22,975,159 results match your criteria mammals

Transient reprogramming of postnatal cardiomyocytes to a dedifferentiated state.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251054. Epub 2021 May 5.

Nanomedicine Lab, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates are capable of extraordinary myocardial regeneration thanks to the ability of their cardiomyocytes to undergo transient dedifferentiation and proliferation. Somatic cells can be temporarily reprogrammed to a proliferative, dedifferentiated state through forced expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM). Here, we aimed to induce transient reprogramming of mammalian cardiomyocytes in vitro utilising an OSKM-encoding non-integrating vector. Read More

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Cardiac regenerative capacity: an evolutionary afterthought?

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Cardiac regeneration is the outcome of the highly regulated interplay of multiple processes, including the inflammatory response, cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation, neovascularization and extracellular matrix turnover. Species-specific traits affect these injury-induced processes, resulting in a wide variety of cardiac regenerative potential between species. Indeed, while mammals are generally considered poor regenerators, certain amphibian and fish species like the zebrafish display robust regenerative capacity post heart injury. Read More

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Evolutionary dynamics of the OR gene repertoire in teleost fishes: evidence of an association with changes in olfactory epithelium shape.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement et Écologie, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Teleost fishes perceive their environment through a range of sensory modalities, among which olfaction often plays an important role. Richness of the olfactory repertoire depends on the diversity of receptors coded by homologous genes classified into four families: OR, TAAR, VR1 and VR2. Herein, we focus on the OR gene repertoire. Read More

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Global trends in research output by zoos and aquariums.

Conserv Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Biology, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Zoos and aquaria, often regarded as preservation-cum-entertainment enterprises, are now touted as actors in the efforts to curb the biodiversity crisis: raising awareness, supporting conservation, and conducting research. We have tested whether data grant this claim by assessing the research carried out by zoos on a global scale. For the zoos and aquaria registered in the Species360's Zoological Information Management System and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, we compiled metadata about their published research indexed in Scopus and carried out a keyword frequency analysis. Read More

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Genetic identification of a rabies virus from an insectivorous bat in an urban area of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900, Brazil.

In Latin America, hematophagous bats are the main reservoirs of rabies virus (RABV) to livestock, to other mammals and, occasionally, to human. Nonetheless, reports of exposure of human and pets to RABV upon aggression by non-hematophagous bats are increasing, possibly facilitated by the synanthropic habits of these bats. We, herein, report the detection and genetic identification of a RABV recovered from an insectivorous bat found sick in a student housing building at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Southern Brazil. Read More

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An environmental risk assessment for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey: soil vs. plant or human vs. animal.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Mimar Sinan Campus, Mimar Sinan Boulevard, Eflak Street, 16310, Bursa, Turkey.

This study is the first research attempt to assess the environmental risks of an agricultural area contaminated with the p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (DDX) on human and terrestrial species through exposure to soil and agricultural products, simultaneously. The study was carried out for a DDX-contaminated agricultural area in Turkey. Soil samples obtained in two different harvest applications were analyzed in terms of DDX levels. Read More

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A Find of Early Pliocene Fossils of Three-toed Horse (Hipparion tchicoicum Ivanjev, 1966) in Western Transbaikalia.

N P Kalmykov

Dokl Biol Sci 2021 Mar 4;497(1):76-78. Epub 2021 May 4.

Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

This report analyzes a find of fossils of Pliocene three-toed horse (Hipparion tchicoicum) in western Transbaikalia. The age of the mammalian fauna from red-brown clay in the Udunga locality indicates that Chikoi hipparion lived in the south of Eastern Siberia as early as the second half of the Early Pliocene; its remains in this area were known only from the red beds of the Upper Pliocene. This find made it possible to fill the existing hiatus (Early Pliocene) in its stratigraphic distribution: Late Miocene-Late Pliocene. Read More

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Is the Periodic "Spontaneous" Activity of Animals Determined by a Quasi-Rhythmic Factor of the External Environment?

Dokl Biol Sci 2021 Mar 4;497(1):69-72. Epub 2021 May 4.

Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119071, Moscow, Russia.

We have studied the dynamics of the singing of garden bunting (Emberiza hortulana) and the dispersal of a flock of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for the night rest. The results were compared with the body temperature fluctuations measured in parallel in a group of laboratory mice. The validity of such comparisons was determined by the presence of a stable correlation between the indicators of minutely changes in body temperature in mice and greenfinches (Chloris chloris). Read More

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Size matters in atrial fibrillation: the underestimated importance of reduction of contiguous electrical mass underlying the effectiveness of catheter ablation.

Europace 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, 740 Hillside Ave, Vancouver, BC V8T 1Z4, Canada.

Evidence has accumulated over the last century of the importance of a critical electrical mass in sustaining atrial fibrillation (AF). AF ablation certainly reduces electrically contiguous atrial mass, but this is not widely accepted to be an important part of its mechanism of action. In this article, we review data showing that atrial size is correlated in many settings with AF propensity. Read More

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Visual marking in mammals first proved by manipulations of brown bear tree debarking.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9492. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Unit of Biodiversity (UMIB, CSIC-UO-PA), Mieres Campus, 33600, Mieres, Spain.

The rather limited human ability to understand animal vision and visual signalling has frequently clouded our expectations concerning the visual abilities of other animals. But there are multiple reasons to suspect that visual signalling is more widely employed by animals than previously thought. Because visibility of visual marks depends on the background in which they are seen, species spending most of their time living in dark conditions (e. Read More

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Input-independent homeostasis of developing thalamocortical activity.

eNeuro 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University

The isocortex of all mammals studied to date shows a progressive increase in the amount and continuity of background activity during early development. In humans the transition from a discontinuous (mostly silent, intermittently bursting) cortex to one that is continuously active is complete soon after birth and is a critical prognostic indicator. In the visual cortex of rodents this switch from discontinuous to continuous background activity occurs during the two days before eye-opening, driven by activity changes in relay thalamus. Read More

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Exotic pets in Ireland: 2. Provision of veterinary services and perspectives of veterinary professionals' on responsible ownership.

Ir Vet J 2021 May 4;74(1):13. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: There has been increasing concern expressed about the welfare of exotic pets worldwide. For the purposes of this article, an exotic pet is considered to be a non-domesticated species, where there are knowledge gaps on good practice (minimum standards of care), veterinary diagnostics and treatments. The categories of exotic pets included in this study were: small mammals (< 20 kg), large mammals (> 20 kg), birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. Read More

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Urinary creatinine varies with microenvironment and sex in hibernating Greater Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in Korea.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 May 4;21(1):77. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Institute of Ecology, Geumgang-ro 1210, Maseo-myeon, 33657, Seocheon, Chungnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: In temperate regions many small mammals including bats hibernate during winter. During hibernation these small mammals occasionally wake up (arouse) to restore electrolyte and water balance. However, field data on water stress and concentration of bodily fluids during hibernation is scarce. Read More

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Host and parasite traits predict cross-species parasite acquisition by introduced mammals.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 May 5;288(1950):20210341. Epub 2021 May 5.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Species invasions and range shifts can lead to novel host-parasite communities, but we lack general rules on which new associations are likely to form. While many studies examine parasite sharing among host species, the directionality of transmission is typically overlooked, impeding our ability to derive principles of parasite acquisition. Consequently, we analysed parasite records from the non-native ranges of 11 carnivore and ungulate species. Read More

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'Dunbar's number' deconstructed.

Biol Lett 2021 May 5;17(5):20210158. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Sweden.

A widespread and popular belief posits that humans possess a cognitive capacity that is limited to keeping track of and maintaining stable relationships with approximately 150 people. This influential number, 'Dunbar's number', originates from an extrapolation of a regression line describing the relationship between relative neocortex size and group size in primates. Here, we test if there is statistical support for this idea. Read More

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Significant Reductive Transformation of 6:2 Chlorinated Polyfluorooctane Ether Sulfonate to Form Hydrogen-Substituted Polyfluorooctane Ether Sulfonate and Their Toxicokinetics in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3H6, Canada.

6:2 chlorinated polyfluorooctane ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) was previously shown to undergo limited dechlorination in rainbow trout to yield 6:2 hydrogen-substituted polyfluorooctane ether sulfonate (6:2 H-PFESA) as the sole metabolite. However, the biotransformation susceptibility of 6:2 Cl-PFESA has not been investigated in mammals and the biological behavior of 6:2 H-PFESA has not been defined in any species. We investigated the respective transformation products of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 6:2 H-PFESA and their toxicokinetic properties in male Sprague-Dawley rats as a mammalian model. Read More

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20-Hydroxyecdysone, from Plant Extracts to Clinical Use: Therapeutic Potential for the Treatment of Neuromuscular, Cardio-Metabolic and Respiratory Diseases.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 29;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Biophytis, Sorbonne Université, BC9, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France.

There is growing interest in the pharmaceutical and medical applications of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a polyhydroxylated steroid which naturally occurs in low but very significant amounts in invertebrates, where it has hormonal roles, and in certain plant species, where it is believed to contribute to the deterrence of invertebrate predators. Studies in vivo and in vitro have revealed beneficial effects in mammals: anabolic, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, etc. The possible mode of action in mammals has been determined recently, with the main mechanism involving the activation of the Mas1 receptor, a key component of the renin-angiotensin system, which would explain many of the pleiotropic effects observed in the different animal models. Read More

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Using Data Mining and Network Analysis to Infer Arboviral Dynamics: The Case of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Reported in Mexico.

Insects 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

Given the significant impact of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) on both human and animal health, predicting their dynamics and understanding their transmission cycle is of the utmost importance. Usually, predictions about the distribution of priority pathogens, such as Dengue, Yellow fever, West Nile Virus and St. Louis encephalitis, relate abiotic elements to simple biotic components, such as a single causal agent. Read More

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Molecular Evolution of CatSper in Mammals and Function of Sperm Hyperactivation in Gray Short-Tailed Opossum.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Males have evolved species-specifical sperm morphology and swimming patterns to adapt to different fertilization environments. In eutherians, only a small fraction of the sperm overcome the diverse obstacles in the female reproductive tract and successfully migrate to the fertilizing site. Sperm arriving at the fertilizing site show hyperactivated motility, a unique motility pattern displaying asymmetric beating of sperm flagella with increased amplitude. Read More

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Multidrug Resistance in Mammals and Fungi-From MDR to PDR: A Rocky Road from Atomic Structures to Transport Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Medical Biochemistry, Max Perutz Labs Vienna, Campus Vienna Biocenter, Medical University of Vienna, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/2, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) can be a serious complication for the treatment of cancer as well as for microbial and parasitic infections. Dysregulated overexpression of several members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter families have been intimately linked to MDR phenomena. Three paradigm ABC transporter members, ABCB1 (P-gp), ABCC1 (MRP1) and ABCG2 (BCRP) appear to act as brothers in arms in promoting or causing MDR in a variety of therapeutic cancer settings. Read More

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ESBL-Producing   Carrying CTX-M Genes Circulating among Livestock, Dogs, and Wild Mammals in Small-Scale Farms of Central Chile.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago 8320000, Chile.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of critical importance for global health such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing (ESBL)- have been detected in livestock, dogs, and wildlife worldwide. However, the dynamics of ESBL- between these animals remains poorly understood, particularly in small-scale farms of low and middle-income countries where contact between species can be frequent. We compared the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL- among 332 livestock (207 cows, 15 pigs, 60 horses, 40 sheep, 6 goats, 4 chickens), 82 dogs, and wildlife including 131 European rabbits, 30 rodents, and 12 Andean foxes sharing territory in peri-urban localities of central Chile. Read More

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Crystal Structure of Agmatinase: Catalytic Mechanism and Residues Relevant for Substrate Specificity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción 4070386, Concepción, Chile.

Agmatine is the product of the decarboxylation of L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase. This amine has been attributed to neurotransmitter functions, anticonvulsant, anti-neurotoxic, and antidepressant in mammals and is a potential therapeutic agent for diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cancer. Agmatinase enzyme hydrolyze agmatine into urea and putrescine, which belong to one of the pathways producing polyamines, essential for cell proliferation. Read More

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Glucose metabolism is required for oocyte maturation of zebrafish.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 1;559:191-196. Epub 2021 May 1.

Glucose is an essential source of energy production for animal cells. The importance of glucose metabolism in oocyte maturation has been studied extensively in mammals. However, such roles in non-mammalian species are still largely unknown. Read More

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Clofibric acid increases molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine containing arachidonic acid for biogenesis of peroxisomal membranes in peroxisome proliferation in the liver.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 May 1:158963. Epub 2021 May 1.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295, Japan. Electronic address:

The biogenesis of peroxisomes in relation to the trafficking of proteins to peroxisomes has been extensively examined. However, the supply of phospholipids, which is needed to generate peroxisomal membranes in mammals, remains unclear. Therefore, we herein investigated metabolic alterations induced by clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator, in the synthesis of phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecular species, and their relationship with the biogenesis of peroxisomal membranes. Read More

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Microbe profile: : an opportunistic pathogen with multiple personalities.

Steve J Charette

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 May;167(5)

Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec (IUCPQ), Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.

The bacterial species is a fish pathogen. Feared by fish farmers everywhere on Earth over the past century, this species has turned out to be more diverse than initially suspected. While some psychrophilic subspecies cannot grow at temperatures above 25 °C or 30 °C, other mesophilic strains growing up to 37 °C and above are now characterized. Read More

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Hippo signaling pathway in companion animal diseases, an under investigated signaling cascade.

Vet Q 2021 May 4:1-14. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved kinase cascade in mammals with the proteins YAP and TAZ as its most important downstream effectors that shuttle between cytoplasma and nucleus. It has a crucial role in processes such as embryogenesis, organ size control, homeostasis and tissue regeneration, where mechanosensing and/or cell-cell interactions are involved. As the pathway is associated with many essential functions in the body, its dysregulation is related to many diseases. Read More

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scRNA Transcription Profile of Adult Zebrafish Podocytes Using a Novel Reporter Strain.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(S4):35-47

Queen's Medical Research Institute, Cardiovascular Science Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background/aims: The role of podocytes is well conserved across species from drosophila to teleosts, and mammals. Identifying the molecular markers that actively maintain the integrity of the podocyte will enable a greater understanding of the changes that lead to damage.

Methods: We generated transgenic zebrafish, expressing fluorescent reporters driven by the podocin promoter, for the visualization and isolation of podocytes. Read More

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Social complexity and the fractal structure of group size in primate social evolution.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Compared to most other mammals and birds, anthropoid primates have unusually complex societies characterised by bonded social groups. Among primates, this effect is encapsulated in the social brain hypothesis: the robust correlation between various indices of social complexity (social group size, grooming clique size, tactical behaviour, coalition formation) and brain size. Hitherto, this has always been interpreted as a simple, unitary relationship. Read More

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Gene duplication and loss of AANAT in mammals driven by rhythmic adaptations.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) plays a crucial role in synchronizing internal biological functions to circadian and circannual changes. Generally speaking, only one copy of AANAT gene has been found in mammals, however, three independent duplications of this gene were detected in several cetartiodactyl lineages (i.e. Read More

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The gene plays a vital role at the start of metamorphosis for subsequent adult emergence.

J Neurogenet 2021 May 4:1-13. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The () gene has been extensively studied in many species for its functions in development, physiology, and behavior. It is common for genes that influence behavior and development to be essential genes, and has been found to be an essential gene in both fruit flies and mammals, with mutants dying before reaching the adult stage. However, the biological process underlying the lethality associated with this gene is not known. Read More

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