72,666 results match your criteria males androgens

Profiles of 5α-Reduced Androgens in Humans and Eels: 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and 11-Ketodihydrotestosterone Are Active Androgens Produced in Eel Gonads.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:657360. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Although 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and testosterone (T) are major androgens in both teleosts and humans, their 5α-reduced derivatives produced by steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A/srd5a), i.e., 11-ketodihydrotestosterone (11KDHT) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), remains poorly characterized, especially in teleosts. Read More

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Clinical and hormonal profiles correlate with molecular characteristics in patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Marmara University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Given the rarity of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11βOHD), there is a paucity of data about the differences in clinical and biochemical characteristics of classic (C-11βOHD) and non-classic 11βOHD (NC-11βOHD).

Objective: To characterize a multicenter pediatric cohort with 11βOHD.

Method: The clinical and biochemical characteristics were retrospectively retrieved. Read More

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Association of Low Serum Free Testosterone with Carotid Atherosclerosis in Male.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Apr;30(2):466-472

Dr Khondakar Alwan Nahid, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Eastern Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh; E-mail:

The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was aimed to evaluate the association of serum free testosterone in 59 patients of carotid atherosclerotic male {<50% stenosis (n=26); >50% stenosis (n=33) } from March 2015 to February 2016 in the Department of Radiology & Imaging of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) & National Institute of Neurosciences (NINS), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Twenty seven patients who had normal carotid doppler findings were taken as control. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by chemiluminescence micro particle immunoassay and free testosterone was done by using Vermeulen formula. Read More

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The Associations of Androgen-Related Genes CYP21A2 and CYP19A1 with Severe Acne Vulgaris in Patients from Southwest China.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 29;14:313-331. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650023, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Androgens acting through the androgen receptor play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acne. This study aimed to identify whether two key genes ( and ) involved in the synthesis and metabolism of androgens were associated with Pillsbury III-IV severe acne vulgaris.

Methods: We carried out a standard questionnaire survey about acne and enlisted 600 Pillsbury III-IV severe acne vulgaris patients and 652 healthy controls of Han Chinese descent from Yunnan, China in the study. Read More

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Androgen and Luteinizing Hormone Stimulate the Function of Rat Immature Leydig Cells Through Different Transcription Signals.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 17;12:599149. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

The function of immature Leydig cells is regulated by hormones, such as androgen and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the regulation of this process is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH) or androgens contribute to this process. Read More

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Differential Disrupting Effects of Prolonged Low-Dose Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane on Androgen and Estrogen Production in Males.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 19;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Histology, Cytology, and Embryology, Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is the most widespread, persistent pollutant and endocrine disruptor on the planet. Although DDT has been found to block androgen receptors, the effects of its low-dose exposure in different periods of ontogeny on the male reproductive system remain unclear. We evaluate sex steroid hormone production in the pubertal period and after maturation in male Wistar rats exposed to low doses of o,p'-DDT, either during prenatal and postnatal development or postnatal development alone. Read More

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Investigating the Safety and Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Treatment for Female Androgenetic Alopecia: Review of the Literature.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 25;57(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Via Po 102, 00198 Rome, Italy.

: female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) is a common cause of non-scarring alopecia in women, affecting approximately 40% of women by age 50, bearing a significant psychosocial burden on affected patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely investigated as a potential effective treatment for several dermatological conditions, including male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, few studies have been conducted focusing on the use of PRP in FAGA. Read More

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Androgenetic Alopecia in a Patient with Klinefelter Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.

Skin Appendage Disord 2021 Feb 7;7(2):135-138. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Introduction: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is defined as (a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome). KS presents clinically with signs of androgen deficiency including low testosterone. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) develops as a response of the hair follicle cells to androgens in individuals with genetic predisposition. Read More

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February 2021

Cholesterol contributes to male sex differentiation through its developmental role in androgen synthesis and hedgehog signaling.

Endocrinology 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Two specialized functions of cholesterol during fetal development include serving as a precursor to androgen synthesis and supporting hedgehog (HH) signaling activity. Androgens are produced by the testes to facilitate masculinization of the fetus. Recent evidence shows that intricate interactions between the HH and androgen signaling pathways are required for optimal male sex differentiation and defects of either can cause birth anomalies indicative of 46,XY male variations of sex development (VSD). Read More

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Androgens regulate ovarian gene expression by balancing Ezh2-Jmjd3 mediated H3K27me3 dynamics.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 30;17(3):e1009483. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States of America.

Conventionally viewed as male hormone, androgens play a critical role in female fertility. Although androgen receptors (AR) are transcription factors, to date very few direct transcriptional targets of ARs have been identified in the ovary. Using mouse models, this study provides three critical insights about androgen-induced gene regulation in the ovary and its impact on female fertility. Read More

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Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and the influence of long-term aggressive interaction on hypothalamic genes expression in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism on how aggressive interaction alters reproductive physiology by testing whether aggressive interaction can activate the reproductive neuroendocrine function via the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). The expressions of the androgen receptor gene (ar) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes (gnrhs), the concentration of plasma androgens, and GSI (the ratio of testes mass to body mass) were compared between the interaction group (dominant males or subordinate males) and the isolation group in male black rockfish after 3 weeks. A full-length cDNA encoding an androgen receptor (AR) of 766 amino acids was isolated. Read More

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The epidermal growth factor receptor axis and kidney fibrosis.

Raymond C Harris

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2021 May;30(3):275-279

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Center for Kidney Disease, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this study was to summarize recent findings about the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in acute kidney injury and in progression of chronic kidney injury.

Recent Findings: There is increasing evidence that EGFR activation occurs as a response to either ischemic or toxic kidney injury and EGFR signalling plays an important role in recovery of epithelial integrity. However, with incomplete recovery or in conditions predisposing to progressive glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, aberrant persistent EGFR signalling is a causal mediator of progressive fibrotic injury. Read More

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Serum Levels of Androgens, Estrogens, and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Risk of Primary Gastric Cancer in Chinese Men: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute.

Gastric cancer shows a strong male predominance, and sex steroid hormones have been hypothesized to explain this sex disparity. Previous studies examining the associations between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and risk of gastric cancer come primarily from western populations and additional studies in diverse populations will help us better understand the association. We performed a nested case-control study in Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohorts to evaluate the associations among Chinese men, where we had sufficient cases to perform a well-powered study. Read More

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Novel use of coactivators to enhance sensitivity of SEAP-based reporter assay system for visual monitoring and quantitation of androgens and antiandrogens in water.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 23;771:144514. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Gurgaon 122413, India. Electronic address:

Every year thousands of chemicals get discharged into the waterbodies of the world. These chemicals cause endocrine disruption and induce adverse health effects in human and aquatic life. Global environmental protection agencies emphasise the need to develop rapid and specific tests for identification of these endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) in water. Read More

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Short-term perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure impairs Leydig cell regeneration in the adult rat testis via targeting hedgehog signaling.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 12;214:112121. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109 Xueyuan West Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctane sulfonate is related to male reproductive dysfunction in rats and humans. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we reported the effects of short-term exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate on the regeneration of Leydig cells in vivo and investigated possible mechanisms in vitro. Read More

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Androgen receptor activation alleviates airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of asthma.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, United States.

Epidemiological studies demonstrate an apparent sex-based difference in the prevalence of asthma, with a higher risk in boys than girls, which is reversed post-puberty, where women become more prone to asthma than men, suggesting a plausible beneficial role for male hormones, especially androgens as a regulator of pathophysiology in asthmatic lungs. Using a murine model of asthma developed with mixed allergen (MA) challenge, we report a significant change in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as demonstrated by increased thickness of epithelial and airway smooth muscle layers and collagen deposition, as well as Th2/Th17 biased inflammation in the airways of non-gonadectomized (non-GDX) and gonadectomized (GDX) male mice. Here, compared to non-GDX mice, MA induced AHR and inflammatory changes were more prominent in GDX mice. Read More

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Outdoor air pollution and hormone-assessed pubertal development in children: Results from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 10;152:106476. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, LMU University Hospital Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC) Munich, member, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollution is hypothesized to affect pubertal development. However, the few studies on this topic yielded overall mixed results. These studies did not consider important pollutants like ozone, and none of them involved pubertal development assessed by estradiol and testosterone measurements. Read More

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Cimetidine-induced androgenic failure causes cell death and changes in actin, EGF and V-ATPase immunoexpression in rat submandibular glands.

J Anat 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Morphology, Genetics, Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Araraquara, Brazil.

Submandibular gland (SMG) is responsive to androgens via androgen receptor (AR). We verified whether cimetidine induces androgenic dysfunction in SMG, and evaluated the structural integrity, cell death and immunoexpression of actin, EGF and V-ATPase in androgen-deficient SMG. Male rats received cimetidine (CMTG) and control animals (CG) received saline. Read More

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High Seasonal Variation of Plasma Testosterone Levels for a Tropical Grassland Bird Resembles Patterns of Temperate Birds.

Physiol Biochem Zool 2021 May-Jun;94(3):143-151

AbstractTestosterone (T) is a sexual hormone capable of modulating several traits in birds, including aggressiveness and reproductive behavior. Although variation in T-related traits is well-known for temperate zone birds, this variation has not been extensively studied in tropical species. The campo miner () is a threatened bird endemic to the grasslands of the South American Cerrado. Read More

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Serum insulin-like factor 3 levels are reduced in former androgen users suggesting impaired Leydig cell capacity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is frequently observed in men and is associated with subsequent testosterone deficiency although the long-term effect on gonadal function is still unclear. Serum insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) has been suggested to be a superior biomarker of Leydig cell secretory capacity compared to testosterone. The objective of this study was to investigate serum INSL3 concentrations in AAS users. Read More

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Androgen Affects the Inhibitory Avoidance Memory by Primarily Acting on Androgen Receptor in the Brain in Adolescent Male Rats.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Division of Neuroanatomy, Department of Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube 755-8505, Japan.

Adolescence is the critical postnatal stage for the action of androgen in multiple brain regions. Androgens can regulate the learning/memory functions in the brain. It is known that the inhibitory avoidance test can evaluate emotional memory and is believed to be dependent largely on the amygdala and hippocampus. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on steroidogenesis and consequences on testicular function.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 05 28;527:111215. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Testicular steroidogenesis is a tightly regulated process that produces the androgens important for the development, maintenance and function of the male reproductive system. These androgens are also essential for overall health, and well-being. Disruptions in the ability of the testis to form steroids can result in developmental abnormalities, dysfunction, and infertility. Read More

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Gender Susceptibility to COVID-19 Mortality: Androgens as the Usual Suspects?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:261-264

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Identification of the causal risk factors of COVID-19 would allow better risk stratification and designing effective therapies. Epidemiological data have shown a higher incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in males compared to females. Here, we have used logistic regression analysis modeling to determine the association between gender and COVID-19 mortality in the Iranian population. Read More

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Shorter androgen receptor polyQ alleles protect against life-threatening COVID-19 disease in European males.

EBioMedicine 2021 Mar 26;65:103246. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Medical Genetics, University of Siena, Italy; Med Biotech Hub and Competence Center, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Italy; Genetica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese, Italy.

Background: While SARS-CoV-2 similarly infects men and women, COVID-19 outcome is less favorable in men. Variability in COVID-19 severity may be explained by differences in the host genome.

Methods: We compared poly-amino acids variability from WES data in severely affected COVID-19 patients versus SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive oligo-asymptomatic subjects. Read More

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Early Antiandrogen Therapy With Dutasteride Reduces Viral Shedding, Inflammatory Responses, and Time-to-Remission in Males With COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Interventional Trial (EAT-DUTA AndroCoV Trial - Biochemical).

Cureus 2021 Feb 1;13(2):e13047. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Dermatology, Applied Biology Inc, Irvine, USA.

Background and objective Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and subsequent infectivity are mediated by androgens and the androgen receptors through the regulation of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) predisposes males to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, while the use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARis) and androgen receptor antagonists reduce COVID-19 disease severity. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential benefit of dutasteride, a commonly used broad and potent 5ARi, as a treatment for COVID-19. Read More

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February 2021

Potential risk for developing severe COVID-19 disease among anabolic steroid users.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 26;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

A severe case of COVID-19 was observed in an otherwise healthy 28-year-old man who had taken oxandrolone 40 mg/day as an anabolic steroid. The patient had been taking oxandrolone for enhanced bodybuilding 30 days prior to presenting to an outpatient clinic with COVID-19 symptoms. The patient reported that his symptoms have rapidly worsened over the course of 4 days prior to presenting at the clinic. Read More

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February 2021

Severely low testosterone in males with COVID-19: A case-control study.

Andrology 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Background: Circulating androgens could have a relevant pathobiological role in clinical outcomes in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19).

Objectives: We aimed to assess: (a) circulating sex steroids levels in a cohort of 286 symptomatic men with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at hospital admission compared to a cohort of 281 healthy men; and (b) the association between serum testosterone levels (tT), COVID-19, and clinical outcomes.

Materials And Methods: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Read More

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February 2021

Androgen-Driven Fusion Genes and Chimeric Transcripts in Prostate Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:623809. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Androgens are steroid hormones governing the male reproductive development and function. As such, androgens and the key mediator of their effects, androgen receptor (AR), have a leading role in many diseases. Prostate cancer is a major disease where AR and its transcription factor function affect a significant number of patients worldwide. Read More

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February 2021

Neuroendocrine patterns underlying seasonal song and year-round territoriality in male black redstarts.

Front Zool 2021 Feb 24;18(1). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Str. 6a, D-82319, Seewiesen, Germany.

Background: The connection between testosterone and territoriality in free-living songbirds has been well studied in a reproductive context, but less so outside the breeding season. To assess the effects of seasonal androgenic action on territorial behavior, we analyzed vocal and non-vocal territorial behavior in response to simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) during three life-cycle stages in free-living male black redstarts: breeding, molt and nonbreeding. Concurrently, we measured changes in circulating testosterone levels, as well as the mRNA expression of androgen and estrogen receptors and aromatase in the preoptic, hypothalamic and song control brain areas that are associated with social and vocal behaviors. Read More

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February 2021

Androgen receptors in areas of the spinal cord and brainstem: A study in adult male cats.

J Anat 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Urology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, play an important role in autonomic, reproductive and sexual behavior. The areas that are important in these behaviors lie within the spinal cord and brainstem. Relevant dysfunctional behavior in patients with altered androgen availability or androgen receptor sensitivity might be explained by the distribution of androgens and their receptors in the central nervous system. Read More

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February 2021