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A propensity score-matched analysis of endoscopic resection for recurrent colorectal neoplasms: a pilot study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.

Background And Aim: Local residual/recurrent colorectal lesions after endoscopic resection (ER) are difficult to treat with conventional ER. Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are reportedly effective. We investigated the appropriate indications of ESD and UEMR for recurrent colorectal lesions. Read More

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Serum total indoxyl sulfate and clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients: results from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 31;14(4):1236-1243. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Background: Uremic toxins are associated with various chronic kidney disease-related comorbidities. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uremic toxin, reacts with vasculature, accelerating atherosclerosis and/or vascular calcification in animal models. Few studies have examined the relationship of IS with clinical outcomes in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Read More

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Regulation of Nuclear Factor-KappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by non-coding RNAs in cancer: Inhibiting or promoting carcinogenesis?

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

NUS Centre for Cancer Research (N2CR), Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117 600, Singapore. Electronic address:

The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is considered as a potential therapeutic target in cancer therapy. It has been well established that transcription factor NF-κB is involved in regulating physiological and pathological events including inflammation, immune response and differentiation. Increasing evidences suggest that deregulated NF-κB signaling can enhance cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and also mediate radio-as well as chemo-resistance. Read More

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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in a patient with gastric cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Hepato-Gastro-Enterology, Clinique Saint-Jean, 32 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, 1000, Brussels, Belgium.

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, formerly known as marantic endocarditis, is a very rare complication of advanced malignancy and other hypercoagulable states in which sterile, fibrin vegetations develop on heart valve leaflets. The most common malignancies associated with this entity are lung, pancreatic and gastric cancer. It has also been described as a presentation of COVID-19, which is known to be frequently complicated with coagulopathy and thromboembolic events. Read More

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Which Bone-Modifying Agent is Associated with Better Outcomes in Patients with Skeletal Metastases from Lung Cancer? A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

A. Bozzo, D. Axelrod, K. Masrouha, D. Wilson, M. Ghert, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Metastatic bone disease occurs in 20% to 40% of patients with lung cancer, and these patients often present with pain or skeletal-related events (SREs) that are associated with decreased survival. Bone-modifying agents such as denosumab or bisphosphonates are routinely used; however, to our knowledge, there has been no quantitative synthesis of randomized controlled trial data to determine the most effective pharmacologic treatment of metastatic bone disease because of lung cancer. Read More

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Treatment of portal vein thrombosis: an updated narrative review.

Minerva Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the most frequent among the splanchnic vein thrombosis, accounting for 90% of cases. More than half of PVT are provoked by liver cirrhosis, solid cancer or myeloproliferative neoplasms. The remaining cases are non-malignant non-cirrhotic PVT and include either unprovoked events or thrombosis secondary to other less common risk factors (e. Read More

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[A Randomized Controlled Study of Intravesical Instillation Therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vs. Epirubicinin Treating Non-muscular Invasive Bladder Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):326-333

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the best treatment plan of intravesical instillation for patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), to explore recurrence-related clinicopathological factors after intravesical instillation, and to evaluate the value of the prognosis and prediction models currently used for NMIBC patients.

Methods: Starting from 2016, patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in our hospital and who received post-surgery diagnosis of having intermediate or high risks for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned to different group sat a ratio of 2∶2∶1 for receiving intravesical instillation therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 19 times, BCG for 15 times, and epirubicin (EPI) for 18 times. Read More

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De novo ulcerative colitis after kidney transplantation treated with infliximab.

CEN Case Rep 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Kidney Disease and Transplant Center, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, 1370-1 Okamoto, Kamakura, Kanagawa, 247-0072, Japan.

Diarrhea is a common complication in kidney transplant recipients. Common causes of diarrhea include infection, side effect from medication, rejection, and malignancy. A less common but important cause of diarrhea is de novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

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Silencing PTEN in the fallopian tube promotes enrichment of cancer stem cell-like function through loss of PAX2.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 7;12(4):375. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA.

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy that is primarily detected at the metastatic stage. Most HGSOC originates from the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and metastasizes to the ovary before invading the peritoneum; therefore, it is crucial to study disease initiation and progression using FTE-derived models. We previously demonstrated that loss of PTEN from the FTE leads to ovarian cancer. Read More

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Differential influence of antibiotic therapy and other medications on oncological outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with first-line pembrolizumab versus cytotoxic chemotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Division of Cancer, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate.

Methods: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. Read More

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Short-term effects of mobilization on oxygenation in patients after open surgery for pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Surg 2021 Apr 7;21(1):185. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Despite the unequivocal role of progressive mobilization in post-surgical patient management, its specific effects and timing, particularly after abdominal surgery, remain debated. This study's aim was to examine the short-term effects of mobilization on oxygenation in hemodynamically stable patients after open surgery for pancreatic cancer.

Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients (n = 83) after open pancreatic surgery were randomized to either the same-day mobilization group (mobilized when hemodynamically stable within four hours after surgery) or the next-day mobilization group (mobilized first time in the morning of the first post-operative day). Read More

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The prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio across all stages of coronary artery disease.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jl. Salemba Raya No.6, Kenari, Kec. Senen, Jakarta Pusat, DKI Jakarta Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia/National Cardiovascular Center Harapan Kita, Jl. Let. Jend. S. Parman Kav 87, Jakarta Barat, DKI Jakarta Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia/Rumah Sakit Universitas Indonesia, Jl. Prof Bahder Djohan, Pondok Cina, Beji, Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.

The natural history of coronary heart disease (CAD) commonly begins with atherosclerosis, progressing to chronic coronary syndrome (CCS), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and eventually, heart failure. Despite advancements in preventive and therapeutic strategies, there is room for further cardiovascular risk reduction. Recently, inflammation has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. Read More

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Traction-assisted endoscopic submucosal dissection reduces procedure time and risk of serious adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background And Aims: Conventional endoscopic submucosal dissection (C-ESD) is a technically demanding procedure with prolonged procedure times and higher risk of adverse events. To overcome the procedural difficulty of ESD, several traction-assisted techniques (T-ESD) have been developed to improve visualization of the submucosa in hopes to facilitate safe and effective dissection. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that compares short-term outcomes (30-day) of T-ESD to C-ESD. Read More

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Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors: A Focused Review of Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, and Triggers.

Cureus 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13665. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, Ateneo de Manila School of Medicine and Public Health, Quezon City, PHL.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute and significant life-threatening complication of diabetes. The association of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) has been well reported. This literature review was conducted to understand the mechanism of EDKA and identify the potential risk factors and precipitants for patients taking SGLT2i. Read More

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Long-term follow-up of high-risk neuroblastoma survivors treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation rescue.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Département de Cancérologie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Intensive treatments including high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell rescue have improved high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB) survival. We report the long-term health status of 145 HRNB survivors, alive and disease-free 5 years post HDC. Median follow-up was 15 years (range = 5-34). Read More

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Treatment of Pediatric Adrenocortical Carcinoma With Surgery, Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection, and Chemotherapy: The Children's Oncology Group ARAR0332 Protocol.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 6:JCO2002871. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive pediatric malignancy with distinct biology. Its treatment follows the principles developed for adults; pediatric-specific studies are scarce.

Patients And Methods: Prospective single-arm risk-stratified interventional study. Read More

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Mangiferin Inhibits Inflammation and Cell Proliferation, and Activates Proapoptotic Events via NF-κB Inhibition in DMBA-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Rats.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2021 ;40(2):1-9

Department of Pathology, Zaozhuang Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Shandong, Zaozhuang-277101, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antiproliferatiive, and proapoptotic molecular mechanisms of mangiferin (MGN) against mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Mammary cancer in rats was induced by single-dose subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml DMBA (80 mg/kg in sesame oil) in the mammary gland. Read More

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Optimising cardiovascular care of patients with multiple myeloma.

Heart 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Cardio-Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the third most common haematological malignancy, with increasing prevalence over recent years. Advances in therapy have improved survival, changing the clinical course of MM into a chronic condition and meaning that management of comorbidities is fundamental to improve clinical outcomes. Cardiovascular (CV) events affect up to 7. Read More

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[Clinical Recommendations for Perioperative Immunotherapy-induced Adverse Events in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Mar;24(3):141-160

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Peking University Cancer Hospital, Beijing 100142, China.

Background: Perioperative treatment has become an increasingly important aspect of the management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Small-scale clinical studies performed in recent years have shown improvements in the major pathological remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy, suggesting that it will soon become an important part of NSCLC treatment. Nevertheless, neoadjuvant immunotherapy may be accompanied by serious adverse reactions that lead to delay or cancelation of surgery, additional illness, and even death, and have therefore attracted much attention. Read More

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A Review of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Myeloma and Lymphoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 26;14:2185-2201. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Lymphoma Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Collectively, hematological malignancies account for the fourth most common malignancy. Myeloma and lymphoma are the most common types of hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, the management of refractory myeloma and lymphoma remains challenging. Read More

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Carinal Resection and Reconstruction for Tracheo-bronchial Neoplasms-Surgical Outcomes of 20 Consecutively Operated Cases.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 27;12(1):12-21. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Centre for Chest Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, 110060 India.

Carinal resections for trachea-bronchial neoplasms are technically challenging and have high operative morbidity and mortality. This study examines the clinical experience of carinal resections for various tracheo-bronchial tumors in a dedicated thoracic surgery center. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from March 2012 to December 2019 to identify all patients who underwent carinal resection. Read More

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Risk stratification of cardiac metastases using late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance: prognostic impact of hypo-enhancement evidenced tumor avascularity.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 Apr 5;23(1):42. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is widely used to identify cardiac neoplasms, for which diagnosis is predicated on enhancement stemming from lesion vascularity: Impact of contrast-enhancement pattern on clinical outcomes is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether cardiac metastasis (C) enhancement pattern on LGE-CMR impacts prognosis, with focus on heterogeneous lesion enhancement as a marker of tumor avascularity.

Methods: Advanced (stage IV) systemic cancer patients with and without C matched (1:1) by cancer etiology underwent a standardized CMR protocol. Read More

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Clinical Outcomes Following Trifluridine/Tipiracil Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Ineligible for Regorafenib Treatment.

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):2203-2207

Clinical Oncology Division, Kochi Health Sciences Center, Kochi, Japan.

Background/aim: In later-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), trifluridine/tipiracil is often selected because regorafenib is difficult to use in patients with comorbidities such as thrombosis, hemorrhage, or cardiac events. However, the safety and efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil in these patients is not clear.

Patients And Methods: The clinical outcomes of trifluridine/tipiracil were retrospectively investigated in patients who were ineligible for regorafenib because of comorbidities. Read More

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How Much Daily Image-guided Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Is Useful for Proctitis Prevention With Respect to Static Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Supported by Topical Medications Among Localized Prostate Cancer Patients?

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):2101-2110

REM Radioterapia srl, Viagrande, Italy.

Background/aim: To evaluate if topical support therapy during static-intensity modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) course is able to equal the characteristic minimum risk for radiation proctitis of Image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT) treatment among localized prostate cancer patients.

Patients And Methods: Rectal toxicity data of the above patients were retrospectively collected throughout three different clinical periods at our Radiotherapy Deparment: from October 2011 to December 2012, prostate cancer patients were treated with sIMRT and in advance supported by means of daily topical corticosteroids; from January 2013 to November 2016, topical corticosteroids were replaced by daily hyaluronic acid enemas; from December 2016 to May 2018 eligible patients were treated with newly introduced IG-VMAT supported by only on-demand topical corticosteroids.

Results: Among 359 eligible patients, IG-VMAT was proven generally more effective than sIMRT supported by topical medications in terms of proctitis reduction, although without clinical and practical relevance. Read More

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Virtualized clinical studies to assess the natural history and impact of gut microbiome modulation in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 a randomized, open-label, prospective study with a parallel group study evaluating the physiologic effects of KB109 on gut microbiota structure and function: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

Trials 2021 Apr 2;22(1):245. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Kaleido Biosciences, Inc, Lexington, MA, USA.

Objectives: These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. Read More

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High Expression of Solute Carrier Family 2 Member 1 (SLC2A1) in Cancer Cells Is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor in Pediatric Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, 7 Debinki Street, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in children is a rare mesenchymal malignancy developing predominantly in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1. The prognosis in advanced MPNST is poor therefore new prognostic markers are highly needed for optimal therapeutic decisions. In many solid tumors, the bidirectional interactions between hypoxia and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment via functions of tumor-associated cells, like neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, have been investigated recently. Read More

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Detection of Rare Germline Variants in the Genomes of Patients with B-Cell Neoplasms.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

There is growing evidence indicating the implication of germline variation in cancer predisposition and prognostication. Here, we describe an analysis of likely disruptive rare variants across the genomes of 726 patients with B-cell lymphoid neoplasms. We discovered a significant enrichment for two genes in rare dysfunctional variants, both of which participate in the regulation of oxidative stress pathways ( and ). Read More

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Multiple Myeloma: Heterogeneous in Every Way.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Toulouse, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche, Médicale U1037, 31059 Toulouse, France.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of tumor plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Despite considerable advances in terms of treatment, patients' prognosis is still very heterogeneous. Cytogenetics and minimal residual disease both have a major impact on prognosis. Read More

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Individualized Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival Using Flexible Parametric Survival Modeling: Analysis of a Hospital-Based National Clinical Cancer Registry.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.

Prognostic models for breast cancer developed from Western countries performed less accurately in the Asian population. We aimed to develop a survival prediction model for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for Thai patients with breast cancer. We conducted a prognostic model research using a multicenter hospital-based cancer clinical registry from the Network of National Cancer Institutes of Thailand. Read More

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Epigenetic Changes in Neoplastic Mast Cells and Potential Impact in Mastocytosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 15;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland.

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a hematologic neoplasm with abnormal accumulation of mast cells in various organ systems such as the bone marrow, other visceral organs and skin. So far, only little is known about epigenetic changes contributing to the pathogenesis of SM. In the current article, we provide an overview of epigenetic changes that may occur and be relevant to mastocytosis, including mutations in genes involved in epigenetic processes, such as , and , and global and gene-specific methylation patterns in neoplastic cells. Read More

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