475 results match your criteria magnitude annealing


Development and assessment of a duplex droplet digital PCR method for quantification of GM rice Kemingdao.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Biology and genetic improvement of oil crops of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430062, Hubei, China.

The implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling policies requires accurate quantitative methods to measure the GMO content in test samples. A Kemingdao/phospholipase D (KMD/PLD) duplex ddPCR method was established with rice genomic DNA (gDNA) of homozygous KMD as template by optimizing the annealing temperature and cycle number. Duplex ddPCR showed a linear response over the dynamic range from 68 to 175,000 copies, covering four orders of magnitude. Read More

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Source Characterization of Multiple Reactive Species at an Abandoned Mine Site Using a Groundwater Numerical Simulation Model and Optimization Models.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 29;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4814, Australia.

The most important first step in the management and remediation of contaminated groundwater aquifers is unknown contaminant source characterization. Often, the hydrogeological field data available for accurate source characterization are very sparse. In addition, hydrogeological and geochemical parameter estimates and field measurements are uncertain. Read More

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Machine-Learning Assisted Optimisation of Free-Parameters of a Dual-Input Power Amplifier for Wideband Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 17;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)-Barcelona Tech, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.

This paper presents an auto-tuning approach for dual-input power amplifiers using a combination of global optimisation search algorithms and adaptive linearisation in the optimisation of a multiple-input power amplifier. The objective is to exploit the extra degrees of freedom provided by dual-input topologies to enhance the power efficiency figures along wide signal bandwidths and high peak-to-average power ratio values, while being compliant with the linearity requirements. By using heuristic search global optimisation algorithms, such as the simulated annealing or the adaptive Lipschitz Optimisation, it is possible to find the best parameter configuration for PA biasing, signal calibration, and digital predistortion linearisation to help mitigating the inherent trade-off between linearity and power efficiency. Read More

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Self-Reinforced Nylon 6 Composite for Smart Vibration Damping.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Passive vibration control using polymer composites has been extensively investigated by the engineering community. In this paper, a new kind of vibration dampening polymer composite was developed where oriented nylon 6 fibres were used as the reinforcement, and 3D printed unoriented nylon 6 was used as the matrix material. The shape of the reinforcing fibres was modified to a coiled structure which transformed the fibres into a smart thermoresponsive actuator. Read More

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Improving the Sensitivity of the miRNA Assay Coupled with the Mismatched Catalytic Hairpin Assembly Reaction by Optimization of Hairpin Annealing Conditions.

Anal Chem 2021 05 26;93(17):6824-6830. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, bldg. 1, Moscow 119991, Russia.

The mismatched catalytic hairpin assembly (mCHA), a programmable oligonucleotide circuit, is one of the promising isothermal amplification methods used in nucleic acid detection. Its limitations are related to a high background noise observed due to the target-independent hybridization of the reacting hairpins (HPs). In this work, it was shown that the introduction of salts such as NaCl and MgCl to HP1/HP2 annealing solutions sharply reduces the background in mCHA and simultaneously increases the signal-to-background (S/B) ratio. Read More

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MoS Nanocomposite Films with High Irradiation Tolerance and Self-Adaptive Lubrication.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 22;13(17):20435-20447. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Although nanostructures and oxide dispersion can reduce radiation-induced damage in materials and enhance radiation tolerance, previous studies prove that MoS nanocomposite films subjected to several dpa heavy ion irradiation show significant degradation of tribological properties. Even in YSZ-doped MoS nanocomposite films, irradiation leads to obvious disordering and damage such as vacancy accumulation to form lamellar voids in the amorphous matrix, which accelerates the failure of lubrication. However, after thermal annealing in vacuum, YSZ-doped MoS nanocomposite films exhibit high irradiation tolerance, and their wear duration remains unchanged and the wear rate was nearly three orders of magnitude lower than that of the as-deposited films after 7 dpa irradiation. Read More

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Interconnect Fabrication by Electroless Plating on 3D-Printed Electroplated Patterns.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 15;13(16):19271-19281. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080, United States.

The metallic interconnects are essential components of energy devices such as fuel cells and electrolysis cells, batteries, as well as electronics and optoelectronic devices. In recent years, 3D printing processes have offered complementary routes to the conventional photolithography- and vacuum-based processes for interconnect fabrication. Among these methods, the confined electrodeposition (CED) process has enabled a great control over the microstructure of the printed metal, direct printing of high electrical conductivity (close to the bulk values) metals on flexible substrates without a need to sintering, printing alloys with controlled composition, printing functional metals for various applications including magnetic applications, and for in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) nanomechanical experiments. Read More

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Performance Enhancement in N Plasma Modified AlGaN/AlN/GaN MOS-HEMT Using HfAlO Gate Dielectric with Γ-Shaped Gate Engineering.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

In this paper, we have demonstrated the optimized device performance in the Γ-shaped gate AlGaN/AlN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) by incorporating aluminum into atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO and comparing it with the commonly used HfO gate dielectric with the N surface plasma treatment. The inclusion of Al in the HfO increased the crystalline temperature (~1000 °C) of hafnium aluminate (HfAlO) and kept the material in the amorphous stage even at very high annealing temperature (>800 °C), which subsequently improved the device performance. The gate leakage current (I) was significantly reduced with the increasing post deposition annealing (PDA) temperature from 300 to 600 °C in HfAlO-based MOS-HEMT, compared to the HfO-based device. Read More

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Self-organization of random copolymers to nanopatterns by localized e-beam dosing.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 26;32(28). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India.

Strategic electron beam (e-beam) irradiation on the surface of an ultrathin (<100 nm) film of polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) random copolymer followed by solvent annealing stimulates a special variety of dewetting, leading to large-area hierarchical nanoscale patterns. For this purpose, initially, a negative (positive) tone of resist PS (PMMA) under weak e-beam exposure is exploited to produce an array of sites composed of cross-linked PS (chain-scissioned PMMA). Subsequently, annealing with the help of a developer solvent engenders dewetted patterns in the exposed zones where PMMA blocks are confined by the blocks of cross-linked PS. Read More

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Mechanical disorder of sticky-sphere glasses. I. Effect of attractive interactions.

Phys Rev E 2021 Feb;103(2-1):022605

Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Recent literature indicates that attractive interactions between particles of a dense liquid play a secondary role in determining its bulk mechanical properties. Here we show that, in contrast with their apparent unimportance to the bulk mechanics of dense liquids, attractive interactions can have a major effect on macro- and microscopic elastic properties of glassy solids. We study several broadly applicable dimensionless measures of stability and mechanical disorder in simple computer glasses, in which the relative strength of attractive interactions-referred to as "glass stickiness"-can be readily tuned. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of annealing and heat-moisture pretreatments on the oil absorption of normal maize starch during frying.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 7;353:129468. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122, China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

The impacts of two hydrothermal pretreatments, annealing (ANN) and heat moisture treatment (HMT), on oil-absorption by normal maize starch (NMS) during frying were investigated using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The structural organizations of the fried samples were also evaluated using SEM, XRD, ATR-FTIR, and DSC, respectively. Both hydrothermal pretreatments significantly reduced the total oil content in the starch after frying, with the magnitude of the effect depending on the treatment conditions used. Read More

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Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy and Synergy Effects in Epoxy/MWCNT/[email protected] Composites.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Physics Faculty, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Avenue 3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The dielectric/electric properties of the [email protected] (carbon-coated Ni)/epoxy composites and [email protected]/MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes)/epoxy composites loaded with fixed MWCNTs amount just below the percolation threshold (0.09 vol.%) and [email protected] at different concentrations up to 1 vol. Read More

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February 2021

Microstructure of bismuth centers in silicon before and after irradiation with 15 MeV protons.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 13;33(24). Epub 2021 May 13.

St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, St. Petersburg, Russia.

A decrease of two-gamma annihilation rate of a positron in a strong spin-orbit field of the annihilation site of bismuth impurity centerBi (= 9/2) in silicon with natural isotope composition was revealed (is the nuclear spin). This decrease was observed along with increasing occupancy of Bi donor states (binding energy{Bi} ≈ 69 meV). Atoms ofSi (= 1/2) isotope are involved in spin interactions of positron with Bi impurity centers. Read More

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Hydrogen Control of Double Exchange Interaction in La Sr MnO for Ionic-Electric-Magnetic Coupled Applications.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 12;33(11):e2007606. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.

The dynamic tuning of ion concentrations has attracted significant attention for creating versatile functionalities of materials, which are impossible to reach using classical control knobs. Despite these merits, the following fundamental questions remain: how do ions affect the electronic bandstructure, and how do ions simultaneously change the electrical and magnetic properties? Here, by annealing platinum-dotted La Sr MnO films in hydrogen and argon at a lower temperature of 200 °C for several minutes, a reversible change in resistivity is achieved by three orders of magnitude with tailored ferromagnetic magnetization. The transition occurs through the tuning of the double exchange interaction, ascribed to an electron-doping-induced and/or a lattice-expansion-induced modulation, along with an increase in the hydrogen concentration. Read More

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Adaptive hyperparameter updating for training restricted Boltzmann machines on quantum annealers.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 1;11(1):2727. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Florida A&M-Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32310, USA.

Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) have been proposed for developing neural networks for a variety of unsupervised machine learning applications such as image recognition, drug discovery, and materials design. The Boltzmann probability distribution is used as a model to identify network parameters by optimizing the likelihood of predicting an output given hidden states trained on available data. Training such networks often requires sampling over a large probability space that must be approximated during gradient based optimization. Read More

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February 2021

Nonlithographic Formation of TaO Nanodimple Arrays Using Electrochemical Anodization and Their Use in Plasmonic Photocatalysis for Enhancement of Local Field and Catalytic Activity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 17;13(3):4340-4351. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 9211-116 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada.

We demonstrate the formation of TaO nanodimple arrays on technologically relevant non-native substrates through a simple anodization and annealing process. The anodizing voltage determines the pore diameter (25-60 nm), pore depth (2-9 nm), and rate of anodization (1-2 nm/s of Ta consumed). The formation of Ta dimples after delamination of TaO nanotubes occurs within a range of voltages from 7 to 40 V. Read More

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January 2021

Polyamorphism in vapor-deposited 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: A broadband dielectric relaxation study.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jan;154(2):024502

School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA.

Depositing a simple organic molecular glass-former 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) onto an interdigitated electrode device via physical vapor deposition gives rise to an unexpected variety of states, as revealed by dielectric spectroscopy. Different preparation parameters, such as deposition temperature, deposition rate, and annealing conditions, lead, on the one hand, to an ultrastable glass and, on the other hand, to a continuum of newfound further states. Deposition below the glass transition temperature of MTHF leads to loss profiles with shape parameters and peak frequencies that differ from those of the known bulk MTHF. Read More

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January 2021

Grain Boundary Control of Organic Semiconductors via Solvent Vapor Annealing for High-Sensitivity NO Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 1;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054, China.

The microstructure of the organic semiconductor (OSC) active layer is one of the crucial topics to improve the sensing performance of gas sensors. Herein, we introduce a simple solvent vapor annealing (SVA) process to control 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) OSC films morphology and thus yields high-sensitivity nitrogen organic thin-film transistor (OTFT)-based nitrogen dioxide (NO) sensors. Compared to pristine devices, the toluene SVA-treated devices exhibit an order of magnitude responsivity enhancement to 10 ppm NO, further with a limit of detection of 148 ppb. Read More

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January 2021

Electrical conductivity enhancement of transparent silver nanowire films on temperature-sensitive flexible substrates using intense pulsed ion beam.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr;32(14):145706

Nazarbayev University, Physics Department, 010000, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, 010000, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks have attracted particular attention as transparent conductive films (TCF) due to their high conductivity, flexibility, transparency, and large scale processing compatible synthesis. As-prepared AgNW percolating networks typically suffer from high contact resistance, requiring additional post-synthetic processing. In this report, large area irradiation with 200 ns short intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was used to anneal and enhance the conductivity of AgNW network, deposited on temperature-sensitive polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Read More

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Identifying the Molecular Origins of High-Performance in Organic Photodetectors Based on Highly Intermixed Bulk Heterojunction Blends.

ACS Nano 2021 Jan 17;15(1):1217-1228. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Physics and Centre for Processable Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

A bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) structure of organic semiconductor blend is widely used in photon-to-electron converting devices such as organic photodetectors (OPD) and photovoltaics (OPV). However, the impact of the molecular structure on the interfacial electronic states and optoelectronic properties of the constituent organic semiconductors is still unclear, limiting further development of these devices for commercialization. Herein, the critical role of donor molecular structure on OPD performance is identified in highly intermixed BHJ blends containing a small-molecule donor and C acceptor. Read More

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January 2021

Anisotropic Strain in Rare-Earth Substituted Ceria Thin Films Probed by Polarized Raman Spectroscopy and First-Principles Calculations.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 3;12(50):56251-56259. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1999/2, Prague 18221, Czech Republic.

Lattice strain in oxygen ion conductors can be used to tune their functional properties for applications in fuel cells, sensors, or catalysis. However, experimental measurements of thin film strain in both in- and out-of-plane directions can be experimentally challenging. We propose a method for measuring strain in rare-earth doped ceria thin films by polarized Raman spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2020

Heat-induced drift reduction of time of flight in fused quartz acoustic waveguides via annealing process.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Nov;148(5):3372

Center for Photonics Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.

High temperature structural acoustic sensors play an important role in many applications. Fused quartz waveguide is a popular choice due to its resistance to harsh environments and its convenience of modification. However, time of flight between pulse and echo, which is widely used in these sensors, tends to encounter drifts in fast temperature changing process even after temperature returns to initial value. Read More

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November 2020

Deformation-Induced Chemical Inhomogeneity and Short-Circuit Diffusion in Shear Bands of a Bulk Metallic Glass.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Nov;125(20):205501

Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

The compositional changes in shear bands of a Cu_{50}Zr_{50} metallic glass after plastic deformation at room temperature have been monitored by atom probe tomography. Across the width of the shear bands an asymmetry of the enriched and depleted zones of the constituent elements is observed, while no change of the composition within the surrounding matrix occurs. The diffusion coefficients determined from the concentration profiles are orders of magnitude larger than the values of bulk diffusion at room temperature. Read More

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November 2020

Anodic titania nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles produced by laser-induced dewetting of thin metallic films.

Sci Rep 2020 Nov 25;10(1):20506. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Centre of Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231, Gdańsk, Poland.

Herein, we combine titania layers with gold species in a laser-supported process and report a substantial change of properties of the resulting heterostructures depending on the major processing parameters. Electrodes were fabricated via an anodisation process complemented with calcination to ensure a crystalline phase, and followed by magnetron sputtering of metallic films. The obtained TiO nanotubes with deposited thin (5, 10 nm) Au films were treated with a UV laser (355 nm) to form Au nanoparticles on top of the nanotubes. Read More

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November 2020

Crystal structure, phase transition and properties of indium(III) sulfide.

Dalton Trans 2020 Nov;49(44):15903-15913

Institut für Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09599 Freiberg, Germany.

Poly- and single-crystalline samples of In0.67□0.33In2S4 thiospinel were obtained by various powder metallurgical and chemical vapor transport methods, respectively. Read More

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November 2020

Highly Ordered 2D-Assemblies of Phase-Segregated Block Molecules for Upconverted Linearly Polarized Emission.

Adv Mater 2020 Dec 29;32(48):e2004775. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Institute for Complex Molecular Systems and Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven, MB, 5600, The Netherlands.

Materials based on the laminar ordering of self-assembled molecules have a unique potential for applications requiring efficient energy migration through densely packed chromophores. Here, employing molecular assemblies of coil-rod-coil block molecules for triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) based on triplet energy migration with linearly polarized emission is reported. By covalently attaching discrete-length oligodimethylsiloxane (oDMS) to 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), highly ordered 2D crystalline DPA sheets separated by oDMS layers are obtained. Read More

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December 2020

AgNIs/AlO/Ag as SERS substrates using a self-encapsulation technology.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(21):31993-32001

Using a self-encapsulation technology, we prepared a metal film-coupled nanoisland system (FCN), that is, Ag and AlO film-coupled Ag nanoislands (AgNIs/AlO/Ag) composite SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) substrate, through the anti-wetting of Ag film on the surface of Al film. The thickness of the AlO film can be controlled within the range of 4 nm to 22 nm by tuning the annealing temperature. Three important properties were investigated. Read More

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October 2020

A new approach to achieving strong ferroelectric properties in TiN/HfZrO/TiN devices.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jan;32(5):055703

Center for Single Atom-Based Semiconductor Devices and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea.

In this paper, we propose a method to improve the performance of TiN/HfZrO (HZO)/TiN Nano-capacitors used in memory devices. Instead of direct fabrication of the TiN/HZO/TiN device, our method involves an intermediate step in which W metal is used as a capping material to induce a large in-plane tensile strain during rapid thermal annealing, resulting in a total suppression of the monoclinic phase and the appearance of the ferroelectric phase. Consequently, after removing the W capping electrode through an etching process and the post-deposition of a TiN top electrode at room temperature, a high remnant polarization of approximately 40 μC cm and a 65% increase of coercive field were obtained. Read More

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January 2021

Superior Acetone Selectivity in Gas Mixtures by Catalyst-Filtered Chemoresistive Sensors.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Oct 16;7(19):2001503. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Particle Technology Laboratory Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich Sonneggstrasse 3 Zurich 8092 Switzerland.

Acetone is a toxic air pollutant and a key breath marker for non-invasively monitoring fat metabolism. Its routine detection in realistic gas mixtures (i.e. Read More

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October 2020

Thermal Transport across Ion-Cut Monocrystalline β-GaO Thin Films and Bonded β-GaO-SiC Interfaces.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 24;12(40):44943-44951. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The ultrawide band gap, high breakdown electric field, and large-area affordable substrates make β-GaO promising for applications of next-generation power electronics, while its thermal conductivity is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other wide/ultrawide band gap semiconductors. To avoid the degradation of device performance and reliability induced by the localized Joule-heating, proper thermal management strategies are essential, especially for high-power high-frequency applications. This work reports a scalable thermal management strategy to heterogeneously integrate wafer-scale monocrystalline β-GaO thin films on high thermal conductivity SiC substrates by the ion-cutting technique and room-temperature surface-activated bonding technique. Read More

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October 2020