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Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Innate Immune Mechanisms Control Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Virulence in the Larval Model.

mBio 2021 Jun 15:e0027621. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains constitute a major public health concern worldwide and are responsible for both health care- and community-associated infections. Here, we establish a robust and easy-to-implement model of oral S. aureus infection using Drosophila melanogaster larvae that allowed us to follow the fate of S. Read More

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Application of Recombinant Rabies Virus to Xenopus Tadpole Brain.

eNeuro 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Neuroscience Department and The Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla CA

The Xenopus laevis experimental system has provided significant insight into the development and plasticity of neural circuits. Xenopus neuroscience research would be enhanced by additional tools to study neural circuit structure and function. Rabies viruses are powerful tools to label and manipulate neural circuits and have been widely used to study mesoscale connectomics. Read More

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The main factors of supplier-induced demand in health care: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 27;10:49. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Induced demand is a major challenge for financing health promotion, whereby providers exploit patients' information gap to manipulate their demand for health care. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with induced demand for health-care services in hospitals affiliated with Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in 2018.

Materials And Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 participants from IUMS hospitals, including faculty members, physicians, public hospital managers, patients, and researchers with academic and practical experience. Read More

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February 2021

Rechained: Sybil-Resistant Distributed Identities for the Internet of Things and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 8;21(9). Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute for Software and Systems Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany.

Today, increasing Internet of Things devices are deployed, and the field of applications for decentralized, self-organizing networks keeps growing. The growth also makes these systems more attractive to attackers. Sybil attacks are a common issue, especially in decentralized networks and networks that are deployed in scenarios with irregular or unreliable Internet connectivity. Read More

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Manipulation of Actin Cytoskeleton by Intracellular-Targeted ROS Generation.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2274:271-279

University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

A method to generate small amount of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) at intracellular targeted region has great potential to manipulate the function of particular proteins. The present protocol introduces a fusion protein that consisted of firefly luciferase (FLuc), photosensitizer protein KillerRed and F-actin-targeting peptide Lifeact (Lifeact-KillerFirefly) to generate ROSs in the vicinity of F-actin and found that morphological change in F-actin structure was induced by the fusion protein after luciferin treatment. This manipulating and imaging method is of use to analyze the role of the locally generated ROSs on the function of intracellular proteins. Read More

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January 2021

Optically superior fluorescent probes for selective imaging of cells, tumors, and reactive chemical species.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India.

Fluorescent chemical probes have become powerful tools to study biological events in living cells. They provide a great opportunity to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the physiological and biochemical properties of living cells in real time. The ability of researchers to manipulate these probes for a desired specific purpose has turned many heads in the scientific community. Read More

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Elevation of Peripheral Blood CD34+ and Platelet Levels After Exercise With Cooling and Compression.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 22;3(2):e399-e410. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Andrews Institute for Orthopedics & Sports Medicine, U.S.A.

Purpose: To analyze the cellular response and chemokine profiles following exercise using cooling and blood flow restriction on the Vasper system.

Methods: Healthy male patients between the ages of 20 and 39 years were recruited. Testing was performed on the Vasper system, a NuStep cross-trainer with concomitant 4-limb venous compression with proximal arm cuffs at 40 mm Hg and proximal leg cuffs at 65 mm Hg. Read More

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Spectral caustics of high-order harmonics in one-dimensional periodic crystals.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2248-2251

We theoretically investigate the spectral caustics of high-order harmonics in solids. We analyze the one-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in solids and find that apart from the caustics originating from the van Hove singularities in the energy band structure, another kind of catastrophe enhancement also emerges in solids when the different branches of electron-hole trajectories generating high-order harmonics coalesce into a single branch. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in terms of the periodic potential and demonstrate the control of this kind of singularity in HHG with the aid of two-color laser fields. Read More

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Can Rules in Technical-Tactical Decisions Influence on Physical and Mental Load during Soccer Training? A Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 19;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Av. of University S/N, 10013 Caceres, Spain.

This study aimed to analyze the effects of rules limitations in pass decisions during soccer tasks on physical and mental load reported by players. Participants were 40 semiprofessional Spanish soccer players ( = 22.40, = 2. Read More

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Confidence and central tendency in perceptual judgment.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

This paper theoretically and empirically investigates the role of noisy cognition in perceptual judgment, focusing on the central tendency effect: the well-known empirical regularity that perceptual judgments are biased towards the center of the stimulus distribution. Based on a formal Bayesian framework, we generate predictions about the relationships between subjective confidence, central tendency, and response variability. Specifically, our model clarifies that lower subjective confidence as a measure of posterior uncertainty about a judgment should predict (i) a lower sensitivity of magnitude estimates to objective stimuli; (ii) a higher sensitivity to the mean of the stimulus distribution; (iii) a stronger central tendency effect at higher stimulus magnitudes; and (iv) higher response variability. Read More

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Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microfluidics and biosensors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 10;32(31). Epub 2021 May 10.

INTA srl, Intelligent Acoustics Systems, Via Nino Pisano 14, I-56122 Pisa, Italy.

Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have the potential to become the basis for a wide gamut of lab-on-a-chips (LoCs). These mechanical waves are among the most promising physics that can be exploited for fulfilling all the requirements of commercially appealing devices that aim to replace-or help-laboratory facilities. These requirements are low processing cost of the devices, scalable production, controllable physics, large flexibility of tasks to perform, easy device miniaturization. Read More

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Learning How to Code While Analyzing an Open Access Electrophysiology Dataset.

Ashley Juavinett

J Undergrad Neurosci Educ 2020 31;19(1):A94-A104. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Division of Biological Sciences, Neurobiology Section, UC San Diego.

Conducting neuroscience research increasingly requires proficiency in coding and the ability to manipulate and analyze large datasets. However, these skills are often not included in typical neurobiology courses, partially because they are seen as accessory rather than central, and partially because of the barriers to entry. Therefore, this lesson plan aims to provide an introduction to coding in Python, a free and user-friendly programming language, for instructors and students alike. Read More

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December 2020

Kerr-nonlinearity induced bistable-like parity-time phase transition in coupled waveguides.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(5):7935-7947

We analyze the parity-time () symmetric phase in coupled two waveguides with a Kerr-type medium in between. Paying attention to the emitted field from a dipole source inside, we show that when the strength of the dipole increases, the optical Kerr effect can render a phase transition from the exact phase to the broken phase. Furthermore, a salient phenomenon of bistable-like phase is observed, in which the emitted field possesses a paradox between the two kinds of phases. Read More

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A zebrafish toolbox for biomechanical signaling in cardiovascular development and disease.

Curr Opin Hematol 2021 May;28(3):198-207

Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: The zebrafish embryo has emerged as a powerful model organism to investigate the mechanisms by which biophysical forces regulate vascular and cardiac cell biology during development and disease. A versatile arsenal of methods and tools is available to manipulate and analyze biomechanical signaling. This review aims to provide an overview of the experimental strategies and tools that have been utilized to study biomechanical signaling in cardiovascular developmental processes and different vascular disease models in the zebrafish embryo. Read More

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Associations between the gut microbiome and fatigue in cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5847. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Unit 0455, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Fatigue is the most prevalent symptom of cancer and its treatments. Changes in the intestinal microbiome have been identified in chronic fatigue syndrome and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer patients. However, the association between intestinal microbiome and fatigue in patients with advanced cancers has not been evaluated. Read More

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Broadband detection of multiple spin and orbital angular momenta via dielectric metasurface.

Laser Photon Rev 2020 ;14(9)

National Laboratory of Solid-State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Light beams carrying spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM) have created novel opportunities in the areas of optical communications, imaging, micromanipulation and quantum optics. However, complex optical setups are required to simultaneously manipulate, measure and analyze these states, which significantly limits system integration. Here, we introduce a novel detection approach for measuring multiple SAM and OAM modes simultaneously through a planar nanophotonic demultiplexer based on an all-dielectric metasurface. Read More

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January 2020

Social Collective Attack Model and Procedures for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;21(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China.

A large-scale Cyber-Physical System (CPS) such as a smart grid usually provides service to a vast number of users as a public utility. Security is one of the most vital aspects in such critical infrastructures. The existing CPS security usually considers the attack from the information domain to the physical domain, such as injecting false data to damage sensing. Read More

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February 2021

Comparative Proteomics of Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 and Pacific Oyster Interactions With Two Families Exhibiting Contrasted Susceptibility to Viral Infection.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:621994. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

SG2M-LGPMM, Laboratoire De Génétique Et Pathologie Des Mollusques Marins, Ifremer, La Tremblade, France.

Massive mortality outbreaks affecting Pacific oysters () spat/juveniles are often associated with the detection of a herpesvirus called ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). In this work, experimental infection trials of spat with OsHV-1 were conducted using two contrasted Pacific oyster families for their susceptibility to viral infection. Live oysters were sampled at 12, 26, and 144 h post infection (hpi) to analyze host-pathogen interactions using comparative proteomics. Read More

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January 2021

Structure of Leaf Galls in Planch and Triana (Clusiaceae): Sex-Biased Development in a Dioecious Host Plant.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 24;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Laboratório de Farmacobotânica, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil.

Galls are remarkable parasite-plant interactions that develop in different organs. They are induced by various organisms which manipulate or reprogram plant development. Galls in dioecious species and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. Read More

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December 2020

Orders-of-Magnitude Larger Force Demonstrated for Dielectrophoresis of Proteins Enabling High-Resolution Separations Based on New Mechanisms.

Anal Chem 2021 01 21;93(3):1352-1359. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, United States.

Proteins are perhaps the most important yet frustratingly complicated and difficult class of compounds to analyze, manipulate, and use. One very attractive option to characterize and differentially concentrate proteins is dielectrophoresis, but according to accepted theory, the force on smaller particles the size of proteins is too low to overcome diffusive action. Here, three model proteins, immunoglobulin G, α-chymotrypsinogen A, and lysozyme, are shown to generate forces much larger than predicted by established theory are more consistent with new theoretical constructs, which include the dipole moment and interfacial polarizability. Read More

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January 2021

Glutamate in Male and Female Sexual Behavior: Receptors, Transporters, and Steroid Independence.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 24;14:589882. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Developmental and Brain Sciences, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, United States.

The survival of animal species predicates on the success of sexual reproduction. Neurotransmitters play an integral role in the expression of these sexual behaviors in the brain. Here, we review the role of glutamate in sexual behavior in rodents and non-rodent species for both males and females. Read More

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November 2020

Mammary epithelial morphogenesis in 3D combinatorial microenvironments.

Sci Rep 2020 12 10;10(1):21635. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Bioengineering, Institute of Bioengineering, School of Life Sciences and School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Human mammary epithelial cells can proliferate and reorganize into polarized multi-cellular constructs in-vitro, thereby functioning as an important model system in recapitulating key steps of in-vivo morphogenesis. Current approaches to constructing such three-dimensional mimics of the in-vivo microenvironment have involved the use of complex and ill-defined naturally derived matrices, whose properties are difficult to manipulate independently, and which have therefore limited our ability to understand the extrinsic regulation of morphogenesis. Here, we employ an automated, high-throughput approach to array modular building blocks of synthetic components, and develop a systematic approach to analyze colonies resulting from these varied microenvironmental combinations. Read More

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December 2020

Morphological integration and modularity in the hyperkinetic feeding system of aquatic-foraging snakes.

Evolution 2021 Jan 30;75(1):56-72. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Herpetology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, 10024.

The kinetic skull is a key innovation that allowed snakes to capture, manipulate, and swallow prey exclusively using their heads using the coordinated movement of eight bones. Despite these unique feeding behaviors, patterns of evolutionary integration and modularity within the feeding bones of snakes in a phylogenetic framework have yet to be addressed. Here, we use a dataset of 60 μCT-scanned skulls and high-density geometric morphometric methods to address the origin and patterns of variation and integration in the feeding bones of aquatic-foraging snakes. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and abiotic stressors on Fundulus grandis cardiac transcriptomics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 6;752:142156. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, extensive research has been conducted on the toxicity of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment. Many studies have identified the toxicological effects of PAHs in estuarine and marine fishes, however, only recently has work begun to identify the combinatorial effect of PAHs and abiotic environmental factors such as hypoxia, salinity, and temperature. This study aims to characterize the combined effects of abiotic stressors and PAH exposure on the cardiac transcriptomes of developing Fundulus grandis larvae. Read More

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January 2021

Control strategy with multivariable fault tolerance module for automatic intravenous anesthesia.

Biomed Eng Lett 2020 Nov 16;10(4):555-578. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research, Ahmedabad, India.

In the anesthesia automation, an automatic propofol infusion system uses Bi-spectral Index Signal (BIS) as a primary feedback signal to manipulate propofol dose. However, the BIS signal may be suspended for some time due to poor EEG signal quality, noise, and many other factors. Therefore, BIS signal failure may be the main cause of inadequate propofol infusion. Read More

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November 2020

Zombie-ant fungi cross continents: II. Myrmecophilous hymenostilboid species and a novel zombie lineage.

Mycologia 2020 Nov-Dec;112(6):1138-1170. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park , Pennsylvania, 16802.

species infecting ants are globally distributed, with diversity concentrated in the tropics and decreasing with increasing latitude. Among these myrmecophilous species, the ones exhibiting the ability to manipulate host behavior, the so-called "zombie-ant fungi" of the clade, have been studied progressively over the last decade. However, we know very little about other myrmecophilous groups, such as species within the subgenus . Read More

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November 2020

Pancreatic Diseases and Microbiota: A Literature Review and Future Perspectives.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 1;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Gut microbiota represent an interesting worldwide research area. Several studies confirm that microbiota has a key role in human diseases, both intestinal (such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, intestinal infectious diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) and extra intestinal disorders (such as autism, multiple sclerosis, rheumatologic diseases). Nowadays, it is possible to manipulate microbiota by administering prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, through fecal microbiota transplantation in selected cases. Read More

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November 2020

Characteristics of driver cell phone use and their influence on driving performance: A naturalistic driving study.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Dec 24;148:105845. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada.

Cell phone use while driving is becoming a key problem in traffic safety as it causes visual-manual distraction and has been linked to increases in crash rates. The use of hand-held phones has been banned in several countries, yet research comparing the safety of hands-free phone use with hand-held has produced inconsistent results. Analysis of specific phone use characteristics could help move this traffic safety problem toward a solution, but few studies have considered the influence on driving performance of specific sets of phone use characteristics in combination with other factors such as driving context and driver demographic characteristics. Read More

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December 2020

Centrifugal granulation behavior in metallic powder fabrication by plasma rotating electrode process.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 28;10(1):18446. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577, Japan.

In recent years, spherical powders with no or minimal internal pores fabricated by the plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) have been highly recommended for powder-type additive manufacturing. Most research on PREP is aimed at establishing relationship between PREP parameters and powder size. However, almost no dedicated research on granulation behavior has been conducted so far. Read More

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October 2020

InterFaceGAN: Interpreting the Disentangled Face Representation Learned by GANs.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2020 Oct 27;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have made significant progress in face synthesis, there lacks enough understanding of what GANs have learned in the latent representation to map a randomly sampled code to a photo-realistic face image. In this work, we propose a framework, called InterFaceGAN, to interpret the disentangled face representation learned by the state-of-the-art GAN models and thoroughly analyze the properties of the facial semantics in the latent space. We first find that GANs actually learn various semantics in some linear subspaces of the latent space when being trained to synthesize high-quality faces. Read More

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October 2020