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Blood biomarkers for differential diagnosis and early detection of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 24;96:102193. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Functional Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Pancreatic cancer is currently the most lethal tumor entity and case numbers are rising. It will soon be the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Mortality is close to incidence and patient survival after diagnosis stands at about five months. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated whole blood culture to detect host biosignatures for tuberculosis treatment response.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 Apr 10;128:102082. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Host markers to monitor the response to tuberculosis (TB) therapy hold some promise. We evaluated the changes in concentration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-induced soluble biomarkers during early treatment for predicting short- and long-term treatment outcomes. Read More

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A morphovolumetric analysis of aneurysm sac evolution after elective endovascular abdominal aortic repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Objectives: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac shrinkage after endovascular repair (EVAR) has been regarded as positive marker of EVAR success durability. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphovolumetric changes of the AAA sac during follow-up after elective EVAR, and to analyze sac shrinkage related variables.

Methods: This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study from a tertiary referral university hospital. Read More

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Characterization of chronic active multiple sclerosis lesions with sodium ( Na) MRI - preliminary observations.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim and Mannheim Center for Translational Neurosciences (MCTN), University of Heidelberg, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: There has been an increasing interest in chronic active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of disease progression. Chronic active lesions are characterized by progressive tissue matrix damage, axonal loss and chronic inflammation. Sodium ( Na) MRI provides a biochemical marker of cell integrity and tissue viability in a quantitative manner. Read More

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The role of sex-differentiated variations in stress hormones, antioxidants, and neuroimmune responses in relation to social interaction impairment in a rodent model of autism.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Central Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, P O Box 22452, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia.

Males are more likely to develop autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder than females, but the mechanisms underlying male susceptibility are not fully understood. In this paper, we used a well-characterized propionic acid (PPA) rodent model of autism to study sex differences in stress hormones, antioxidants' status, and the neuroimmune response that may contribute to the preponderance of autism in males. Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes were divided into a saline-treated group as controls and PPA-treated groups, receiving 250 mg/kg of PPA per day for three days. Read More

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Instrumentally assessed gait quality is more relevant than gait endurance and velocity to explain patient-reported walking ability in early stage Multiple Sclerosis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

IRCSS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy.

Background: People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) often report walking limitations even when the gold-standard Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) indicates normal walking endurance/autonomy. The present multicenter study on early-stage PwMS aims at analyzing which aspects are associated to patient-reported walking limitations measured with 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12).

Methods: Eighty-two PwMS (EDSS≤2. Read More

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Prognostic Value of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio in Patients Resuscitated from Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 17:e14227. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, University of Health Sciences, Mehmet Akif Inan Training and Research Hospital, Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Background: Despite major advances in basic and advanced life supports, patients who survived from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has still poor prognosis. Several inflammatory parameters have been used to determine early and long-term prognosis in patients with OHCA. C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) is also a novel marker of systemic inflammation. Read More

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Not all melanomas are created equal: A review and call for more research into nodular melanoma.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology-Venereology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Among the histogenic subtypes of melanoma, nodular melanoma (NM) is the major contributor for thicker and fatal melanomas and it has been associated with melanoma-specific death in thin tumours highlighting an important subgroup of 'aggressive thin' melanomas. This review provides a synthesis of the distinct characteristics of NM, with respect to epidemiology and risk factors, clinical presentation, histopathology, molecular and dermoscopic aspects, and screening practices. The real challenges are to find better biomarkers of aggressiveness and to know whether the control of such aggressive melanoma can be influenced by targeted interventions such as early detection, drug interventions and preventive strategies. Read More

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Epidemiology of 631 Cases of COVID-19 Identified in Jiangsu Province Between January 1st and March 20th 2020: Factors Associated with Disease Severity and Analysis of Zero Mortality.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 17;27:e929986. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Acute Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate the factors associated with disease severity and patient outcomes in 631 patients with COVID-19 who were reported to the Jiangsu Commission of Health between January 1 and March 20, 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an epidemiological investigation enrolling 631 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from our clinic from January to March 2020. Patients' information was collected through a standard questionnaire. Read More

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Safety, anti-tumor activity, and biomarker analysis in a phase 1 trial of the once-daily Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib (AZD1775) in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute

Purpose: The Wee1 kinase inhibitor adavosertib abrogates cell cycle arrest, leading to cell death. Prior testing of twice-daily adavosertib in patients with advanced solid tumors determined the recommended phase 2 dose (RPh2D). Here, we report results for once-daily adavosertib. Read More

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Early prediction of serious infections in febrile infants incorporating heart rate variability in an emergency department: a pilot study.

Emerg Med J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: Early differentiation of febrile young infants with from those without serious infections (SIs) remains a diagnostic challenge. We sought to (1) compare vital signs and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between febrile infants with versus without SIs, (2) assess the performance of HRV and vital signs with reference to current triage tools and (3) compare HRV and vital signs to HRV, vital signs and blood biomarkers, when predicting for the presence of SIs.

Methods: Using a prospective observational design, we recruited patients <3 months old presenting to a tertiary paediatric ED in Singapore from December 2018 through November 2019. Read More

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Diagnostic efficacy of serum and urinary netrin-1 in the early detection of diabetic nephropathy.

J Investig Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinical Pathology, Tanta University Faculty of Medicine, Tanta, Egypt

This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serum and urinary netrin-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and to compare its efficacy of estimation in serum with that in the urine. This study was carried out on 135 patients with T2DM and 45 healthy subjects. The patients with diabetes were divided according to urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) into: T2DM with normoalbuminuria, incipient DN with microalbuminuria, and overt DN with macroalbuminuria groups. Read More

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Serum biomarkers and cerebral autoregulation as early warnings of delayed cerebral ischemia risk in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 9;87:35-43. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Identifying patients at risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) remains challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of serum biomarkers along with cerebral autoregulation impairment on DCI.

Methods: 55 patients suffering from aSAH were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Quality Is King: Fundamental Insights into Tumor Antigenicity from Virus-Associated Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA. Electronic address:

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare skin malignancy that is a paradigm cancer for solid tumor immunotherapy. MCCs associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (virus-positive MCC [VP-MCC]) or chronic UV exposure (virus-negative MCC [VN-MCC]) are anti-PD(L)1 responsive, despite VP-MCC's low mutational burden. This suggests that antigen quality, not merely mutation quantity, dictates immunotherapy responsiveness, and cell-based therapies targeting optimal antigens may be effective. Read More

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A genetically defined signature of responsiveness to erlotinib in early-stage pancreatic cancer patients: Results from the CONKO-005 trial.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 13;66:103327. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: high recurrence rates of up to 75% within 2 years in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients resected for cure indicate a high medical need for clinical prediction tools and patient specific treatment approaches. Addition of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib to adjuvant chemotherapy failed to improve outcome but its efficacy in some patients warrants predictors of responsiveness.

Patients And Methods: we analysed tumour samples from 293 R0-resected patients from the randomized, multicentre phase III CONKO-005 trial (gemcitabine ± erlotinib) with targeted sequencing, copy number, and RNA expression analyses. Read More

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MiR-25 and KLF4 relationship has early prognostic significance in the development of cervical cancer.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 9;222:153435. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ankara University, Biotechnology Institute, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the common cancer types among women. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the formation and development of many cancer types by regulating expression of their targets. While many studies have investigated the relationship between miRNAs and cervical cancer, no robust miRNA biomarkers have been defined yet for diagnosis of cervical lesions. Read More

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Quantitative determination of creatinine from serum of prostate cancer patients by N-doped porous carbon antimony (Sb/NPC) nanoparticles.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 5;140:107815. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Creatinine is an indicator of hindrance in urination and renal insufficiency. Creatinine levels are the marker of the late stages of prostate cancer. Early and sensitive detection of creatinine can reduce deaths associated with prostate cancer. Read More

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Involvement of salicylic acid in the response to potassium deficiency revealed by metabolomics.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 6;163:201-204. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research School of Biology, ANU College of Science, Australian National University, 2601, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, Université d'Angers, INRAe, 42 rue Georges Morel, 49070, Beaucouzé, France. Electronic address:

Potassium (K) deficiency has consequences not only on cellular ion balance and transmembrane potential but also on metabolism. In fact, several enzymes are K-dependent including enzymes in catabolism, causing an alteration in glycolysis and respiration. In addition, K deficiency is associated with the induction of specific pathways and accumulation of metabolic biomarkers, such as putrescine. Read More

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SPOP suppresses testicular germ cell tumors progression through ubiquitination and degradation of DPPA2.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 13;557:55-61. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315020, China; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. Electronic address:

Dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is strongly associated with cancer initiation and progression. Speckle-type POZ(pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein(SPOP) is an adapter protein of CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Gene expression profiling from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) suggests that SPOP is downregulated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), but the specific contribution of this protein remains to be explored. Read More

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A predictive framework based on brain volume trajectories enabling early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 Apr 2;90:101910. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Data used in the preparation of this article was obtained from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) funded by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) which was made available at the ADNI database. The AIBL researchers contributed data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. AIBL researchers are listed at www.aibl.csiro.au.

We present a framework for constructing predictive models of cognitive decline from longitudinal MRI examinations, based on mixed effects models and machine learning. We apply the framework to detect conversion from cognitively normal (CN) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD), using a large collection of subjects sourced from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Aging (AIBL). We extract subcortical segmentation and cortical parcellation from corresponding T1-weighted images using FreeSurfer v. Read More

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Identification of dysregulated competing endogenous RNA networks in glioblastoma: A way toward improved therapeutic opportunities.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 13:119488. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma is recognized as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although there have been considerable advancements in understanding the causative molecular mechanisms of this malignancy, effective therapeutic strategies are still in limited use. It has been revealed that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critical roles in glioblastoma development, while interactions between the regulatory molecules such as long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), transcribed pseudogenes, and circular RNAs (circRNAs) remain to be fully deciphered. Read More

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Neurodevelopment and exposure to neurotoxic metal(loid)s in environments polluted by mining, metal scrapping and smelters, and e-waste recycling in low and middle-income countries.

Authors:
José G Dórea

Environ Res 2021 Apr 13:111124. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 70919-970, DF, Brasil. Electronic address:

This review covers a wide body of literature to gain an understanding of the impacts of informal activities related to metal extraction (primary mining and recycling) on early life exposure to neurotoxicants and on neurodevelopment. In primary mining, gold extraction with Hg amalgamation is the main environmental cause of Hg pollution in most artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities around the world. Nevertheless, in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Pb disrupted from gold-related ores, mining, and artisanal cookware production are an important neurotoxicant that seriously contaminates the affected population, with devastating effects on children. Read More

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Associations of D-dimer with CT Lung Abnormalities, Serum Biomarkers of Lung Injury, and Forced Vital Capacity: MESA Lung Study.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Weill Cornell Medical College, 12295, Department of Medicine, New York, New York, United States.

Rationale: The coagulation cascade may play a role in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease through increased production of thrombin and fibrin deposition. Whether circulating coagulation cascade factors are linked to lung inflammation and scarring among community-dwelling adults is unknown.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that higher baseline D-dimer levels are associated with markers of early lung injury and scarring. Read More

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Assessment of mean platelet volume and aortic intima media thickness in pediatric familial Mediterranean fever: as early markers of atherosclerosis.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Health Sciences Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Familial Mediterranean fever is the most common auto-inflammatory disease in childhood. The aim of present study is to assess whether familial Mediterranean fever increases the risk of premature atherosclerosis.

Materials And Methods: It is a case-control prospective study. Read More

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Preoperative prediction of pathologic grade of HCC on gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Liver Disease, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To evaluate the value of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in predicting the pathologic grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: Patients with pathologically proven HCC who underwent preoperative gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI were included. Two radiologists blinded to pathology results evaluated images in consensus. Read More

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Circulating pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinic for Nuclear Medicine and Competence Centre for Thyroid Diseases, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Objectives: Serum calcitonin (CT) is pivotal in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) management. Recently, progastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) has been proposed as a candidate complementary tumor marker of MTC. As current data are sparse our study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of ProGRP in patients with MTC and its relationship with the tumor burden. Read More

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Demarcated redness associated with increased vascular density/size: a useful marker of flat-type dysplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Apr 12;9(4):E552-E561. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Preventive Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Recent advances in endoscopic equipment and diagnostic techniques have improved the detection of dysplasia in the inflamed mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it remains difficult to endoscopically identify flat-type dysplasia which has been formerly recognized as invisible dysplasia. In this retrospective, single-center study, we endoscopically identified 10 cases of flat-type-predominant dysplasia by targeted biopsy among 38 intramucosal dysplasia lesions from patients with UC who underwent surgical or endoscopic resection from 2007 to 2017. Read More

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Gene Expression Signature of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Genet 2021 30;12:646436. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a brain function change caused by external forces, which is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify early diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for TBI. Differences between TBI and controls in GSE89866 and GSE104687 were analyzed. Read More

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Long noncoding RNAs may impact podocytes and proximal tubule function through modulating miRNAs expression in Early Diabetic Kidney Disease of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

Int J Med Sci 2021 15;18(10):2093-2101. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Centre for Molecular Research in Nephrology and Vascular Disease, Faculty of Medicine, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania Eftimie Murgu Sq. no. 2, 300041 Timisoara, RO.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in the pathophysiology of DKD involving actions of microRNAs (miRNAs). The aims of the study were to establish the involvement of selected lncRNAs in the epigenetic mechanisms of podocyte damage and tubular injury in DKD of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in relation to a particular miRNAs profile. A total of 136 patients with type 2 DM and 25 healthy subjects were assessed in a cross-sectional study concerning urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR), eGFR, biomarkers of podocyte damage (synaptopodin, podocalyxin) and of proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction (Kidney injury molecule-1-KIM-1, N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase-NAG), urinary lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT), taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), urinary miRNA21, 124, 93, 29a. Read More

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Clinical Value of Detecting Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (ANTXR1) as a Biomarker in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 9;13:3113-3122. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Didactics and Medical Simulation, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Despite the continuous improvements in prevention and detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), there is an urgent need to find a sensitive, specific, and noninvasive biomarker to improve the early diagnosis and prognosis of CRC. We aimed to evaluate the tissue TEM8 expression and the serum TEM8 concentration in CRC patients.

Methods: The study enrolled 42 CRC patients and 35 controls. Read More

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