67,113 results match your criteria manner observed


Physiological plasticity and acclimatory responses to salinity stress are ion-specific in the mayfly, Neocloeon triangulifer.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 4;286:117221. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA. Electronic address:

Freshwater salinization is a rapidly emerging ecological issue and is correlated with significant declines in aquatic biodiversity. It remains unclear how changing salinity regimes affect the physiology of sensitive aquatic insects. We used the parthenogenetic mayfly, Neocloeon triangulifer, to ask how ionic exposure history alters physiological processes and responses to subsequent major ion exposures. Read More

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Key Factors Governing the Reconstitution Time of High Concentration Lyophilized Protein Formulations.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA; Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

Lyophilized protein formulations containing highly concentrated proteins often have long and variable reconstitution times. Reconstitution time is dependent on a number of factors in a complex manner. Furthermore, factors influencing the reconstitution of partially crystalline cakes are reportedly different from those of amorphous cakes. Read More

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A developmental framework linking neurogenesis and circuit formation in the Drosophila CNS.

Elife 2021 May 11;10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, United States.

The mechanisms specifying neuronal diversity are well-characterized, yet it remains unclear how or if these mechanisms regulate neural circuit assembly. To address this, we mapped the developmental origin of 160 interneurons from seven bilateral neural progenitors (neuroblasts), and identify them in a synapse-scale TEM reconstruction of the larval CNS. We find that lineages concurrently build the sensory and motor neuropils by generating sensory and motor hemilineages in a Notch-dependent manner. Read More

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Health and Art (HEART): Integrating Science and Art to Fight COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:937-964

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Netting individuals separated from each other by vast distances; the present condition of COVID-19 needs art and its extraordinary capacity to connect human beings and integrate scientific disciplines. We can predict that the COVID-19 pandemic would leave the mind lonely and vulnerable to diseases, for, on the one hand, the COVID-19 pandemic and related problems, in particular social isolation, are itself stressor. On the other hand, studies confirm the potential of COVID-19 to involve the central nervous system by affecting the immune system, either directly or indirectly. Read More

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January 2021

Nature of phytotoxic interference of alien weed 'Calyptocarpus vialis' against some crop plants.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 10;193(6):334. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India.

Calyptocarpus vialis (syn. Synedrella vialis; Asteraceae), a native of the tropical Americas, has acquired an invasive status in the eastern Asia and Africa and, of late, in India. It is an annual herbaceous weed that forms a dominant ground cover due to its prostrate expansion and interferes with the growth of other plant species. Read More

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Tolerability, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Immunogenicity of a Novel SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody, Etesevimab in Chinese Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, First-In-Human Phase 1 Study.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Phase 1 Clinical Research Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly worldwide. This study is the first to report the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of a recombinant human anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody, etesevimab (CB6, JS016, LY3832479 or LY-CoV016), in healthy adults. This paper involves a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study. Read More

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Exploring lipid-dependent conformations of membrane-bound α-synuclein with the VDAC nanopore.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 May 7:183643. Epub 2021 May 7.

Section on Molecular Transport, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Regulation of VDAC by α-Synuclein (αSyn) is a rich and instructive example of protein-protein interactions catalyzed by a lipid membrane surface. αSyn, a peripheral membrane protein involved in Parkinson's disease pathology, is known to bind to membranes in a transient manner. αSyn's negatively charged C-terminal domain is then available to be electromechanically trapped by the VDAC β-barrel, a process that is observed in vitro as the reversible reduction of ion flow through a single voltage-biased VDAC nanopore. Read More

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Correction and quantification of MTF in scanning laser microscopy.

J Microsc 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Business Development Department, Astrodesign, Inc., 1-5-2 Minami-yukigaya, Otaku, Japan.

Observations using conventional microscopy often lack information related to the fine structures of an object, such as intensity and phase, because of limitations in the lens aperture. In this study, the intensity and phase information are appropriately converted into an electrical signal using laser scanning and photodetectors. Intensity and phase are completely separated, and the missing information is restored based on the frequency of the electrical signal. Read More

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Embryotoxic effects of Rovral® for early chicken () development.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 May 10:1-17. Epub 2021 May 10.

Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza, Universidade Federal Da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA), Foz Do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil.

Rovral® is a fungicide used to control pests that affect various crops and little is known regarding its effects on embryonic development of amniotes. Thus, this study aimed to determine the influence of Rovral® during chicken organogenesis using acute contamination. Fertilized eggs were inoculated with different concentrations of Rovral® (100, 300, 500 or 750 µl/ml), injected into the egg's air chamber. Read More

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CUL4B facilitates HBV replication by promoting HBx stabilization.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology and Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying HBV replication remain unclear. Cullin 4B-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase (CRL4B) is involved in regulating diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. Read More

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Reduced WNT5A signaling in melanoma cells favors an amoeboid mode of invasion.

Mol Oncol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Experimental Pathology, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Tumor cells invade and spread via either a mesenchymal or an amoeboid mode of migration. Amoeboid tumor cells have a rounded morphology and pronounced RhoA activity. Here, we investigate how WNT5A signaling, a tumor promotor in melanoma, relates to Rho GTPase activity and amoeboid migration. Read More

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LncRNA UCA1 elevates the resistance of human leukaemia cells to daunorubicin by the PI3K/AKT pathway via sponging miR-613.

Biosci Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Acute leukemia is a hematological malignant tumor. Long non-coding RNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) is involved in the chemo-resistance of diverse cancers, but it is unclear whether UCA1 is associated with the sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to daunorubicin (DNR). DNR (100 nM) was selected for functional analysis. Read More

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A bioactive fraction of inhibits adipogenesis and inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells via modulation of PPAR-γ/SREBP-1c and TNF-α/IL-6.

3 Biotech 2021 May 23;11(5):233. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Cell Culture and Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517502 India.

has huge demand owing to its commercial and medicinal value. However, there are limited research studies on its therapeutic activity against obesity and obesity-induced inflammation and underlying mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, chloroform bioactive fraction of (CFP) was isolated and evaluated for its activity against adipogenesis and adipogenesis-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 cell culture model. Read More

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Salidroside overcomes dexamethasone resistance in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 15;21(6):636. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University and Birth Defects Clinical Medical Research Center of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the use of salidroside (SAL) could overcome dexamethasone (DEX) resistance in T-acute lymphocytic leukemia cells. The human T-ALL DEX-resistant cell line, CEM-C1 and the DEX-sensitive cell line, CEM-C7 were used in the current study. The proliferation inhibition rates in these cells, treated with SAL and DEX alone, and in combination were detected using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, while the morphological changes of the cells were observed using an inverted microscope. Read More

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Glycated Albumin Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Human Airway Epithelium and Causes an Increase in Ciliary Beat Frequency.

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:653177. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The role of inflammation in airway epithelial cells and its regulation are important in several respiratory diseases. When disease is present, the barrier between the pulmonary circulation and the airway epithelium is damaged, allowing serum proteins to enter the airways. We identified that human glycated albumin (GA) is a molecule in human serum that triggers an inflammatory response in human airway epithelial cultures. Read More

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Time Series Tracking of Cerebral Microvascular Adaptation to Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Imaged with Repeated In Vivo Two-Photon Microscopy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:323-327

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent System, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan.

The present study describes methodological aspects of image analysis for angiographic image data with long-term two-photon microscopy acquired for the investigation of dynamic changes in the three-dimensional (3D) network structure of the capillaries (less than 8 μm in diameter) in the mouse cerebral cortex. Volume images of the identical capillaries over different periods of days up to 32 days were compared for adaptation under either chronic hypoxia (8-9% O) or hyperoxia (40-50% O). We observed that the median diameters of measured capillaries were 5. Read More

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Improvement in the anti-inflammatory profile with lifelong physical exercise is related to clock genes expression in effector-memory CD4+ T cells in master athletes.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2021 ;27:67-83

University of Coimbra, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: Ageing is associated with alterations in the immune system as well as with alterations of the circadian rhythm. Immune cells show rhythmicity in execution of their tasks. Chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which is observed in the elderly, is mitigated by lifelong exercise. Read More

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January 2021

The paraventricular thalamus input to central amygdala controls depression-related behaviors.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 6:113744. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Metabolic & Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China; Department of Psychology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

The dysregulation of neuronal networks may contribute to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural connections underlying the symptoms of MDD have yet to be elucidated. Here, we observed that glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) were activated by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with higher expression numbers of ΔFosB-labeled neurons and protein expression levels, activation of PVT neurons caused depressive-like phenotypes, whereas suppression of PVT neuronal activity induced an antidepressant effect in male, but not female mice, which were achieved by using a chemogenetic approach. Read More

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XRCC2 repairs mitochondrial DNA damage and fuels malignant behavior in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The effects of DNA damage repair (DDR) and mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HCC have been investigated, but the functional role of mitochondrial DDR in HCC remains elusive. We studied the DDR genes and identified XRCC2 as a potential prognostic marker for HCC. XRCC2 overexpression was detected in HCC cells and shown to promote the malignant behavior of cancer cells. Read More

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Pharmacological SARM1 inhibition protects axon structure and function in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Disarm Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly & Co., Cambridge MA 02142, USA.

Axonal degeneration is an early and ongoing event that causes disability and disease progression in many neurodegenerative disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of morbidity and the main cause of dose reductions and discontinuations in cancer treatment. Preclinical evidence indicates that activation of the Wallerian-like degeneration pathway driven by SARM1 is responsible for axonopathy in CIPN. Read More

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A role for the fusogen eff-1 in epidermal stem cell number robustness in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9787. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Developmental patterning in Caenorhabditis elegans is known to proceed in a highly stereotypical manner, which raises the question of how developmental robustness is achieved despite the inevitable stochastic noise. We focus here on a population of epidermal cells, the seam cells, which show stem cell-like behaviour and divide symmetrically and asymmetrically over post-embryonic development to generate epidermal and neuronal tissues. We have conducted a mutagenesis screen to identify mutants that introduce phenotypic variability in the normally invariant seam cell population. Read More

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Anthropogenic underwater vibrations are sensed and stressful for the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 16;285:117148. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS, UK; Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile; Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía (IMO), Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Electronic address:

Acoustic pollution in aquatic environments has increased with adverse effects on many aquatic organisms. However, little work has been done considering the effects of the vibratory component of acoustic stimuli, which can be transmitted in the substrate and propagated into the aquatic medium. Benthic marine organisms, including many invertebrates, are capable of sensing seabed vibration, yet the responses they trigger on organism have received little attention. Read More

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Overexpression of oncogenic H-Ras in hTERT-immortalized and SV40-transformed human cells targets replicative and specialized DNA polymerases for depletion.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251188. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, The Jake Gittlen Laboratories for Cancer Research, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

DNA polymerases play essential functions in replication fork progression and genome maintenance. DNA lesions and drug-induced replication stress result in up-regulation and re-localization of specialized DNA polymerases η and κ. Although oncogene activation significantly alters DNA replication dynamics, causing replication stress and genome instability, little is known about DNA polymerase expression and regulation in response to oncogene activation. Read More

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Weakly Supervised Low-Rank Representation for Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

In this article, we propose a weakly supervised low-rank representation (WSLRR) method for hyperspectral anomaly detection (HAD), which formulates deep learning-based HAD into a low-lank optimization problem not only characterizing the complex and diverse background in real HSIs but also obtaining relatively strong supervision information. Different from the existing unsupervised and supervised methods, we first model the background in a weakly supervised manner, which achieves better performance without prior information and is not restrained by richly correct annotation. Considering reconstruction biases introduced by the weakly supervised estimation, LRR is an effective method for further exploring the intricate background structures. Read More

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A phase 1b/2a, open-label, multiple ascending dose trial of domagrozumab in FKRP limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

Muscle Nerve 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Genetic Muscle Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.

Introduction: We report the results of a phase 1b/2a, open-label, multiple ascending dose trial of domagrozumab, a myostatin inhibitor, in patients with FKRP-associated limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Nineteen patients were enrolled and assigned to one of three dosing arms (5 mg/kg, 20mg/kg, or 40mg/kg every 4 weeks). Following 32 weeks of treatment, participants receiving the lowest dose were switched to the highest dose (40mg/kg) for an additional 32 weeks. Read More

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Enantioselective synthesis of 3-aryl-phthalides through a nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent cross-coupling reaction.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Research Center of Chiral Drugs, Innovation Research Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. and CAS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032, China and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Engineering of Chiral Drugs, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

A nickel-catalyzed asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of racemic 3-bromo-phthalides and arylboronic acids was realized for the synthesis of diverse chiral 3-aryl-phthalides in moderate to excellent reaction yields. The reaction proceeded in a stereoconvergent manner and high enantioselectivities were observed for most examined examples. A number of functional groups like aldehyde, ester and bromide were well tolerated. Read More

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Persistent effects of pair bonding in lung cancer cell growth in monogamous .

Elife 2021 May 7;10. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, United States.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that social interactions and especially bonding between couples influence tumorigenesis, yet whether this is due to lifestyle changes, homogamy (likelihood of individuals to marry people of similar health), or directly associated with host-induced effects in tumors remains debatable. In the present study, we explored if tumorigenesis is associated with the bonding experience in monogamous rodents at which disruption of pair bonds is linked to anxiety and stress. Comparison of lung cancer cell spheroids that formed in the presence of sera from bonded and bond-disrupted deer mice showed that in monogamous and , but not in polygamous , the disruption of pair bonds altered the size and morphology of spheroids in a manner that is consistent with the acquisition of increased oncogenic potential. Read More

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Exciton Self-Trapping Dynamics in 1D Perovskite Single Crystals: Effect of Quantum Tunnelling.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 7:4509-4516. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Science, Institute of Information Photonics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

We present experimental and theoretical investigations of the photophysics in the one-dimensional (1D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) white-light emitter, [DMEDA]PbBr. It is found that the broadband-emission nature of the 1D perovskite is similar to the case of two-dimensional (2D) HOIP materials, exciton self-trapping (ST) is the dominant mechanism. By comprehensive spectroscopic investigations, we observed direct evidence of exciton crossing the energy barrier separating free and ST states through quantum tunnelling. Read More

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Chromatin remodeling in replication-uncoupled maintenance DNA methylation and chromosome stability: Insights from ICF syndrome studies.

Authors:
Motoko Unoki

Genes Cells 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Epigenomics and Development, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is characterized by frequent appearance of multiradial chromosomes, which are distinctive chromosome fusions that occur at hypomethylated pericentromeric regions comprising repetitive sequences, in activated lymphocytes. The syndrome is caused by mutations in DNMT3B, ZBTB24, CDCA7, or HELLS. De novo DNA methylation is likely defective in patients with ICF syndrome harboring mutations in DNMT3B, whereas accumulating evidence suggests that replication-uncoupled maintenance DNA methylation of late-replicating regions is impaired in patients with ICF syndrome harboring mutations in ZBTB24, CDCA7, or HELLS. Read More

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A high magnesium concentration in citrate dialysate prevents oxidative stress and damage in human monocytes .

Clin Kidney J 2021 May 30;14(5):1403-1411. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Dpto de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The use of dialysis fluids (DFs) during haemodialysis has been associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced serum magnesium (Mg) levels, contributing to chronic inflammation. Since the role of Mg in modulating immune function and reducing oxidative stress has been demonstrated, the aim of this study was to characterize whether increasing the Mg concentration in DFs could protect immune cells from oxidative stress and damage.

Methods: The effect of citrate [citrate dialysis fluid (CDF), 1 mM] or acetate [acetate dialysis fluid (ADF), 3 mM] dialysates with low (0. Read More

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