1,441 results match your criteria maintenance gains


Are Older Persons in China Living More Years in an Independent Living Arrangement? Estimates Using Multistate Life Tables.

Demography 2021 Apr;58(2):739-762

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Adopting a multistate life table approach, this study estimates number of years the very old in China expect to live in an independent living arrangement (alone or with spouse only)-an estimate we term "independent living life expectancy" (ILLE)-as opposed to in coresidence with adult children or others. We also estimate how ILLE and proportion of total life expectancy (TLE) residing independently has changed over time. The backdrop for this study is a society experiencing both increasing longevity and social changes that influence the tendency to live in an independent living arrangement. Read More

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Mindfulness and Attention: Current State-of-Affairs and Future Considerations.

J Cogn Enhanc 2020 Sep 23;4(3):340-367. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University.

This review examines longitudinal studies of changes in components of attention following mindfulness training. A total of 57 retreat studies, non-randomized trials, and randomized controlled trials were identified. Employing the classical taxonomy proposed by Posner and Petersen (1990), outcome measures were broadly categorized based on whether they involved maintenance of an aroused state (alerting), selective prioritization of attention to target items (orienting), or assessed conflict monitoring (executive attention). Read More

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September 2020

Population Density Affects the Outcome of Competition in Co-cultures of Gardnerella Species Isolated from the Human Vaginal Microbiome.

Microb Ecol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Negative frequency-dependent selection is one possible mechanism for maintenance of rare species in communities, but the selective advantage of rare species may be checked at lower overall population densities where resources are abundant. Gardnerella spp. belonging to cpn60 subgroup D, are detected at low levels in vaginal microbiomes and are nutritional generalists relative to other more abundant Gardnerella spp. Read More

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[Osteoporosis-Update 2021].

Authors:
Franz Jakob

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Apr 29;146(7):437-440. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Bernhard-Heine-Centrum für Bewegungsforschung Würzburg.

The state of the art of osteoporosis management and treatment is being continuously refined according to recent progress in data availability, drug development and strategies as determined by health authorities. The recent approval of the sclerostin-antibody romosozumab as a novel first in class anabolic drug is another milestone that enriches our therapeutic portfolio. Neutralisation of the wnt-pathway inhibitor sclerostin by romosozumab leads to rapid stimulation of bone formation and a rise in bone mineral density that translates into robust > 70 % reduction of fracture risk at the lumbar spine. Read More

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Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on social anxiety disorder: A comparative study.

Ind Psychiatry J 2020 Jan-Jun;29(1):76-81. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Dr. D. Y. Patil University, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Both cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and paroxetine (PX) are the preferred treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, in literature, there have been divided opinions for the efficacy of the combination of these treatments. This study intended to evaluate whether the combination of CBT and PX would be superior to monotherapy of PX in the treatment of SAD. Read More

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November 2020

Resilience Intervention for Parents of Children with Autism: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial of the AMOR Method.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305-5719, USA.

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience elevated stress, yet parent-specific interventions are sparse. Thirty-five parents of children with ASD were randomized to the novel 8-week AMOR (Acceptance, Mindfulness, Optimism, Resilience) Method parent group or waitlist control group. Significant gains in resilience were reported by AMOR parents only (d = 1. Read More

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What Matters Most to Lung Cancer Patients? A Qualitative Study in Italy and Belgium to Investigate Patient Preferences.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:602112. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The potential value of patient preference studies has been recognized in clinical individual treatment decision-making between clinicians and patients, as well as in upstream drug decision-making. Drug developers, regulators, reimbursement and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies are exploring how the use of patient preference studies could inform drug development, regulatory benefit risk-assessment and reimbursement decisions respectively. Understanding patient preferences may be especially valuable in decisions regarding Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) treatment options, where a variety of treatment options with different characteristics raise uncertainty about which features are most important to NSCLC patients. Read More

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Immersive virtual reality is effective in the rehabilitation of older adults with balance disorders: A randomized clinical trial.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Mar 18;149:111308. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Health Sciences, Physiology Department, Health Sciences Graduate Program (PPGCS), Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.

Question: What are the effects of immersive virtual reality (IVR) training compared to conventional physiotherapy on body balance and risk of falls in older adults with balance disorders?

Design: A randomized controlled trial with two intervention arms, concealed allocation, per-protocol analysis, and blinded assessment.

Participants: Thirty-seven older adults with balance disorders and risk of falling.

Intervention: Participants were randomized into two groups: a control group, which received balance training with conventional physiotherapy using multimodal circuit exercises, and an experimental group, which received balance training using immersive virtual reality. Read More

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The Effect of Systematic Prompting on the Acquisition of Two Muscle-Strengthening Exercises by Adults with Moderate Disabilities.

J Behav Educ 2020 Sep 14;29(3):584-605. Epub 2019 May 14.

Hockessin Athletic Club, Delaware, United States.

Musculoskeletal fitness is important for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) to maintain cardiovascular fitness, functional independence, and work task performance, and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and other disabilities. However, adults with ID typically have significantly lower musculoskeletal fitness compared with their peers without a disability. Appropriate instructional strategies are needed to facilitate their acquisition and maintenance of musculoskeletal fitness. Read More

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September 2020

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Functional Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Training Gains.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:592261. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Normal aging is associated with working memory decline. A decrease in working memory performance is associated with age-related changes in functional activation patterns in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Cognitive training can improve cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Read More

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A qualitative study of patient's perceptions of two cardiac rehabilitation models.

Braz J Phys Ther 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Post-Graduate Program Rehabilitation Science, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), 63. Condomínio Pasárgada, CEP: 34.009-568. Nova Lima, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Understanding patients' perceptions about rehabilitation can guide healthcare administrators on modifications of program elements, which can ultimately improve cardiac rehabilitation (CR) use, adherence of heart-health behaviors, and improvements in clinical outcomes.

Objective: To examine the perception of patients about their participation in CR.

Methods: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, performed in a public CR center in Brazil. Read More

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Intravitreal Aflibercept versus Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema in a Taiwanese Health Service Setting.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

To compare the visual and anatomical outcomes between intravitreal aflibercept and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema A total of 194 eyes from 194 patients (aflibercept n = 95, ranibizumab n = 99) were retrospectively enrolled in the study. All eyes fulfilled the key criteria including a baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 20 and 70 ETDRS letters, a central subfield thickness (CST) 300 µm or more. Primary outcomes were BCVA and CST at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Read More

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Randomized clinical trial of Fibromyalgia Integrative Training (FIT teens) for adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia - Study design and protocol.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Feb 20;103:106321. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pediatrics and Nursing, University of Connecticut, Hartford, CT, USA; Division of Pain and Palliative Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA.

Objective: Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a chronic debilitating pain condition that negatively impacts physical, social and academic functioning. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is beneficial in reducing functional disability among adolescents with JFM but has only a modest impact on pain reduction and does not improve physical exercise participation. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to test whether a novel intervention that combines CBT with specialized neuromuscular exercise training (the Fibromyalgia Integrative Training program for Teens "FIT Teens") is superior to CBT alone or a graded aerobic exercise (GAE) program. Read More

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February 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of using innovative therapies for the management of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis in Spain.

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2021 Feb 20:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Gastroenterology. Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, And Instituto De Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón , Madrid, Spain.

Background: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tofacitinib in comparison to vedolizumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC) after failure or intolerance to conventional therapy (bio-naive) or first-line biologic treatment (bio-experienced), from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective.

Methods: A lifetime Markov model with eight-week cycles was developed including five health states: remission, response, active UC, remission after surgery, and death. Response and remission probabilities (for induction and maintenance periods) were obtained from a multinomial network meta-analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Prolonged unsupervised Nordic walking and walking exercise following six months of supervision in adults with overweight and obesity: A randomised clinical trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 04 17;31(4):1247-1256. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine, and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport, Mountain and Health Research Center, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.

Background And Aims: This study is a randomized trial that examined the effects of 6 months of unsupervised Nordic walking (NW) and walking (W) exercise following 6 months of supervised training in overweight/obese adults.

Methods And Results: After a 6-month program of diet and supervised training participants (n = 27) of NW (66 ± 7 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 34 ± 5) and W (66 ± 8 yrs, BMI 32 ± 5) group continue the training without supervision for other 6 months. Steps count and mean heart rate (HR) were performed in each session; anthropometric and body composition, aerobic capacity and strength of the upper and lower limbs were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months of supervised and 6 months of unsupervised training. Read More

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Implementation and Evaluation of a Standardized Nurse-Administered Assessment of Functional and Psychosocial Issues for Patients in Acute Care.

Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Increasingly, adults presenting to healthcare facilities have multiple morbidities that impact medical management and require initial and ongoing assessment. The interRAI Acute Care (AC), one of a suite of instruments used for integrated care, is a nurse-administered standardized assessment of functional and psychosocial domains that contribute to complexity of patients admitted to acute care.

Aim: This study aimed to implement and evaluate the interRAI AC assessment system using a multi-strategy approach based on the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. Read More

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February 2021

Parent training in non-violent resistance for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled outcome study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University in Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Current forms of parent training for childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often insufficient. Many families drop out of the training, and treatment gains are often not maintained. Nonviolent resistance parent training (NVR) focuses on helping parents resist the child's negative behaviors without escalating the problem. Read More

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February 2021

Context-based interpersonal relationship modulates social comparison between outcomes: an event-related potential study.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Mar;16(4):439-452

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China.

Social comparison is a common behavior that largely determines people's experience of decision outcome. Previous research has showed that interpersonal relationship plays a pivotal role in social comparison. In the current study, we investigated whether the manipulation of context-based relationship would affect participants' comparison of self-outcome and other-outcome. Read More

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The Role of the Microenvironment and Immune System in Regulating Stem Cell Fate in Cancer.

Trends Cancer 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Despite gains in knowledge of the intrinsic signals governing cancer progression, effective clinical management of cancer remains a challenge. Drug resistance and relapse, pose the greatest barriers to cancer care, and are often driven by the co-option of stem cell programs by subpopulations of aggressive cancer cells. Here, we focus on the role of the microenvironment in the acquisition and/or maintenance of stem cell states in cancer in the context of resistance and metastasis. Read More

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January 2021

A Text Messaging Intervention for Dietary Behaviors for People Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Feasibility Study of KIDNEYTEXT.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Westmead Clinical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia Australia.

Rationale And Objective: An important component of hemodialysis management involves delivery of complex dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of a mobile phone text message intervention to improve dietary behavior in people on hemodialysis.

Study Design: Six-month randomized feasibility study. Read More

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January 2021

Mechanisms of improvements and maintenance in online relationship programs for distressed low-income couples.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2020 Dec;88(12):1091-1104

Department of Psychology, University of Miami.

Objective: Web-based relationship interventions have been shown to improve relationship functioning for low-income couples, with gains maintained up through 12 months (Doss et al., 2020; Roddy et al., 2020). Read More

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December 2020

Carbon dioxide dynamics in a residential lawn of a tropical city.

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 24;280:111752. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Turfgrass is an important component of the urban landscape frequently considered as an alternative land cover to offset anthropogenic CO emissions. However, quantitative information of the potential to directly remove CO from the atmosphere by turfgrass systems is lacking, especially in the tropics. Most assessments have considered the carbon accumulated by grass shoots and soil, but not the release of CO to the atmosphere by soil respiration (i. Read More

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February 2021

The comparison between CBT focused on perfectionism and CBT focused on emotion regulation for individuals with depression and anxiety disorders and dysfunctional perfectionism: a randomized controlled trial.

Behav Cogn Psychother 2020 Dec 23:1-18. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Medicine, Quran and Hadith Research Center & Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is considerable evidence indicating that similar aetiological and maintenance processes underlie depressive and anxious psychopathology. According to the literature, perfectionism and emotion regulation are two transdiagnostic constructs associated with symptoms of emotional disorders.

Aims: This study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism (CBT-P) and the unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders (UP). Read More

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December 2020

Optimising antimicrobial stewardship interventions in English primary care: a behavioural analysis of qualitative and intervention studies.

BMJ Open 2020 12 17;10(12):e039284. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Objective: While various interventions have helped reduce antibiotic prescribing, further gains can be made. This study aimed to identify ways to optimise antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions by assessing the extent to which important influences on antibiotic prescribing are addressed (or not) by behavioural content of AMS interventions.

Settings: English primary care. Read More

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December 2020

Exploring the Feasibility of Relapse Prevention Strategies in Interdisciplinary Multimodal Pain Therapy Programs: Qualitative Study.

JMIR Hum Factors 2020 Dec 11;7(4):e21545. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Health, Life Sciences and Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Although interdisciplinary multimodal pain treatment (IMPT) programs are widely regarded as treatment of choice for patients with chronic pain, there are signs that many patients are unable to maintain their treatment gains in the long term. To facilitate the maintenance of positive treatment outcomes over time, we developed two relapse prevention strategies.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of these strategies within the context of IMPT programs. Read More

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December 2020

Effectiveness of an Innovative Cognitive Treatment and Telerehabilitation on Subjects With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Multicenter, Randomized, Active-Controlled Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 16;12:585988. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.

Background: In recent years, the potential usefulness of cognitive training procedures in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have received increased attention.

Objective: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the face-to-face cognitive virtual reality rehabilitation system (VRRS) and to compare it to that of face-to-face cognitive treatment as usual for individuals with MCI. Moreover, we assessed the possibility of prolonging the effects of treatment with a telerehabilitation system. Read More

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November 2020

Predictors of illness course and health maintenance following inpatient treatment among patients with anorexia nervosa.

J Eat Disord 2020 Dec 2;8(1):69. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 98, New York City, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening psychiatric disorder associated with significant medical and psychosocial impairment. Hospital-based behavioral treatment is an effective intervention in the short-term. However, relapse rates following discharge are high and thus, there is a need to identify predictors of longitudinal outcome. Read More

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December 2020

[Effectiveness of Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Severe Depression in Clinical Settings].

Sante Ment Que 2020 ;45(1):11-30

École de psychologie, Université Laval ; Centre de recherche sur les soins et les services de première ligne de l'Université Laval ; Centre de recherche CERVO.

Objectives Among interventions that have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of depression, behavioural activation (AC) is receiving increasing attention as the evidence supporting its effectiveness continues to accumulate. Although the efficacy of AC for the treatment of depression has been established through numerous randomized controlled trials, studies evaluating the effectiveness of AC when implemented in mental health settings are rare and there is insufficient supportive data. This step is, however, essential to the validity and the generalization of the treatment to the reality of clinical settings. Read More

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January 2020

Stability analysis of a neural field self-organizing map.

J Math Neurosci 2020 Dec 1;10(1):20. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Bordeaux, France.

We provide theoretical conditions guaranteeing that a self-organizing map efficiently develops representations of the input space. The study relies on a neural field model of spatiotemporal activity in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. We rely on Lyapunov's theory for neural fields to derive theoretical conditions for stability. Read More

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December 2020

A Synthesis of the Sustainability of Remedial Reading Intervention Effects for Struggling Adolescent Readers.

J Learn Disabil 2020 Nov 30:22219420972184. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

The University of Texas at Austin, USA.

A majority of reading-related intervention studies aiming to remediate struggling readers' reading outcomes assess student performance immediately following the conclusion of an intervention to determine intervention effects. Few studies collect follow-up data to measure the long-term sustainability of treatment effects. Hence, the aim of the current synthesis was to examine follow-up intervention effects of reading interventions involving adolescent struggling readers in Grades 6 to 12. Read More

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November 2020