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GSK3 Inhibitor-Induced Dentinogenesis Using a Hydrogel.

J Dent Res 2021 Jun 21:220345211020652. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Craniofacial and Regenerative Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Small-molecule drugs targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) as inhibitors of the protein kinase activity are able to stimulate reparative dentine formation. To develop this approach into a viable clinical treatment for exposed pulp lesions, we synthesized a novel, small-molecule noncompetitive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drug that can be incorporated into a biodegradable hydrogel for placement by syringe into the tooth. This new drug, named NP928, belongs to the thiadiazolidinone (TDZD) family and has equivalent activity to similar drugs of this family such as tideglusib. Read More

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Fragment based screening and hit-based substructure search: Rapid discovery of 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxylic acid as a low-cytotoxic, nanomolar metallo β-lactamase inhibitor.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455.

Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are zinc containing carbapenemases that inactivate a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics. There is a lack of β-lactamase inhibitors for restoring existing β-lactam antibiotics arsenals against common bacterial infections. Fragment based screening of a non-specific metal chelator library demonstrates 8-hydroxyquinoline as a broad-spectrum nanomolar inhibitor against VIM-2 and NDM-1. Read More

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KDELR2 promotes breast cancer proliferation via HDAC3-mediated cell cycle progression.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Division of Life Science and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, P. R. China.

Background: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) engage in the regulation of various cellular processes by controlling global gene expression. The dysregulation of HDACs leads to carcinogenesis, making HDACs ideal targets for cancer therapy. However, the use of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as single agents has been shown to have limited success in treating solid tumors in clinical studies. Read More

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Crowning Metal Ions by Supramolecularization as a General Remedy toward a Dendrite-Free Alkali-Metal Battery.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 19:e2101745. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Nanoyang Group, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Alkali metals have low potentials and high capacities, making them ideal anodes for next-generation batteries, but they suffer major problems, including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE). Achieving uniform metal deposition and having a reliable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are the basic requirements for overcoming these problems. Here, a general remedy is reported for various alkali-metal anodes by the supramolecularization of alkali-metal cations with crown ethers that follows a size-matching rule. Read More

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Color Polymorphism is a Driver of Diversification in the Lizard Family Lacertidae.

Syst Biol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Life & Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced 5400 N. Lake Rd., Merced, CA, 95340 USA.

Color polymorphism - two or more heritable color phenotypes maintained within a single breeding population - is an extreme type of intra-specific diversity widespread across the tree of life. Color polymorphism is hypothesized to be an engine for speciation, where morph loss or divergence between distinct color morphs within a species results in the rapid evolution of new lineages, and thus, color polymorphic lineages are expected to display elevated diversification rates. Multiple species in the lizard family Lacertidae are color polymorphic, making them an ideal group to investigate the evolutionary history of this trait and its influence on macroevolution. Read More

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A Novel and Generic Workflow of Indocyanine Green Perfusion Assessment Integrating Standardization and Quantification Towards Clinical Implementation.

Ann Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Groningen, the Netherlands University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the Netherlands University Health Network, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Groningen, Faculty Campus Fryslân, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands LIMIS Development B.V., Leeuwarden, the Netherlands Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Surgical Oncology and Gastrointestinal Surgery, University of Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht, the Netherlands Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Medical Center Leeuwarden, Department of Intensive Care, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands AxelaRx/TRACER B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands These authors contributed equally and share first authorship These authors contributed equally and share last authorship.

Objective: This study aims to generate a reproducible and generalizable Workflow model of ICG-angiography integrating Standardization and Quantification (WISQ) that can be applied uniformly within the surgical innovation realm independent of the user.

Summary Background Data: Tissue perfusion based on indocyanine green (ICG)-angiography is a rapidly growing application in surgical innovation. Interpretation of have been subjective and error-prone due to the lack of a standardized and quantitative ICG-workflow and analytical methodology. Read More

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Women's empowerment and fertility decision-making in 53 low and middle resource countries: a pooled analysis of demographic and health surveys.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 18;11(6):e045952. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Health Services and Hospital Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Women's empowerment and its association with fertility preference are vital for central-level promotional health policy strategies. This study examines the association between women's empowerment and fertility decision-making in low and middle resource countries (LMRCs).

Design: This cross-sectional study uses the Demographic and Health Survey database. Read More

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Risk mapping of Indian coastal districts using IPCC-AR5 framework and multi-attribute decision-making approach.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 15;294:112948. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Interdisciplinary Program (IDP) in Climate Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400076, India; Environmental Science and Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400076, India. Electronic address:

Strategic location of coastal areas across the world causes them to be prone to disaster risks. In the global south, the Indian coast is one of the most susceptible to oceanic extreme events, such as cyclones, storm surge and high tides. This study provides an understanding of the risk experienced (currently as well as back in 2001) by the districts along the Indian coastline by developing a quantitative risk index. Read More

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(Nano)tag-antibody conjugates in rapid tests.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Nanosensors Bioplatforms Laboratory, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, 14335-186, Tehran, Iran.

Antibodies (Abs) are naturally derived materials with favorable affinity, selectivity, and fast binding kinetics to the respective antigens, which enables their application as promising recognition elements in the development of various types of biosensors/bioassays, especially in rapid tests. These tests are low-cost and easy-to-use biosensing devices with broad applications including medical or veterinary diagnostics, environmental monitoring and industrial usages such as safety and quality analysis in food, providing on-site quick monitoring of various analytes, making it possible to save analysis costs and time. To reach such features, the conjugation of Abs with various nanomaterials (NMs) as tags is necessary, which range from conventional gold nanoparticles to other nanoparticles recently introduced, where magnetic, plasmonic, photoluminescent, or multi-modal properties play a critical role in the overall performance of the analytical device. Read More

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Toward fault tolerant modelling for SCADA based electricity distribution networks, machine learning approach.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 26;7:e554. Epub 2021 May 26.

Computer Engineering Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Maintaining electrical energy is a crucial issue, especially in developing countries with very limited possibilities and recourses. However, the increasing reliance on electrical appliances generates many challenges for operators to fix any fault optimally within minimum time. Even with numerous researches conducted in this area, very few were interested in minimizing the fault duration, especially in the developing countries with very limited resources. Read More

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Quantitative measures and 3D shell models reveal interactions between bands and their position on growing snail shells.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 2;11(11):6634-6648. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of Life Sciences University of Nottingham Nottingham UK.

The nature of shell growth in gastropods is useful because it preserves the ontogeny of shape, colour, and banding patterns, making them an ideal system for understanding how inherited variation develops, is established and maintained within a population. However, qualitative scoring of inherited shell characters means there is a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that control fine variation. Here, we combine empirical measures of quantitative variation and 3D modeling of shells to understand how bands are placed and interact. Read More

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Toward a First-Principles Framework for Predicting Collective Properties of Electrolytes.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Physical Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States.

ConspectusGiven the universal importance of electrolyte solutions, it is natural to expect that we have a nearly complete understanding of the fundamental properties of these solutions (e.g., the chemical potential) and that we can therefore explain, predict, and control the phenomena occurring in them. Read More

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The cost, survival, and quality-of-life implications of guideline-discordant imaging for prostate cancer.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 17:e1468. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Background: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for incident prostate cancer staging imaging have been widely circulated and accepted as best practice since 1996. Despite these clear guidelines, wasteful and potentially harmful inappropriate imaging of men with prostate cancer remains prevalent.

Aim: To understand changing population-level patterns of imaging among men with incident prostate cancer, we created a state-transition microsimulation model based on existing literature and incident prostate cancer cases. Read More

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Regional water security evaluation with risk control model and its application in Jiangsu Province, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

To reduce losses from the various disasters, regional water security evaluation and risk control model is studied. The model is built upon different kinds of indices in water security system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts of evaluation, forewarning and decision making analysis. Based on China's national conditions, this study firstly advances an evaluation index system of regional water security, which includes three subsystems of water resource security, water environment security, and water disaster control security. Read More

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Circular RNAs Are Promising Biomarkers in Liquid Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 31;8:625722. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The high incidence and mortality of lung cancer make early detection of lung cancer particularly important. At present, the diagnosis of lung cancer mainly depends on diagnostic imaging and tissue biopsy. However, current diagnostics are not satisfactory owing to the low specificity and inability of multiple sampling. Read More

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Mother's curse is pervasive across a large mitonuclear panel.

Evol Lett 2021 Jun 13;5(3):230-239. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment University College London London WC1E 6BT United Kingdom.

The maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genomes entails a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes as long as they are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious to females. Ultimately, this bias could drive the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads, an idea known as mother's curse. Read More

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Loss of Adam10 Disrupts Ion Transport in Immortalized Kidney Collecting Duct Cells.

Function (Oxf) 2021 10;2(4):zqab024. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.

The kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD) comprises principal cells (PCs), intercalated cells (IC), and the recently discovered intermediate cell type. Kidney pathology in a mouse model of the syndrome of apparent aldosterone excess revealed plasticity of the CCD, with altered PC:intermediate cell:IC ratio. The self-immortalized mouse CCD cell line, mCCD, shows functional characteristics of PCs, but displays a range of cell types, including intermediate cells, making it ideal to study plasticity. Read More

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The selection of indicators from initial blood routine test results to improve the accuracy of early prediction of COVID-19 severity.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253329. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Geriatric Respiratory Department, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 poses a huge threat to the health and lives of people all over the world, and brings unprecedented pressure to the medical system. We need to establish a practical method to improve the efficiency of treatment and optimize the allocation of medical resources. Due to the influx of a large number of patients into the hospital and the running of medical resources, blood routine test became the only possible check while COVID-19 patients first go to a fever clinic in a community hospital. Read More

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Solid-State NMR Study to Probe the Effects of Divalent Metal Ions (Ca and Mg) on the Magnetic Alignment of Polymer-Based Lipid Nanodiscs.

Langmuir 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Biophysics Program and Department of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, and Macromolecular Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055, United States.

Divalent cations, especially Ca and Mg, play a vital role in the function of biomolecules and making them important to be constituents in samples for in vitro biophysical and biochemical characterizations. Although lipid nanodiscs are becoming valuable tools for structural biology studies on membrane proteins and for drug delivery, most types of nanodiscs used in these studies are unstable in the presence of divalent metal ions. To avoid the interaction of divalent metal ions with the belt of the nanodiscs, synthetic polymers have been designed and demonstrated to form stable lipid nanodiscs under such unstable conditions. Read More

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Objective Comparison of FDA-Approved Breast Implant Products in the USA: 5-Year Update.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There are currently four companies offering FDA-approved breast implants: Allergan, Sientra, Mentor, and Ideal Implant. In 2015, our paper "Objective Comparison of Commercially Available Breast Implant Devices" sought to provide a unique conceptual framework to better understand the similarities and differences between FDA-approved breast implant products and tissue expanders. This paper uses the same variables, such as fill material, shape, relative dimensions, and surface coating, to aid understanding of both the surgical trainee and the operating surgeon of what devices each company offers, with a focus on how the market has evolved over the ensuing 5 years. Read More

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A new approach for interpretability and reliability in clinical risk prediction: Acute coronary syndrome scenario.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Jul 13;117:102113. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cardiology Department, Leiria Hospital Centre, Leiria, Portugal. Electronic address:

Introduction: The risk prediction of the occurrence of a clinical event is often based on conventional statistical procedures, through the implementation of risk score models. Recently, approaches based on more complex machine learning (ML) methods have been developed. Despite the latter usually have a better predictive performance, they obtain little approval from the physicians, as they lack interpretability and, therefore, clinical confidence. Read More

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Sustainable Pharmacy: Piloting a Session on Pharmaceuticals, Climate Change, and Sustainability within a U.S. Pharmacy Curriculum.

Innov Pharm 2017 12;8(4). Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Monash University Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Objective: To design and assess an innovative session for pharmacy students that addresses the role of pharmaceuticals with climate change and sustainability.

Innovation: One hundred and sixteen third-year students at the University of California, San Francisco School of Pharmacy participated during their required Health Policy course. This 3-hour session included guided pre-course activities, an interactive lecture, a panel of healthcare professionals discussing complex decision-making and small group case-based learning. Read More

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October 2017

Global Perspectives on Brief Cognitive Assessments for Dementia Diagnosis.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Timely diagnosis of dementia is a global healthcare priority, particularly in low to middle income countries where rapid increases in older adult populations are expected.

Objective: To investigate global perspectives on the role of brief cognitive assessments (BCAs) in dementia diagnosis, strengths and limitations of existing measures, and future directions and needs.

Methods: This is a qualitative study of 18 dementia experts from different areas of the world. Read More

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Assessing the reproducibility of CBCT-derived radiomics features using a novel 3D-printed phantom.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology.

Purpose: Radiomics modelling is an exciting avenue for enhancing clinical decision-making and personalized treatment. Radiation oncology patients often undergo routine imaging for position verification, particularly using LINAC-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The wealth of imaging data collected in modern radiation therapy presents an ideal use case for radiomics modelling. Read More

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Candidate gene screening for lipid deposition using combined transcriptomic and proteomic data from Nanyang black pigs.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 12;22(1):441. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding/Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Lower selection intensities in indigenous breeds of Chinese pig have resulted in obvious genetic and phenotypic divergence. One such breed, the Nanyang black pig, is renowned for its high lipid deposition and high genetic divergence, making it an ideal model in which to investigate lipid position trait mechanisms in pigs. An understanding of lipid deposition in pigs might improve pig meat traits in future breeding and promote the selection progress of pigs through modern molecular breeding techniques. Read More

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Safeguarding Skin Grafts: An Evidence-Based Summary of Fixation Techniques.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Effective skin graft fixation is vital in preventing sheering forces, seroma, and hematoma from compromising graft take. Yet, selecting the ideal technique for securing skin grafts remains a contentious subject, with significant variation in practice existing between surgeons. There is, therefore, benefit to be derived from assessing the literature for evidence-based recommendations to guide the decision-making process. Read More

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Superelastic oxide micropillars enabled by surface tension-modulated 90° domain switching with excellent fatigue resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Oxide Materials and Devices, Southern University of Science and Technology, 518055 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China;

Superelastic materials capable of recovering large nonlinear strains are ideal for a variety of applications in morphing structures, reconfigurable systems, and robots. However, making oxide materials superelastic has been a long-standing challenge due to their intrinsic brittleness. Here, we fabricate ferroelectric BaTiO (BTO) micropillars that not only are superelastic but also possess excellent fatigue resistance, lasting over 1 million cycles without accumulating residual strains or noticeable variation in stress-strain curves. Read More

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Combining stem cells in myocardial infarction: The road to superior repair?

Med Res Rev 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Biomedical Research Institute (BIOMED), Department of Cardio and Organ Systems, UHasselt-Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

Myocardial infarction irreversibly destroys millions of cardiomyocytes in the ventricle, making it the leading cause of heart failure worldwide. Over the past two decades, many progenitor and stem cell types were proposed as the ideal candidate to regenerate the heart after injury. The potential of stem cell therapy has been investigated thoroughly in animal and human studies, aiming at cardiac repair by true tissue replacement, by immune modulation, or by the secretion of paracrine factors that stimulate endogenous repair processes. Read More

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Advanced Retinal Imaging and Ocular Parameters of the Rhesus Macaque Eye.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 May;10(6)

Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Science, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Purpose: To determine the range of normal ocular biometry and perform advanced retinal imaging and functional assessment of the rhesus macaque eye.

Methods: We performed ocular phenotyping on rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. This process consisted of anterior and posterior segment eye examination by ophthalmologists, advanced retinal imaging, and functional retinal electrophysiology. Read More

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Landfill Leachate Treatment Through Coagulation-flocculation with Lime and Bio-sorption by Walnut-shell.

Environ Manage 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Due to the environmental consequences corresponding to leachate penetration, a sequence of inexpensive conventional processes proposed leachate treatment. The main objective was maximizing the COD and heavy metal removal efficiencies while minimizing generated sludge volume and material consumption rate. Walnut-shell adsorption complements lime treatment by eliminating heavy metals and low molecular-weight organic compounds. Read More

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