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How to Improve Information Technology to Support Healthcare to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic: an International Survey with Health Informatics Experts.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: To identify the ways in which healthcare information and communication technologies can be improved to address the challenges raised by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The study population included health informatics experts who had been involved with the planning, development and deployment of healthcare information and communication technologies in healthcare settings in response to the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected via an online survey. Read More

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Trials and Tribulations: mHealth Clinical Trials in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: Mobile phone-based interventions in cardiovascular disease are growing in popularity. A randomised control trial (RCT) for a novel smartphone app-based model of care, named TeleClinical Care - Cardiac (TCC-Cardiac), commenced in February 2019, targeted at patients being discharged after care for an acute coronary syndrome or episode of decompensated heart failure. The app was paired to a digital sphygmomanometer, weighing scale and a wearable fitness band, all loaned to the patient, and allowed clinicians to respond to abnormal readings. Read More

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The International Academy of Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI): 2020 Report.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Health Informatics, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: To summarize the major activities of the International Academy of Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI) in the 2020 time period and to welcome its 2020 Class of Fellows.

Method: Report from the members of the Academy's Board.

Results: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, both Plenary meetings in 2020 had to be organized as virtual meetings. Read More

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Pandemics: Historically Slow "Learning Curve" Leading to Biomedical Informatics and Vaccine Breakthroughs.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, USA.

Background: The worldwide tragedy of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic vividly demonstrates just how inadequate mitigation and control of the spread of infectious diseases can be when faced with a new microorganism with unknown pathogenic effects. Responses by governments in charge of public health, and all other involved organizations, have proved largely wanting. Data infrastructure and the information and communication systems needed to deal with the pandemic have likewise not been up to the task. Read More

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Unexpected Term Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admissions and a Potential Role for Centralized Remote Fetal Monitoring.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Service Line, Ochsner Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Objective:  Centralized remote fetal monitoring (CRFM) has been proposed as a method to improve the performance of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CRFM was associated with a reduction in unexpected term neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions.

Study Design:  A pre-post design was used to examine the effectiveness of CRFM which was implemented in stages across five hospitals. Read More

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Overriding water table control on managed peatland greenhouse gas emissions.

Nature 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK.

Global peatlands store more carbon than is naturally present in the atmosphere. However, many peatlands are under pressure from drainage-based agriculture, plantation development and fire, with the equivalent of around 3% of all anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted from drained peatland. Efforts to curb such emissions are intensifying through the conservation of undrained peatlands and rewetting of drained systems. Read More

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Retroperitoneal sarcoma: the Transatlantic Australasian Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Working Group Program.

Curr Opin Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto and Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of The Review: The Transatlantic Australasian Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Working Group (TARPSWG) is a bottom-up clinical network established in 2013 with the goal of improving the care and outcomes of patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). Here, we review the knowledge produced by this collaborative effort and examine the future potential of this group.

Recent Findings: TARPSWG has produced retrospective studies focused on patients with primary and recurrent RPS allowing a better understanding of patient prognosis, treatment outcomes and tumor biology. Read More

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European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults with a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Obes Facts 2021 Apr 21:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Dipartimento di Medicina, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been recently proposed as an appealing nutritional strategy for obesity management. The VLCKD is characterized by a low carbohydrate content (<50 g/day), 1-1.5 g of protein/kg of ideal body weight, 15-30 g of fat/day, and a daily intake of about 500-800 calories. Read More

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Air Pollution Is Associated with Cognitive Deterioration of Alzheimer's Disease.

Gerontology 2021 Apr 21:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Introduction: Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. Alz-heimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, has great impact on the health-care system of developed nations. Several risk factors are suggestive of an increased risk of AD, including APOE-ε4, male, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low social engagement. Read More

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MiR-506-3p Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Targeting KLF4.

Pathobiology 2021 Apr 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an, China.

Background: The dysregulation of proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the major causes of atherosclerosis (AS). Accumulating studies confirm that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of VSMCs through multiple signaling pathways. However, the mechanism of KLF4 dysregulation remains unknown. Read More

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Aluminum and Lithium Sulfur Batteries: A review of recent progress and future directions.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Physics, Adnan Menderes University, Department of Physics, Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Aydın 09010, Turkey, Aydin, 09010, TURKEY.

Advanced materials with various micro-/nanostructures have attracted plenty of attention for decades in energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries (ion- or sulfur based batteries) and supercapacitors. To improve the electrochemical performance of batteries, it is uttermost important to develope advanced electrode materials. Moreover, the cathode material is also important that it restricts the efficiency and practical application of aluminum-ion batteries. Read More

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Polymorphisms in plants to restrict losses to pathogens: From gene family expansions to complex network evolution.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Apr 18;62:102040. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Genetic polymorphisms are the basis of the natural diversity seen in all life on earth, also in plant-pathogen interactions. Initially, studies on plant-pathogen interaction focused on reporting phenotypic variation in resistance properties and on the identification of underlying major genes. Nowadays, the field of plant-pathogen interactions is moving from focusing on families of single dominant genes involved in gene-for-gene interactions to an understanding of the plant immune system in the context of a much more complex signaling network and quantitative resistance. Read More

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Eutrophication causes invertebrate biodiversity loss and decreases cross-taxon congruence across anthropogenically-disturbed lakes.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 18;153:106494. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Eutrophication is a major problem currently impacting many surface water ecosystems. Impacts of increased nutrient concentrations on biodiversity may differ between different scales, different organism groups, and different trophic states. Surveys at different spatial scales have suggested that biodiversity of different taxa may exhibit significant cross-taxon congruence. Read More

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A participatory method for prioritizing invasive species: Ranking threats to Minnesota's terrestrial ecosystems.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 18;290:112556. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center, University of Minnesota, 1992 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN, 55108-6125, USA; USDA, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1561 Lindig Street, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6125, USA. Electronic address:

Terrestrial invasive species threaten the integrity of diverse and highly-valued ecosystems. The Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center (MITPPC) was established by the state of Minnesota to fund research projects aimed at minimizing harms posed by the most threatening terrestrial invasive species to the state's prairies, wetlands, forests, and agriculture. MITPPC used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify and prioritize diverse invasive species threats. Read More

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Evaluation of disease staging and chemotherapeutic response in non-small cell lung cancer from patient tumor-derived metabolomic data.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 15;156:20-30. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, United States; James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, United States; Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Despite extensive effort, the search for clinically-relevant metabolite biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, and outcome prediction in lung cancer remains unfulfilled. Although biofluid evaluation has been explored, the complexity inherent in metabolite data and the dynamic discrepancy between metabolites in biofluids vs. tumor tissue have prevented conclusive results. Read More

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Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by endoglucanase via expansin pretreatment and the addition of zinc ions.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 7;333:125139. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China; School of Marine Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

One of the major limitations of lignocellulose conversion is the relatively low efficiency of cellulases. Expansins can act as an accessory protein to loosen the rigid cellulose structure and promote cellulose hydrolysis. However, the synergistic action of expansin is not well understood. Read More

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Proteomic signatures of radioresistance: Alteration of inflammation, angiogenesis and metabolism-related factors in radioresistant oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Apr 18;27:100376. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity St. James's Cancer Institute, St. James's Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The clinical management of locally advanced oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) involves neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but as radioresistance remains a major clinical challenge, complete pathological response to CRT only occurs in 20-30% of patients. In this study we used an established isogenic cell line model of radioresistant OAC to detect proteomic signatures of radioresistance to identify novel molecular and cellular targets of radioresistance in OAC. A total of 5785 proteins were identified of which 251 were significantly modulated in OE33R cells, when compared to OE33P. Read More

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Readmissions and mortality in pediatric tracheostomy patients: Are we doing enough?

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 18;145:110704. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology, USA; UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Pediatric patients who undergo tracheostomy tube placement are medically complex with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. They are often premature with multiple cardiopulmonary comorbidities. This study reviews the demographics and outcomes within this population to identify at-risk patient groups at our hospital. Read More

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Active MT1-MMP is tethered to collagen fibers in DDR2-containing remnants.

Gene 2021 Apr 18:145673. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qing Hai University, Xining, Qinghai, 810001, China. Electronic address:

Type I collagen is a major extracellular matrix (ECM) component in the interstitial stroma of solid tumors, and it represents the first barrier against tumor cell invasion after basement-membrane degradation. The collagen receptors that convey molecular signals into the cells are collagen-binding discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) and integrins. Collagen-activated DDR2 clusters form DDR2-containing remnants in an integrin-dependent manner in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix. Read More

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Isoform-specific and signaling-dependent propagation of acute myeloid leukemia by Wilms tumor 1.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):109010

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, UK. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is caused by recurrent mutations in members of the gene regulatory and signaling machinery that control hematopoietic progenitor cell growth and differentiation. Here, we show that the transcription factor WT1 forms a major node in the rewired mutation-specific gene regulatory networks of multiple AML subtypes. WT1 is frequently either mutated or upregulated in AML, and its expression is predictive for relapse. Read More

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Glucose-mediated proliferation of a gut commensal bacterium promotes Plasmodium infection by increasing mosquito midgut pH.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):108992

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, PRC; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, PRC. Electronic address:

Plant-nectar-derived sugar is the major energy source for mosquitoes, but its influence on vector competence for malaria parasites remains unclear. Here, we show that Plasmodium berghei infection of Anopheles stephensi results in global metabolome changes, with the most significant impact on glucose metabolism. Feeding on glucose or trehalose (the main hemolymph sugars) renders the mosquito more susceptible to Plasmodium infection by alkalizing the mosquito midgut. Read More

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Subiculum as a generator of sharp wave-ripples in the rodent hippocampus.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(3):109021

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN) Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany; Einstein Center for Neurosciences (ECN) Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Max-Delbrück-Centrum (MDC) for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) represent synchronous discharges of hippocampal neurons and are believed to play a major role in memory consolidation. A large body of evidence suggests that SWRs are exclusively generated in the CA3-CA2 network. In contrast, here, we provide several lines of evidence showing that the subiculum can function as a secondary SWRs generator. Read More

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Continuous reference intervals for 19 endocrine, fertility, and immunochemical markers in the CALIPER cohort of healthy children and adolescents.

Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

CALIPER Program, Pediatric Laboratory Medicine & Molecular Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Reference intervals are traditionally partitioned into discrete ranges by major covariates such as age and sex. However, discrete reference intervals often oversimplify the complex relationship between analyte concentration and age. Continuous reference intervals have been suggested to more accurately represent this complex relationship, particularly in pediatrics. Read More

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Corneal Collagen as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Dry Eye Disease.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

The Vanderbilt Eye Institute and Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, AA7100 MCN, 1161 21st Ave S. Nashville, TN 37232-2279. Electronic address:

Dry eye disease (DED) is a major cause of ocular discomfort, inflammation and dysfunction worldwide. Tear film instability in DED both causes and is exacerbated by disruption of the corneal epithelium. This tandem leads to a cycle of inflammation at the corneal surface involving immune cell dysregulation and increased chemokines and cytokines, which activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the epithelium and elevates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Read More

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Urinary exosomal CD26 is associated with recovery from acute kidney injury in intensive care units: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China.

Objectives: Currently there is no validated method to predict renal reversal and recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI). As exosomes have the potential for AKI prognosis and CD26 is involved in the mechanisms in AKI, this study aims to investigate whether urinary exosomal CD26 is associated with renal-related outcomes and explore its prospect as a novel prognosis biomarker.

Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. Read More

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High prevalence of opisthorchiasis in rural populations from Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR: serological screening using total IgG- and IgG4-based ELISA.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

D epart ment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Background: Human opisthorchiasis, caused by Opisthorchis viverrini, is a public health problem in Southeast Asia and a major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. In Lao PDR, seroprevalence and the relationship between the number of O. viverrini eggs in infected people and specific antibody responses are still unknown. Read More

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An intelligent cluster optimization algorithm based on Whale Optimization Algorithm for VANETs (WOACNET).

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250271. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) an important category in networking focuses on many applications, such as safety and intelligent traffic management systems. The high node mobility and sparse vehicle distribution (on the road) compromise VANETs network scalability and rapid topology, hence creating major challenges, such as network physical layout formation, unstable links to enable robust, reliable, and scalable vehicle communication, especially in a dense traffic network. This study discusses a novel optimization approach considering transmission range, node density, speed, direction, and grid size during clustering. Read More

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Late presentation for HIV remains a major health issue in Spain: Results from a multicenter cohort study, 2004-2018.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249864. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Unit AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS), National Center of Epidemiology (CNE), Health Institute Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: With the purpose of reducing the well-known negative impact of late presentation (LP) on people living with HIV (PLWH), guidelines on early HIV diagnosis were published in 2014 in Spain, but since then no data on LP prevalence have been published. To estimate prevalence and risk factors of LP and to evaluate their impact on the development of clinical outcomes in the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) during 2004-2018.

Methods: CoRIS is an open prospective multicenter cohort of PLWH, adults, naive to ART at entry. Read More

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Bodyweight change and cognitive performance in the older population.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249651. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA), Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich, Germany.

Preservation of cognitive function is one of the major concerns in contemporary ageing societies. At the same time, overweight and obesity, which have been identified as risk factors for poor health development, have been increasing in many countries all over the world. This study examines the relationship between bodyweight change and cognitive decline in old age and it aims to determine whether and how changes in body mass index (BMI) affect the development of cognitive functioning in old age. Read More

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Social contact behaviors are associated with infection status for Trichuris sp. in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus).

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0240872. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Social grooming in the animal kingdom is common and serves several functions, from removing ectoparasites to maintaining social bonds between conspecifics. We examined whether time spent grooming with others in a highly social mammal species was associated with infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. Of six parasites detected, one (Trichuris sp. Read More

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