67,883 results match your criteria major component

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Extract and Its Major Component Andrographolide in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Cytotoxicity Evaluation in Major Organ Cell Representatives.

J Nat Prod 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Excellent Center for Drug Discovery (ECDD), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has become a major health problem, affecting more than 50 million people with over one million deaths globally. Effective antivirals are still lacking. Here, we optimized a high-content imaging platform and the plaque assay for viral output study using the legitimate model of human lung epithelial cells, Calu-3, to determine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of extract and its major component, andrographolide. Read More

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Navigation assisted total knee arthroplasty in 54,114 patients: No increased risk in acute complications and hospital utilisation.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Apr 2:e2256. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Background: The advent of navigation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has generated interest in attempt to improve component positioning as desired and clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate 90-day complication and cost of navigation-assisted TKAs (NTKA) compared to conventional TKAs (CTKA) using a national database.

Methods: A retrospective review of national database was conducted on all patients who underwent TKA from 2010 and 2017. Read More

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New Visualization Models of Designation Pathway and Group Categorization of Device-Drug and Device-Biologic Combination Products Classification in the United States: Analysis of FDA Capsular Decisions.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Joint Graduate School of Tokyo Women's Medical University and Waseda University (TWIns), Cooperative Major in Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: The developer and sponsor of new combination products in US needs to forecast which classification and designation to the regulatory scheme of drug, biological product, or device would be required for the new products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To improve the predictability and acceptability of the designation of new combination products for innovators, developers, and sponsors, and to encourage the development and early access of new combination products, we proposed new visualization models of the designation pathway and group categorization.

Method: We searched the website of the FDA on 15 November, 2020 to identify the regulatory scheme of the FDA's 129 capsular decision cases of device-drug and device-biologics combination products and other publicly available cases the FDA designated to the drug/biologic or device regulatory scheme. Read More

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Chemotherapy in NEN: still has a role?

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario, 12 de Octubre, Imas12, UCM, Madrid, Spain.

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) comprise a broad spectrum of tumors with widely variable biological and clinical behavior. Primary tumor site, extent of disease, tumor differentiation and expression of so matostatin receptors, proliferation and growth rates are the major prognostic factors that determine the therapeutic strategy. Treatment options for advanced disease have considerably expanded in recent years, particularly for well differentiated tumors (NETs). Read More

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Intracisternal administration of tanshinone IIA-loaded nanoparticles leads to reduced tissue injury and functional deficits in a porcine model of ischemic stroke.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 5;10:18-30. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States.

Background: The absolute number of new stroke patients is annually increasing and there still remains only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments with significant limitations available to patients. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a promising potential therapeutic for ischemic stroke that has shown success in pre-clinical rodent studies but lead to inconsistent efficacy results in human patients. The physical properties of Tan-IIA, including short half-life and low solubility, suggests that Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-assisted delivery may lead to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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Neuroendocrine cells of the prostate: Histology, biological functions, and molecular mechanisms.

Precis Clin Med 2021 Mar 28;4(1):25-34. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common cause of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Although most men are diagnosed with low grade, indolent tumors that are potentially curable, a significant subset develops advanced disease where hormone therapy is required to target the androgen receptor (AR). Despite its initial effect, hormone therapy eventually fails and the tumor progresses to lethal stages even through continued inhibition of AR. Read More

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Investigation of a Novel Deep Learning-Based Computed Tomography Perfusion Mapping Framework for Functional Lung Avoidance Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:644703. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Functional lung avoidance radiation therapy aims to minimize dose delivery to the normal lung tissue while favoring dose deposition in the defective lung tissue based on the regional function information. However, the clinical acquisition of pulmonary functional images is resource-demanding, inconvenient, and technically challenging. This study aims to investigate the deep learning-based lung functional image synthesis from the CT domain. Read More

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Identification of the promising Persian walnut ( L.) genotypes among seedling-originated trees.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 25;9(4):2217-2226. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Horticultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Arak University Arak Iran.

Considerable genetic diversity among the native populations of Persian walnut ( L.) provides a great opportunity to identify genotypes with valuable traits. In the present study, morphological and pomological diversity assessments of 362 walnut seedling origin genotypes were performed to identify superior genotypes. Read More

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Soundscape in Times of Change: Case Study of a City Neighbourhood During the COVID-19 Lockdown.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:570741. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown meant a greatly reduced social and economic activity. Sound is of major importance to people's perception of the environment, and some remarked that the soundscape was changing for the better. But are these anecdotal reports based in truth? Has traffic noise from cars and airplanes really gone down, so that more birdsong can be heard? Have socially distanced people quietened down? This article presents a case study of the human perception of environmental sounds in an urban neighborhood in the Basque Country between 15 March and 25 May 2020. Read More

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How Negative Experience Influences the Brain: A Comprehensive Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Nocebo Hyperalgesia.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:652552. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Health, Medical & Neuropsychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

This comprehensive review summarizes and interprets the neurobiological correlates of nocebo hyperalgesia in healthy humans. Nocebo hyperalgesia refers to increased pain sensitivity resulting from negative experiences and is thought to be an important variable influencing the experience of pain in healthy and patient populations. The young nocebo field has employed various methods to unravel the complex neurobiology of this phenomenon and has yielded diverse results. Read More

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Pharmacological potential of ginseng and its major component ginsenosides.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 25;45(2):199-210. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Ginseng has been used as a traditional herb in Asian countries for thousands of years. It contains a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins, protopanaxadiols, and protopanaxatriols, collectively known as ginsenosides. In the last few decades, the antioxidative and anticancer effects of ginseng, in addition to its effects on improving immunity, energy and sexuality, and combating cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neurological diseases, have been studied in both basic and clinical research. Read More

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Relevance of Major Allergens in Weed Pollen Allergy.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 9:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: Weed pollen allergy is an important and in prevalence increasing cause of pollinosis in Europe and across the world. In this study we focus on the value of common diagnostic tools for detection of a sensitization to mugwort and English plantain, especially with regard to the clinical relevance of the sensitization.

Methods: Eighty weed pollen sensitized patients (41 to mugwort and 39 to English plantain) were assessed retrospectively regarding their clinical anamnesis, in-vivo tests (skin prick test [SPT] and allergen specific provocation) and in-vitro tests (immunoglobulin E [IgE] reactivity to purified natural allergen extract and specific allergen components in serum). Read More

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The miRISC component AGO2 has multiple binding sites for Nup358 SUMO-interacting motif.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 7;556:45-52. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

National Centre for Cell Science, S.P. Pune University Campus, Pune, India. Electronic address:

Micro-RNA mediated suppression of mRNA translation represents a major regulatory mode of post-transcriptional gene expression. Recently, the nucleoporin Nup358 was shown to interact with AGO protein, a key component of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), and facilitate the coupling of miRISC with target mRNA. Previous results suggested that SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) present on Nup358 mediate interaction with AGO protein. Read More

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High-Fat Diet Drives an Aggressive Pancreatic Cancer Phenotype.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 7;264:163-172. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgery, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence indicates associations between high-fat diet (HFD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, individual components of an HFD that increase cancer risk have not been isolated. In addition, a specific pattern of cytokine elevation by which MetS drives pancreatic tumor progression is not well described. Read More

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Composition and profiles of volatile organic compounds during waste decomposition by the anaerobic bacteria purified from landfill.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 7;126:466-475. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of All Material Fluxes in River Ecosystems, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) become concerned pollutants in landfill gases, and their composition and concentration varied significantly during waste decomposition. Many environmental factors are known to affect VOC emissions, while the effect of indigenous bacteria in wastes on VOC production remains elusive. In this study, a simplified anaerobic degradation experiment, with the single substrate and the purified bacteria from a landfill, was set up to measure the degradation process and the dynamic changes of VOCs. Read More

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Genotypic and phenotypic profiles of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in Bangladesh.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Institute for Developing Science and Health Initiatives, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Characterization of resistance phenotype and genotype is crucial to understanding the burden and transmission of antimicrobial-resistance (AMR). This study aims to determine the spectrum of AMR and associated genes encoding aminoglycoside, macrolide and β-lactam classes of antimicrobials in bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in Bangladesh.

Methods: 430 bacterial isolates from patients with respiratory, intestinal, wound infections, and typhoid fever, presenting to clinical care from 2015-2019, were examined. Read More

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Identification of CXCL12-abundant reticular cells in human adult bone marrow.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, World Premier International Research Center (WPI), Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

A population of mesenchymal stem cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-expressing cells, are the major cellular component of niches for haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in murine bone marrow. CAR cells are characterized by several salient features, including much higher expression of CXCL12, stem cell factor (SCF), forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) and early B-cell factor 3 (EBF3), which are essential for HSC maintenance, than other cells. However, the human counterpart of CAR cells has not been fully described. Read More

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The Royal Army Dental Corps today.

Br Dent J 2021 Apr 9;230(7):447-450. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Major Royal Army Dental Corps, Senior Dental Officer, Dental Centre Winchester, Hampshire, UK.

The Royal Army Dental Corps (RADC) provides dental care to the British Army both in barracks and on deployment While a significant proportion of most RADC dental officers' careers is spent working in permanent military primary care dental clinics, it is the ability of all RADC dental officers to provide dental care when deployed that provides unique challenges only seen in the military environment. All RADC dental officers are able to deliver high quality care in temporary facilities. During a career the majority of RADC dental officers will have at least one job in a medical regiment providing the dental component of the British Army's rapidly deployable medical capability. Read More

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Keeping the peace with dentistry.

Br Dent J 2021 Apr 9;230(7):429-434. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Colonel (Retired) Late Royal Army Dental Corps, Ministry of Defence Civilian Dental Practitioner, Dental Centre Dhekelia, Cyprus.

Peacekeeping and the delivery of humanitarian aid is a vital component in the repertoire of any modern military and the UK has been at the forefront in contributing to these types of operation at an international level. When preparing for an enduring task such as peacekeeping, it is essential to consider all supporting components that can help deliver a common goal. Whether access to healthcare for the local population has collapsed or maintaining a healthy deployed force, dentistry will inevitably need to be considered and appropriate provision secured. Read More

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Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles and mechanisms of using a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and mechanisms is critical for clinical management and drug development. However, the current AMR detection approaches take up to 48 h to obtain a result. Here we demonstrate a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach to rapidly determine the AMR profile of , a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Read More

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From "Leaky Gut" to Impaired Glia-Neuron Communication in Depression.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:129-155

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In the last three decades, the robust scientific data emerged, demonstrating that the immune-inflammatory response is a fundamental component of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Psychological stress and various inflammatory comorbidities contribute to such immune activation. Still, this is not uncommon that patients with depression do not have defined inflammatory comorbidities, and alternative mechanisms of immune activation need to take place. Read More

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Gut Immunity and Microbiota Dysbiosis Are Associated with Altered Bile Acid Metabolism in LPS-Challenged Piglets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 25;2021:6634821. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

National Engineering Laboratory of Biological Feed Safety and Pollution Prevention and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Bacterial infections are among the major factors that cause stress and intestinal diseases in piglets. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane, is commonly employed for inducing an immune response in normal organisms for convenience. The association between LPS stimulation and gut immunity has been reported. Read More

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Silencing of LINE-1 retrotransposons is a selective dependency of myeloid leukemia.

Nat Genet 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Children's Medical Center Research Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Transposable elements or transposons are major players in genetic variability and genome evolution. Aberrant activation of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons is common in human cancers, yet their tumor-type-specific functions are poorly characterized. We identified MPHOSPH8/MPP8, a component of the human silencing hub (HUSH) complex, as an acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-selective dependency by epigenetic regulator-focused CRISPR screening. Read More

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Type 1 interferon mediates chronic stress-induced neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits via complement component 3-dependent pathway.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Chronic stress is a major risk factor in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, chronic stress conditions can promote neuroinflammation and inflammatory responses in both humans and animal models. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response in the periphery and responsible for the altered mood and behavior. Read More

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From the Operating Room to the Front Lines: Shared Experiences of Nurse Anesthetists During the Coronavirus Pandemic.

AANA J 2021 Apr;89(2):109-116

is an associate professor at Webster University in St Louis, Missouri, and is the director of clinical education for the university's Department of Nurse Anesthesia. Email:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in severe health, economic, social, political, and cultural consequences while thrusting Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) at the forefront of battling an often invisible enemy. A mixed-methods study was conducted to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CRNA practice. The purpose of the qualitative component of the study, a focused ethnography, was to use personal and group interviews to determine the shared experiences of CRNAs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Response of the critically endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) to selenium deprived environment.

J Proteomics 2021 Apr 5:104218. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.

Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral nutrient for animals. Se deprivation can lead to many disorders and even death. This study investigated the response of Przewalski's gazelle (P. Read More

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Mental Health Improvements After Elective Spine Surgery: a Canadian Spine Outcome Research Network (CSORN) study.

Spine J 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Background Context: Spine patients have a higher rate of depression then the general population which may be caused in part by levels of pain and disability from their spinal disease.

Purpose: Determination whether improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) resulting from successful spine surgery leads to improvements in mental health.

Study Design/setting: The Canadian Spine Outcome Research Network (CSORN) prospective surgical outcome registry. Read More

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Leveraging expression from multiple tissues using sparse canonical correlation analysis and aggregate tests improves the power of transcriptome-wide association studies.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 8;17(4):e1008973. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) test the association between traits and genetically predicted gene expression levels. The power of a TWAS depends in part on the strength of the correlation between a genetic predictor of gene expression and the causally relevant gene expression values. Consequently, TWAS power can be low when expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data used to train the genetic predictors have small sample sizes, or when data from causally relevant tissues are not available. Read More

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Atractylenolide I enhances responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade therapy by activating tumor antigen presentation.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, United States of America.

One of the primary mechanisms of tumor cell immune evasion is the loss of antigenicity, which arises due to lack of immunogenic tumor antigens as well as dysregulation of the antigen processing machinery. In a screen for small-molecule compounds from herbal medicine that potentiate T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we identified atractylenolide I (ATT-I) that significantly promotes tumor antigen presentation of both human and mouse colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and thereby enhances the cytotoxic response of CD8+ T cells. Cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) with multiplexed quantitative mass spectrometry identified the proteasome 26S subunit non-ATPase 4 (PSMD4), an essential component of the immunoproteasome complex, as a primary target protein of ATT-I. Read More

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The green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Gen Virol 2021 04;102(4)

Department of Virology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and more than a million deaths. The infection causes COVID-19, a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. No treatment exists. Read More

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