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Botulinum toxin A promotes the transdifferentiation of primary keloid myofibroblasts into adipocyte-like cells.

Authors:
Xing Dai Tiechi Lei

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Dermatology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Keloid is a type of unusually raised scar. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has a great application potential in keloids treatment. Here, we investigated the functional role of BTX-A in keloids. Read More

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September 2021

The Impact of Fitness Status on Vascular and Baroreceptor Function in Healthy Women and Men.

J Vasc Res 2021 Sep 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

School of Human Kinetics, Trinity Western University, Langley, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Chronic endurance exercise training elicits desirable physiological adaptations in the cardiovascular system. The volume of exercise training required to generate healthy adaptations is unclear. This study assessed the effects of differing exercise training levels on arterial stiffness, compliance, and autonomic function. Read More

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September 2021

Human defensive freezing: Associations with hair cortisol and trait anxiety.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Sep 16;133:105417. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Electronic address:

The anticipation of threat facilitates innate defensive behaviours including freezing reactions. Freezing in humans is characterised by reductions in body sway and heart rate. Limited evidence suggests that individual differences in freezing reactions are associated with predictors of anxiety-related psychopathology including trait anxiety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Read More

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September 2021

LEFTY-PITX2 signaling pathway is critical for generation of mature and ventricular cardiac organoids in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac mesoderm cells.

Biomaterials 2021 Sep 21;278:121133. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

The generation of mature ventricular cardiomyocytes (CMs) resembling adult CMs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is necessary for disease modeling and drug discovery. To investigate the effect of self-organizing capacity on the generation of mature cardiac organoids (COs), we generated cardiac mesoderm cell-derived COs (CMC-COs) and CM-derived COs (CM-COs) and evaluated COs. CMC-COs exhibited more organized sarcomere structures and mitochondria, well-arranged t-tubule structures, and evenly distributed intercalated discs. Read More

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September 2021

Geographical origin of guarana seeds from untargeted UHPLC-MS and chemometrics analysis.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 15;371:131068. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Coordination of Technology and Innovation, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address:

Guarana is one of the most popular functional foods in the Amazon and widely used in the world. This work aimed to study the chemical composition of guarana produced by the main producing states and try to associate their geographical origin. We report an untargeted metabolomic analytical method performed by UHPLC-ESI-IT-MS and multivariate analysis (chemometrics) of guarana seeds, which was able to separate the samples according to their geographical origin. Read More

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September 2021

Arsenic (III) induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the gills of common carp, which is ameliorated by zinc (II).

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Sep 20;225:111617. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of wildlife and protected area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, Heilongjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) is widely present in the environment in form of arsenite (As) and arsenate (As). Oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to be the dominant mechanisms of As toxicity in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether zinc (Zn) alleviates exogenous gill toxicity in carp induced by As and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Immunohistochemical insights into a hidden pathology: Canine cryptorchidism.

Theriogenology 2021 Sep 22;176:43-53. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, via dell'Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy.

Cryptorchidism is a common disorder in the canine population with some aspects still unclear. Although the bilateral condition is known to lead to fertility problems and predisposition to testicular cancer, the neoplastic risk for scrotal testis in unilateral cryptorchid dog is controversial. Therefore, the therapeutic approach to the canine unilateral cryptorchid is arbitrary so far. Read More

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September 2021

Absence of significant clinical benefit for a systematic routine creatine phosphokinase measurement in asymptomatic patients treated with anti-programmed death protein (ligand) 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor to screen cardiac or neuromuscular immune-related toxicities.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 23;157:383-390. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Drug Development Department (DITEP), Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-94805, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Aim: Despite unprecedented results of anti-programmed death protein (ligand) 1 (PD-(L)1) immune checkpoint inhibitor in the oncology's armamentarium, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) represent a therapeutic hurdle. Currently, there is no consensual recommendation on a routinely monitored biomarker to early detect irAE. Biological markers such as serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) are commonly used to measure muscular tissue injury. Read More

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September 2021

A transdiagnostic evaluation of cortical inhibition in severe mental disorders using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Sep 24;143:364-369. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, 560029, India.

Multiple lines of investigations suggest the presence of cortical inhibition aberrations as central to the phenotypic manifestations of severe mental disorders. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) combined with electromyography can characterize these inhibitory processes in the motor cortex with satisfactory temporal precision. We examined TMS-evoked short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and cortical silent period (CSP) as markers of GABA- (SICI) and GABA-mediated (LICI and CSP) cortical neurotransmission in symptomatic individuals with mania (n = 40), schizophrenia (n = 76), unipolar depression (n = 86), and OCD (n = 43), and compared them against similar recordings in healthy subjects (n = 125). Read More

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September 2021

Upregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is responsible for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on self-mineralized collagen membranes.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Collagen membranes crosslinked with high molecular weight polyacrylic acid (HPAA) are capable of self-mineralization via in situ intrafibrillar mineralization. These HPAA-crosslinked collagen membranes (HCM) have been shown to promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhance bone regeneration in vivo. Nevertheless, the biological triggers involved in those processes and the associated mechanisms are not known. Read More

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September 2021

A Novel Non-invasive Score for the Prediction of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Sep 24:100544. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, 58140, Turkey. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: Evaluation of liver fibrosis is important for treatment decisions, complications and to predict prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Our aim was to develop a new non-invasive fibrosis scoring method and prove its accuracy in the differentiation of no/low grade and advanced fibrosis in patients with CHB.

Patients And Methods: Our study included 273 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent liver biopsy from February, 2007 to February, 2019 with medical records retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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September 2021

One-step diagnosis strategy together with multidisciplinary telematics referral perform an effective approach for identifying and treating patients with active Hepatitis C infection.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Sep 24:100542. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

General University Hospital Consortium of Valencia, Department of Infectious Disease, Avenida Tres Cruces, 2. CP, 46014 Valencia, Spain; School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Avenida Tres Cruces, 2. CP, 46014 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: Implementation of one-step strategy for diagnosis of active Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection would encourage the early diagnosis and reduce the time to access antiviral treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of HCV one-step diagnosis compared to the traditional two-step protocol in terms of the time required for patients to be seen by specialist and the time taken to start antiviral treatment.

Material And Methods: A comparative study was carried out to assess two diagnostic algorithms (one-step and two-step) for active HCV infection. Read More

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September 2021

Polystyrene microplastics induce hepatotoxicity and disrupt lipid metabolism in the liver organoids.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;806(Pt 1):150328. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The Ninth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, School of Public Health, Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Microplastic particles (MP) has been detected in the environment widespread. Human beings are inevitably exposed to MP via multiple routines. However, the hazard identifications, as direct evidence of exposure and health risk, have not been fully characterized in human beings. Read More

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September 2021

Damage Associated Molecular Patterns in Necrotic Femoral Head Inhibit Osteogenesis and Promote Fibrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Bone 2021 Sep 24:116215. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Center for Excellence in Hip, Scottish Rite for Children, Dallas, Texas, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

In Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), a loss of blood supply to the juvenile femoral head leads to extensive cell death and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Over time chronic inflammatory repair process is observed with impaired bone regeneration. Increased fibrous tissue and adipose tissue are seen in the marrow space with decreased osteogenesis in a piglet model of LCPD, suggesting inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and stimulation of fibroblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) during the healing process. Read More

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September 2021

Bone adaptation to mechanical loading in mice is affected by circadian rhythms.

Bone 2021 Sep 24:116218. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Research Centre, Shriners Hospital for Children-Canada, Montreal, Canada; Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Experimental Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Physical forces are critical for successful function of many organs including bone. Interestingly, the timing of exercise during the day alters physiology and gene expression in many organs due to circadian rhythms. Circadian clocks in tissues, such as bone, express circadian clock genes that target tissue-specific genes (clock-controlled genes), resulting in tissue-specific rhythmic gene expression. Read More

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September 2021

Aging Aggravates the Progression of Muscle Degeneration after Rotator Cuff Tears in Mice.

Arthroscopy 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aging on muscle degeneration after rotator cuff tear (RCT) in mice.

Methods: Young (12-week-old) and aged (50-to-60-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were used (N = 29 for each group). The rotator cuff was transected, and the proximal humerus was removed to induce degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles. Read More

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September 2021

Photoperiodic modulation of ovarian metabolic, survival, proliferation and gap junction markers in adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Sep 24:111083. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Pineal Research Lab, Reproduction Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Female reproductive physiology is greatly dependent on tight regulation of metabolic and survival factors. Photoperiod regulates female reproductive rhythms but very less information exists explaining whether photoperiod could modulate thyroid hormone homeostasis, metabolic/energy parameters along with survival, proliferation and gap junction proteins in the ovary of a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Adult female hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i. Read More

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September 2021

Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental profiles of a heuristic genetic model of differential schizophrenia- and addiction-relevant features: the RHA vs. RLA rats.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DiSVA), University of Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address:

The Roman High- (RHA) and Low-(RLA) avoidance rat lines/strains were generated through bidirectional selective breeding for rapid (RHA) vs. extremely poor (RLA) two-way active avoidance acquisition. Compared with RLAs and other rat strains/stocks, RHAs are characterized by increased impulsivity, deficits in social behavior, novelty-induced hyper-locomotion, impaired attentional/cognitive abilities, vulnerability to psychostimulant sensitization and drug addiction. Read More

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September 2021

Inflammatory markers might be used to predict early arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation ablation.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Cardilogy, Liaocheng People(,)s Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Liaocheng 252000, PR China.. Electronic address:

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September 2021

AC-MODE OF CHEMOTHERAPY AS A TRIGER OF CARDIAC SYNDROME X: A CASE STUDY.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Sep 24:100994. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Internal Disease Propedeutics Department, Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia.

In the period of dynamic development of pharmacological possibilities in the modern oncology, unfortunately, the issue of cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy did not lost its urgent value. Cardiotoxicity implies structural and functional myocardial alteration, together with an increase in the concentration of highly sensitive markers of myocardial necrosis, in particular T and I troponins, and N-terminal pro-BNP, as well as with a subclinical or clinical decrease in the LVEF. It is noteworthy that cardiotoxicity is manifested not only by the development of anthracycline cardiomyopathy with a high risk of convention into heart failure. Read More

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September 2021

SLC7A11/ xCT is a target of miR-5096 and its restoration partially rescues miR-5096-mediated ferroptosis and anti-tumor effects in human breast cancer cells.

Cancer Lett 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India. Electronic address:

Breast cancer cells evade cell death by overexpressing SLC7A11, which functions by transporting cystine into cells in exchange for intracellular glutamate facilitating glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated stress. Using an in silico approach, we predicted an miRNA (miR-5096) that can target and downregulate SLC7A11. We demonstrated SLC7A11 as a target of miR-5096 by 3'UTR luciferase assay and further validated it by identifying reduced mRNA and protein levels of SLC7A11 upon miR-5096 overexpression. Read More

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September 2021

Antimony-induced astrocyte activation via mitogen-activated protein kinase activation-dependent CREB phosphorylation.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, 226019, China; Fudan University Taizhou Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies suggest that the chemical element antimony (Sb) is neurotoxic; however, the molecular mechanisms behind Sb-related neuronal damage are currently unknown. In this study, we found that Sb exposure promoted astrocyte proliferation and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), two key protein markers of reactive astrogliosis, at both the gene and protein level, suggesting that Sb induced astrocyte activation. Moreover, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathways were activated following Sb exposure. Read More

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September 2021

Markers of the sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nervous system are altered in the human diabetic choroid.

Peptides 2021 Sep 24:170661. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jie-fang Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: We sought to evaluate alterations in markers of the autonomic nervous system in human diabetic choroid.

Methods: Eighteen eyeballs from subjects with diabetes and 22 eyeballs from subjects without diabetes were evaluated in this study. Synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular monoamine transporter II (VMAT-2), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels were detected by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence was performed in some cases. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of C-Reactive Protein and White Blood Cell Count as a Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Monitoring Markers in Bacterial Orofacial Infections.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Senior Resident, Maxillofacial Surgery, Iraqi Board for Medical Specialization, Iraq. Electronic address:

Purpose: 1) To assess the efficacy of C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) levels as a diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools for determining the severity of bacterial orofacial infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and the effectiveness of treatment. 2) To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CRP and WBC as an inflammatory markers in bacterial orofacial infections.

Methods: This prospective study included 30 patients. Read More

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Changes in cortical hemodynamics with the emergence of skilled motor ability in infants: An fNIRS study.

Brain Res 2021 Sep 24:147666. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

The brain activity changes during infancy that underpin the emergence of functional motor skills, such as reaching and stepping, are not well understood . The current study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the hemodynamic response across the frontal, mid-coronal plane (sensorimotor cortex) and external occipital protuberance (cerebellar cortex) regions of typically developing infants (5 to 13 months) during reach-to-grasp or supported treadmill stepping behaviour. Motor ability was assessed using the third edition of the Motor Subscale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Read More

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September 2021

CXCR3 signalling partially contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain in male rodents.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Center for TMD & Orofacial Pain, Peking University School & Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background: Currently, there is a lack of effective therapy for chronic pain. Increasing evidence has shown that chemokines and their correlative receptors involved in the neuron-glial cell cross-talk could contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Our previous studies suggested that CXCR3 expression was elevated in the spinal dorsal horn after nerve injury. Read More

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September 2021

Establishment of a bovine rumen epithelial cell line.

J Anim Sci 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Rumen epithelium plays an essential role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of short-chain fatty acids, the main products of rumen fermentation, and in preventing microbes and other potentially harmful rumen contents from entering the systemic circulation. The objective of this study was to generate an immortal rumen epithelial cell line that can be used as a convenient model of rumen epithelial cells in vitro. We isolated primary rumen epithelial cells from a steer through trypsin digestion and transduced them with lentiviruses expressing the Simian Virus (SV) 40 T antigen. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of the β-tubulin gene family in Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum and its implication for the molecular detection of benzimidazole resistance.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 27;15(9):e0009777. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: The treatment coverage of control programs providing benzimidazole (BZ) drugs to eliminate the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is unprecedently high. This high drug pressure may result in the development of BZ resistance in STHs and so there is an urgent need for surveillance systems detecting molecular markers associated with BZ resistance. A critical prerequisite to develop such systems is an understanding of the gene family encoding β-tubulin proteins, the principal targets of BZ drugs. Read More

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September 2021

Preoperative Serum C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is a Predictor of Complications After Single-stage Revision for the Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: The C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) is a marker of inflammation that has been associated with negative outcomes in the general surgery. This study investigates the potential association of preoperative CAR with postoperative complications and readmission rates in the treatment of patients with single-stage revision total joint arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection.

Methods: A total of 213 consecutive patients who had undergone single-stage revision for total joint arthroplasty with the preoperative diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection and preoperative C-reactive protein and albumin values were included. Read More

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November 2020

Polymorphisms in BMPRIB gene affect litter size in Chinese indigenous sheep breed.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Sep 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

The BMPRIB gene belongs to the TGF-β superfamily and is considered to be a regulator of sheep reproductive performance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMPRIB gene in the Small Tail Han, Hu, Mongolian, Oula, Gansu Alpine Fine-wool, Dorper and Australian White sheep were detected by Sanger sequencing. Five SNPs (rs427897187 G > A, rs418841713 A > G, rs159952533 T > C, rs429416173 C > A and rs403555643 A > G) of BMPRIB gene were identified. Read More

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September 2021