45,321 results match your criteria major respiratory

Oyster biomineralisation under ocean acidification: from genes to shell.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

The Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.

Biomineralisation is one of the key processes that is notably affected in marine calcifiers such as oysters under ocean acidification (OA). Understanding molecular changes in the biomineralisation process under OA and its heritability, therefore, is key to developing conservation strategies for protecting ecologically and economically important oyster species. To do this, in this study we have explicitly chosen the tissue involved in biomineralisation (mantle) of an estuarine commercial oyster species, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Read More

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Extracorporeal photopheresis vs standard therapies for steroid-refractory chronic graft-vs-host disease: Pharmacoeconomic assessment of hospital resource use in Spain.

J Clin Apher 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Haematology Department, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: This study assessed pharmacoeconomic costs associated with extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) compared with other available second-line therapies for chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD) in a tertiary Spanish institution.

Methods: Patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with steroid-refractory cGvHD were eligible. Data were collected retrospectively from index date until 1 year or relapse. Read More

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Devosia aurantiaca sp. nov., Isolated from Mountain Soil and Proposal of Albitalea gen. nov. to Replace the Illegitimate Prokaryotic Genus Name Geomonas Khan et al. 2020.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, 84, HeukSeok-Ro, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.

Strain H239, a gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and oxidase-positive, and catalase-negative bacterium, was isolated from mountain soil in Gangwon-do of South Korea. Colonies were orange colored, and cells were motile rods with a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 25 and 30 °C (optimum, 30 °C), between pH 7. Read More

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A 6-month inhalation toxicology study in Apoe mice demonstrates substantially lower effects of e-vapor aerosol compared with cigarette smoke in the respiratory tract.

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A, Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Considerable attention has been paid to the reduced harm potential of nicotine-containing inhalable products such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We investigated the effects of mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) and e-vapor aerosols (containing nicotine and flavor) generated by a capillary aerosol generator on emphysematous changes, lung function, and molecular alterations in the respiratory system of female Apoe mice. Read More

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PM2.5 aggravates NQO1-induced mucus hyper-secretion through release of neutrophil extracellular traps in an asthma model.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112272. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Allergy and Precision Medicine, Chengdu Institute of Respiratory Health, the Third People's Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610031, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chengdu third people's hospital branch of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Affiliated Hospital of ChongQing Medical University, Chengdu 610031, China. Electronic address:

Background: Particulate matter of 2.5 µm or less in diameter (PM2.5) is one of the most complex pollutants in the atmospheric environment and harmful to human health. Read More

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Handgrip Strength as a Reflection of General Muscle Strength in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

COPD 2021 May 7:1-12. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Research in Respiratory Physiotherapy (LFIP), Department of Physiotherapy, State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, Brazil.

Muscle dysfunction is one of the main features in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Handgrip strength (HS) has been used as a representation of general muscle strength in various populations, and a few studies found correlation between HS and other measures of upper and lower limbs' muscle strength in the general population, although this was not yet studied in depth in COPD. The aims of this study were to verify if HS is cross-sectionally well correlated with upper and lower limbs' muscle strength in individuals with COPD, and to identify a new cutoff for handgrip weakness in this population. Read More

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Value of Visceral Fat Area and Resting Energy Expenditure in Assessment of Metabolic Characteristics in Obese and Lean Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;32(2):116-122

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Third Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin, China;Tianjin Institute of Hepatobiliary Disease, Tianjin, China;Artificial Cell Engineering Technology Research Center, Tianjin, China;The Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: The high prevalence and incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have become a global medical concern. Compared with obesity, metabolic abnormalities may be more critical. Currently, there is lack of relevant data for nutritional status and energy metabolic characteristics in patients with obese and lean NAFLD. Read More

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February 2021

Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Sep 15;9:CD013574. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Cochrane Austria, Department for Evidence-based Medicine and Evaluation, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging disease classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). To support the WHO with their recommendations on quarantine, we conducted a rapid review on the effectiveness of quarantine during severe coronavirus outbreaks.

Objectives: To assess the effects of quarantine (alone or in combination with other measures) of individuals who had contact with confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19, who travelled from countries with a declared outbreak, or who live in regions with high disease transmission. Read More

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September 2020

Respiratory morbidity in preterm infants predicted by natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1).

Pediatr Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication in preterm infants <32 weeks. We aimed to assess whether plasma levels of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) predict respiratory morbidity.

Methods: This was a prospective, two-center, observational cohort study. Read More

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Ketamine-induced generalized convulsive seizure during procedural sedation.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2021 Apr 20;22(2):119-121. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Bundang Jesaeng Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Ketamine is used widely in emergency departments for a variety of purposes, including procedural sedation for facial laceration in pediatric patients. The major benefits are its rapid onset of effects, relatively short half-life, and lack of respiratory depression. The known side effects of ketamine are hallucinations, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Read More

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The differences in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 specific co-expression network mediated biological process in human gut enterocytes.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 3;92:104892. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India. Electronic address:

Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was recently outbreak worldwide causes severe acute respiratory syndrome along with gastrointestinal symptoms for some infected patients. Information on detail pathogenesis, host immune responses and responsible biological pathways are limited. Therefore, infection specific host gut responses and dietary supplements to neutralize immune inflammation demand extensive research. Read More

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Propionibacterium freudenreichii thrives in microaerobic conditions by complete oxidation of lactate to CO.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, Wageningen, 6700AA, The Netherlands.

In this study we show increased biomass formation for four species of food-grade propionic acid bacteria (Acidipropionibacterium acidipropionici, Acidipropionibacterium jensenii, Acidipropionibacterium thoenii and Propionibacterium freudenreichii) when exposed to oxygen, implicating functional respiratory systems. Using an optimal microaerobic condition, P. freudenreichii DSM 20271 consumed lactate to produce propionate and acetate initially. Read More

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Evolution of acute lower respiratory infection in children aged < 5 years in Morocco from 2005 to 2014.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Apr 27;27(4):373-380. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohamed V University, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: Acute lower respiratory infection is a major cause of death in children aged < 5 years in Morocco. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to the Moroccan National Immunization Programme in 2010.

Aims: To investigate the trend in the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection in children aged < 5 years during 2005-2014 in Morocco. Read More

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Pulmonary toxicity of actual alveolar deposition concentrations of ultrafine particulate matters in human normal bronchial epithelial cell.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Yunlin, 63208, Taiwan.

Air pollution is a major worldwide concern, and exposure to particulate matter (PM) can increase the risks of pulmonary diseases. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells were applied to clarify the role of ultrafine PM (UFPM) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary toxic effects with realistic alveolar deposition doses. The UFPM used in this research originated from vehicular emissions and coal combustion. Read More

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[Weight loss and malnutrition risk in geriatric patients].

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Fakultät Soziale Arbeit, Gesundheit und Pflege, Institut für Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaften, Hochschule Esslingen - University of Applied Sciences, Flandernstraße 101, 73732, Esslingen, Deutschland.

Background: Malnutrition is a major challenge in routine clinical practice and is associated with increased mortality.

Objectives: In the research project Prevention and treatment of malnutrition in geriatric patients in hospital funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), routine data were analyzed. The aim was to uncover the causes of malnutrition risks acquired in hospital. Read More

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Gallic acid treats dust-induced NAFLD in rats by improving the liver's anti-oxidant capacity and inhibiting ROS/NFκβ/TNFα inflammatory pathway.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):240-247

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Science, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objectives: The burden of disease and death related to environmental pollution is becoming a major public health challenge, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dust exposure on liver function and its structure in rats. Gallic acid (GA) as a potent anti-oxidant was also used to treat NAFLD in rats exposed to dust. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of Extract on Pulmonary Fibrosis Through TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:659627. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible interstitial pulmonary disease with a poor prognosis. The extract of (NFE) has shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of acute lung injury, lung cancer, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). However, the potential mechanism and efficacy of NFE in the treatment of IPF remain unknown. Read More

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The Relation Between Clinical Phenotypes, GOLD Groups/Stages and Mortality in COPD Patients - A Prospective Multicenter Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 28;16:1171-1182. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Pulmonary Department, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Introduction: The concept of phenotyping emerged, reflecting specific clinical, pulmonary and extrapulmonary features of each particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) case. Our aim was to analyze prognostic utility of: "Czech" COPD phenotypes and their most frequent combinations, "Spanish" phenotypes and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages + groups in relation to long-term mortality risk.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Czech Multicenter Research Database (CMRD) of COPD. Read More

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Microvesicles released from pneumolysin-stimulated lung epithelial cells carry mitochondrial cargo and suppress neutrophil oxidative burst.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9529. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Pulmonary Inflammation, and Department of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Microvesicles (MVs) are cell-derived extracellular vesicles that have emerged as markers and mediators of acute lung injury (ALI). One of the most common pathogens in pneumonia-induced ALI is Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), but the role of MVs during Spn lung infection is largely unknown. In the first line of defense against Spn and its major virulence factor, pneumolysin (PLY), are the alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Read More

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Awake prone positioning for hypoxaemic respiratory failure: past, COVID-19 and perspectives.

Eur Respir Rev 2021 Jun 5;30(160). Epub 2021 May 5.

Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CH Aix-en-Provence, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Prone positioning reduces mortality in the management of intubated patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. It allows improvement in oxygenation by improving ventilation/perfusion ratio mismatching.Because of its positive physiological effects, prone positioning has also been tested in non-intubated, spontaneously breathing patients, or "awake" prone positioning. Read More

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Case report: histopathology and molecular pathology analysis on enteric tissue of a COVID-19 patient.

Diagn Pathol 2021 May 5;16(1):40. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Infectious Disease, Shanghai Public Health Clinical center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Patients with COVID-19 can also have enteric symptoms. Here we analyzed the histopathology of intestinal detachment tissue from a patient with COVID-19.

Methods: The enteric tissue was examined by hematoxylin & eosin stain, PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) staining, Gram staining, Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Grocott's Methenamine Silver (GMS) Stain. Read More

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A systematic review of the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of acute exacerbation of systemic autoimmune disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 May 5;21(1):150. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Northern Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Acute exacerbation (AE) is a devastating phenomenon and reported to be complicated with systemic autoimmune disease-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and prognosis of AE of systemic autoimmune disease-ILD and clarify relevant clinical information predictive of these outcomes.

Method: This study was designed as a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Pulmonary Hypertension: The Hidden Danger for Newborns.

Steven H Abman

Neonatology 2021 May 5:1-7. Epub 2021 May 5.

Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Despite growing awareness of the clinical importance of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in preterm infants, uncertainty persists regarding the different clinical settings in which abnormalities of pulmonary vascular growth, function, and structure contribute to high morbidity and mortality, and potential interventions to improve outcomes are uncertain. A major gap for improving outcomes of preterm infants with PH has been the limited characterization of the distinct settings of PH and related disease-specific mechanisms in preterm infants that represent diverse pulmonary vascular phenotypes of prematurity. In comparison with term newborns, preterm infants have a higher risk for developing hypoxemia due to suprasystemic levels of PH in preterm infants shortly after birth or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Ceftazidime in Neonates and Young Infants: Dosing Optimization for Neonatal Sepsis.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 2:105868. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China; Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, China; Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan 250000, China; Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan 250000, China. Electronic address:

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin with high activity against many pathogens. But the ambiguity and diversity of the dosing regimens in neonates and young infants impair access to effective treatment. Thus, we conducted a population pharmacokinetic study of ceftazidime in this vulnerable population and recommended a model-based dosage regimen to optimize sepsis therapy. Read More

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Risk factors associated with the need for oxygen therapy in patients with COVID-19.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25819

Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract: Respiratory failure is the major cause of death in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on factors affecting the need for oxygen therapy in early-stage COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the need for oxygen therapy in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Hymenobacter negativus sp. nov., bacteria isolated from mountain soil collected in South Korea.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul, 02707, Republic of Korea.

Two novel Gram-negative bacterial strains BT442 and BT584 were isolated from dry soil collected in mountains Busan and Guri, Korea during wintertime. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains BT442 and BT584 both belong to a distinct lineage within the genus Hymenobacter (family Hymenobacteraceae, order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia). Strain BT442 was closely related to Hymenobacter soli PB17 (98. Read More

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Evaluation of Two Chest Tomosynthesis Cystic Fibrosis Scoring Systems Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography Brody Scoring as Reference.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden.

Purpose: To evaluate two chest tomosynthesis (CTS) scoring systems for cystic fibrosis (CF), one system developed by Vult von Steyern et al. (VvS) and one system based on the Brody scoring system for high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) (modified Brody (mB)). Brody scoring of HRCT was used as reference. Read More

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Ethnic inequalities in hospital admissions in England: an observational study.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 5;21(1):862. Epub 2021 May 5.

Consumer Data Research Centre (CDRC), Department of Geography, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: Ethnic inequalities in health are well-known and partly explained by social determinants such as poorer living and working conditions, health behaviours, discrimination, social exclusion, and healthcare accessibility factors. Inequalities are known both for self-reported health and for diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and non-specific chest pains. Most studies however concern individual diseases or self-reported health and do not provide an overview that can detect gaps in existing knowledge. Read More

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Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents Burkholderia pseudomallei-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and is protective during melioidosis in mice.

BMC Microbiol 2021 May 4;21(1):137. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Pharmacy and Medical Laboratory, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a facultative intracellular bacterium, is the aetiological agent of melioidosis that is responsible for up to 40% sepsis-related mortality in epidemic areas. However, no effective vaccine is available currently, and the drug resistance is also a major problem in the treatment of melioidosis. Therefore, finding new clinical treatment strategies in melioidosis is extremely urgent. Read More

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Evaluation of Small Molecule Combinations against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Microbial Technology Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised worldwide. At present no approved specific drugs or vaccines are available to treat this pathogen. Recently, several promising candidates targeting RSV entry and multiplication steps are under investigation. Read More

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