity. Read More

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Trait positive affect buffers the association between experimental sleep disruption and inflammation.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 28;129:105240. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Sleep disturbances and insufficient sleep are highly prevalent. Both clinical sleep disorders and multiple forms of experimental sleep loss predict heightened inflammation. As such, it is necessary to investigate potential protective factors. Read More

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Mass balance of nine trace elements in two karst catchments in southwest China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147504. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China; CAS Centre for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Xi'an 710061, China. Electronic address:

High geological background levels of trace elements (TEs) and high population density in the karst areas of southwest China have imposed environmental pressure on the fragile ecosystems in this region. Understanding the mass budget of TEs, especially the toxic ones, is of great importance to sustain future developments. This study investigates the mass balance and fate of nine TEs (cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, thallium, and antimony) in two karst catchments (Huilong and Chenqi) in southwest China through estimation of their mass budgets in throughfall, open field precipitation, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), litterfall, fertilization, harvested crops, surface runoff, and underground runoff. Read More

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Human exposure and health risk assessment of an increasingly used antibacterial alternative in personal care products: Chloroxylenol.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 5;786:147524. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

The ban of some antibacterial ingredients, such as triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), in personal care products (PCPs) in some countries (but not in China) has resulted in the increasing use of antibacterial alternatives, such as chloroxylenol (PCMX). However, the underlying human health risks and environmental impacts of PCMX exposure are largely unknown. Thus, the distribution characteristics of PCMX in PCPs and susceptible populations and the major routes and health risks of human exposure to PCMX were investigated. Read More

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Combined effects of different sizes of ZnO and ZIF-8 nanoparticles co-exposure with Cd on HepG2 cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 1;786:147402. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Heavy metal and nanoparticles (NPs) emitted in the environment have attracted worldwide attention. But the combined effect of NPs and heavy metals is still unclear. In this study, the combined effect of zinc-based NPs and Cd on HepG2 cells was investigated by combining biological indicator detection methods with time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (TRA-ICP-MS) single cell analysis, and the combined effect of Zn and Cd was also investigated for a comparison. Read More

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Unravelling molecular transformation of dissolved effluent organic matter in UV/HO, UV/persulfate, and UV/chlorine processes based on FT-ICR-MS analysis.

Water Res 2021 Apr 18;199:117158. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China; Research Center for Environmental Nanotechnology (ReCENT), Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Ultraviolet-based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs) are very promising in advanced treatment of municipal secondary effluents. However, the transformation of dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) in advanced treatment of real wastewater, particularly at molecular level, remains unclear. In this study, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) coupled with multiple statistical analysis were performed to better understand the transformation of dEfOM in UV/HO, UV/persulfate (UV/PS), and UV/chlorine treatments. Read More

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Qualitative screening and quantitative determination of multiclass water-soluble synthetic dyes in foodstuffs by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 24;360:129948. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

A LC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analytical method for both qualitative screening and quantitative determination of 90 synthetic dyes including ten groups of isomers in foods has been established. An in-house synthetic dyes database and characteristic ions were also developed. Based on Q-Orbitrap HRMS, mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns of synthetic dyes were studied, which indicated that double charged ions were usually the main precursor ions. Read More

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Mis-reporting of energy intake among older Australian adults: Prevalence, characteristics, and associations with quality of life.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 6;90:111259. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Monash University, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Mis-reporting is common in dietary assessment, leading to misinterpretation of disease risk and could be important in older adults with increased chronic disease risk. This study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of mis-reporting among older adults and its association with health outcomes including quality of life (QoL).

Methods: The study was conducted in 335 community-dwelling older adults at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, participating in the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure Study dietary substudy. Read More

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The impact of endogenous Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVE) on production traits in elite layer lines.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 12;100(6):101121. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) integrations are endogenous retroviral elements found in the chicken genome. The presence of ALVE has been reported to have negative impacts on multiple traits, including egg production and body weight. The recent development of rapid, inexpensive and specific ALVE detection methods has facilitated their characterization in elite commercial egg production lines across multiple generations. Read More

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The C-mannosylome of human induced pluripotent stem cells implies a role for ADAMTS16 C-mannosylation in eye development.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 May 8:100092. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

C-mannosylation is a modification of tryptophan residues with a single mannose, and can affect protein folding, secretion and/or function. To date, only a few proteins have been demonstrated to be C-mannosylated, and studies that globally assess protein C-mannosylation are scarce. To interrogate the C-mannosylome of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), we compared the secretomes of CRISPR-Cas9 mutants lacking either the C-mannosyltransferase DPY19L1 or DPY19L3 to wild-type hiPSCs using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. Read More

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Intra-tumoral CD39CD8 T cells predict response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade is currently widely used in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite available biomarker stratification, clinical responses vary. Thus, the search for novel biomarkers with improved response prediction is ongoing. Read More

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Comparative phylogenetic analysis of milk output at peak lactation.

Authors:
Alexander Riek

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 May 8:110976. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Dörnbergstr. 25/27, 29223 Celle, Germany. Electronic address:

A large body of literature exists on the comparative aspects of milk nutrient concentrations of numerous species. However, in the last three decades little attention has been given to the comparative aspects of quantitative milk output and the related nutrient outputs at peak lactation, one of the most energy demanding times for the lactating female. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate milk output, milk energy output (MEO) and milk nutrient outputs in mammals at peak lactation using the phylogenetic generalized least squares approach to account for the potential lack of independence among species. Read More

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Isolation, characterization of galactose-specific lectin from Odoiporus longicollis and its antibacterial and anticancer activities.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India. Electronic address:

Lectins are renowned hemagglutinins and multivalent proteins with a well known quality for sugar-binding specificity that participate significantly in invertebrate defense functions. Studies on biological activity of lectin from coleopteran insect are very scarce. In this study, lectin from the haemolymph in the grub of banana pest, Odoiporus longicollis was subjected to purification, biochemical and functional characterizations. Read More

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Androgen and Glucocorticoid Receptor Phosphorylation Following Resistance Exercise and Pre-Workout Supplementation.

Steroids 2021 May 8:108859. Epub 2021 May 8.

Northwest Missouri State University, School of Health Science and Wellness, Maryville, MO. United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: Consumption of caffeine or caffeine containing pre-workout supplements (SUPP) augments steroid hormone responses to resistance exercise (RE). However, the activation of glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen receptors (AR) following RE SUPP has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a pre-workout supplement on AR and GR phosphorylation following RE. Read More

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Asperuloside suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in DSS-induced chronic colitis and RAW 264.7 macrophages via Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 8:109512. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China; National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Guangzhou Branch), Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which mainly include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract for which effective pharmacological treatments are lacking or options are very limited.

Purpose: Here, we aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of an iridoid glycoside, asperuloside (ASP) on mice experimental chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and further explore underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: LPS-treated RAW 264. Read More

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Impact of Insurance on Stage of Breast Cancer Presentation for Different Races and Ethnicities.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e603-e613

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Purpose: Survival in breast cancer is largely stage-dependent. Lack of insurance and Medicaid have been associated with later-stage breast cancer, but it is unknown to what degree this association varies by race or ethnicity.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-institution cohort analysis of women undergoing breast radiotherapy from 2012 to 2017 (n = 1,019). Read More

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Structural Heterogeneity of Human Histone H2A.1.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, United States.

Histones are highly basic chromatin proteins that tightly package and order eukaryotic DNA into nucleosomes. While the atomic structure of the nucleosomes has been determined, the three-dimensional structure of DNA-free histones remains unresolved. Here, we combine tandem nonlinear and linear ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS-TIMS) coupled to mass spectrometry in parallel with molecular modeling to study the conformational space of a DNA-free histone H2A type 1 (H2A. Read More

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Original and generic clopidogrel: A comparison of antiplatelet effects and active metabolite concentrations in patients without polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and the allele variants CYPC19*2 and *3.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department and Clinic of Cardiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Ticagrelor and prasugrel are widely used as antiplatelet therapy after coronary angioplasty. However, there is a group of patients with indications for clopidogrel treatment. This population includes patients with chronic or acute coronary syndrome who are treated invasively and have contraindications to the use of novel antiplatelet drugs due to antithrombotic treatment (particularly with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants). Read More

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