12,100 results match your criteria macroscopic microscopic


Post-mortem persistence of SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary study.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, Bari Policlinico Hospital, University of Bari, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Since the beginning of March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been the cause of millions of deaths worldwide. The need to better define the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) as well as to provide the correct statistical records concerning deaths related to this virus, inevitably involves the role of forensic pathology and routine autopsy practice. Currently, some data on macroscopic and microscopic features in autopsies performed in suspected Covid-19 cases are reported in the literature. Read More

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Luminescence lifetime imaging of three-dimensional biological objects.

J Cell Sci 2021 May 7;134(9):1-17. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

A major focus of current biological studies is to fill the knowledge gaps between cell, tissue and organism scales. To this end, a wide array of contemporary optical analytical tools enable multiparameter quantitative imaging of live and fixed cells, three-dimensional (3D) systems, tissues, organs and organisms in the context of their complex spatiotemporal biological and molecular features. In particular, the modalities of luminescence lifetime imaging, comprising fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) and phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM), in synergy with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays, provide a wealth of information. Read More

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Nanofiber Wound Dressing Materials-A Comparative Study of Wound Healing on a Porcine Model.

Mil Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Military University Hospital Prague and Charles University, Prague 169 02, Czechia.

Background: Nanofiber wound dressings remain the domain of in vitro studies. The purpose of our study was to verify the benefits of chitosan (CTS) and polylactide (PLA)-based nanofiber wound dressings on a porcine model of a naturally contaminated standardized wound and compare them with the conventional dressings, i.e. Read More

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Shaoyao Decoction Inhibits Inflammation and Improves Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice With Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:524287. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical College, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Shaoyao decoction (SYD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of SYD on IBD and possible mechanisms. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3. Read More

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Majewski/Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism Type II (MOPDII) with generalised microdontia in the 4th millennium BCE Eastern Mediterranean.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 May 3;33:158-169. Epub 2021 May 3.

Science and Technology in Archaeology and Culture Research Center (STARC), The Cyprus Institute (CyI), Konstantinou Kavafi St, 2121, Aglantzia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Objective: This research evaluates the occurrence of generalised microdontia and proportionate osteodysplasia in human remains from a Chalcolithic cemetery with early evidence of metalworking in Cyprus (Souskiou-Laona; 3500-2800 BCE).

Materials: Skeletal and dental remains from Tomb 236 Individual A, in comparison with other human remains from Souskiou-Laona (MNI: 203).

Methods: Macroscopic, microscopic, and metric observation of osteodysplasia and microdontia. Read More

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[The microarchitecture of pancreatic cancer from the point of view of the pathologist and the radiologist].

Pathologe 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institut für Pathologie, Universitätsmedizin, JGU Mainz, 55131, Mainz, Deutschland.

Diagnostic radiology and diagnostic pathology are medical disciplines that use a variety of morphological analyses with different macroscopic and microscopic resolutions for diagnosis and staging of cancers. In the clinical setting, radiology and pathology departments are often spatially separated. However, there are examples of increasingly tight cooperation and convergence, for example in the setting of multidisciplinary tumor boards. Read More

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Tomographic X-ray scattering based on invariant reconstruction: analysis of the 3D nanostructure of bovine bone.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Apr 3;54(Pt 2):486-497. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an effective characterization technique for multi-phase nanocomposites. The structural complexity and heterogeneity of biological materials require the development of new techniques for the 3D characterization of their hierarchical structures. Emerging SAXS tomographic methods allow reconstruction of the 3D scattering pattern in each voxel but are costly in terms of synchrotron measurement time and computer time. Read More

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Malignant tumours of the parotid gland: management of the neck (including the clinically negative neck) and a literature review.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Aug 27. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Major salivary gland malignancies are rare, constituting 1%-3% of head-neck tumours. The surgical management of the clinically negative neck (cN0) does not have a univocal consensus yet. We have carried out a retrospective study on 119 cases of malignant parotid tumours that were surgically treated between January 1999 and January 2014. Read More

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Large phylogenomic datasets reveal deep relationships and trait evolution in chlorophyte green algae.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

The chlorophyte green algae (Chlorophyta) are species-rich ancient groups ubiquitous in various habitats with high cytological diversity, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic organisms. However, the deep phylogeny within core Chlorophyta remains unresolved, in part due to the relatively sparse taxon and gene sampling in previous studies. Here we contribute new transcriptomic data and reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of core Chlorophyta based on four large datasets up to 2698 genes of 70 species, representing 80% of extant orders. Read More

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Characterizing viscoelastic properties of synthetic and natural fibers and their coatings with a torsional pendulum.

Soft Matter 2021 May;17(17):4578-4593

MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Characterizing and understanding the viscoelastic mechanical properties of natural and synthetic fibers is of great importance in many biological and industrial applications. Microscopic techniques such as micro/nano indentation have been successfully employed in such efforts, yet these tests are often challenging to perform on fibers and come with certain limitations in the interpretation of the obtained results within the context of the macroscopic viscoelasticity in the fiber. Here we instead explore the properties of a series of natural and synthetic fibers, using a freely-oscillating torsional pendulum. Read More

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Fabrication of a Novel Protein Sponge with Dual-Scale Porosity and Mixed Wettability Using a Clean and Versatile Microwave-Based Process.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Food Process Engineering, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

An open-porous protein sponge with mixed wettability is presented made entirely from whey proteins and with promising applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutical, and food industry. The fabrication relies on an additive-free, clean and scalable process consisting of foaming followed by controlled microwave-convection drying. Volumetric heating throughout the matrix induced by microwaves causes fast expansion and elongation of the foam bubbles, retards crust formation and promotes early protein denaturation. Read More

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Genesis and development processes of fractures in granite: Petrographic indicators of hydrothermal alteration.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251198. Epub 2021 May 4.

Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu, Japan.

Biotites occur with varying degrees of alteration within a granite. This study analyzes the relationships among alteration indicators, areal microvoid fractions in chloritized biotite, and macroscopic fracture frequencies in the Toki granite, central Japan, to establish the genesis and development processes of fractures in granite. Appropriate characterizations for the frequency distribution of macroscopic fractures in granite can assist in understanding potential hydrogeological applications, which contributes to safety evaluations for geological disposal and storage. Read More

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Dataset for the reporting of nephrectomy specimens for wilms' tumour treated with preoperative chemotherapy: recommendations from the international society of paediatric oncology renal tumour study group.

Histopathology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy.

Datasets for histopathological reporting of many cancer types are developed by the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) and are used in order to ensure standardised and uniformly accepted reporting as one of the essential requirements for comparison across patient populations in evaluating and validating pathological prognostic and predictive factors. Wilms' tumours are rare and international reporting guidelines have not been published by the ICCR yet. The assessment of Wilms' tumours is different, depending on the treatment approach. Read More

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Incidence of thyroid carcinomas in an extended retrospective study of 526 autopsies.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):607. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathology, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Thyroid cancer accounts for 1% of all malignancies, and is becoming increasingly common worldwide. The literature reports a prevalence of ~50% of thyroid nodules detected during autopsies in subjects with unknown thyroid pathology. An extended retrospective study of 526 autopsy cases was performed to identify the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma, among various types of thyroid nodules identified incidentally. Read More

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Risk factors of cervical cancer after a negative cytological diagnosis in Polish cervical cancer screening programme.

Cancer Med 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Cancer Prevention, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland.

Risk factors of cervical cancer (CC) development are well investigated, however, those influencing the risk of a potential false negative cytology preceding diagnosis of an invasive CC are not. We have aimed to explore these factors according to the data from Organised Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (OCCSP) in Poland. A total of 2. Read More

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Effect of hyperdry amniotic membrane in preventing tendon adhesion in a rabbit model.

J Orthop Sci 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630, Sugitani, Toyama-City, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: No anti-adhesive materials are currently in clinical use for orthopaedic surgery. We developed a hyperdry amniotic membrane (HD-AM) for easy storage and transplantation as amniotic membrane. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of HD-AM to reduce peritendinous adhesions without impairing tendon healing. Read More

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Some undesirable traps which can mislead the pathologist.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Parasitologie-Mycologie-Médecine tropicale, CHRU Bretonneau, Tours, France.

In clinical laboratories, the diagnosis of parasite diseases can sometimes be challenging for non-expert microbiologists. Indeed, in spite of the advent of the molecular biology, macroscopic and microscopic examinations still remain essential. Nonetheless, it is usually not automated and requires great skills to complete the correct diagnosis. Read More

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Nanointerfacial Layer Effect on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Responses in Chemical Solution-Derived Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate-Based Thin Films.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, United States.

Since nonpiezoelectric interfacial layers even at the nanoscale significantly affect the performance of lead-free piezoelectric thin films, the quantitative characterization of property changes of thin films due to interfacial layers is of great importance and should be precisely undertaken for piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) devices. In contrast to widely accepted concepts for interfacial layer thickness estimation based on the existing series capacitor model, we find that the interfacial layer thickness at the top and the bottom interfaces is clearly different in chemical solution deposition (CSD)-derived (K,Na)(Mn,Nb)O (KNMN) thin films. Interestingly, the thickness of the bottom interface increases linearly with increasing thin-film thickness, while the thickness of the top interface is constant regardless of the thin-film thickness. Read More

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["Practical spermiogram"-semen analysis according to WHO recommendations].

Authors:
Sabine Kliesch

Urologe A 2021 May 30;60(5):647-656. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Abteilung für Klinische und Operative Andrologie, Centrum für Reproduktionsmedizin und Andrologie (CeRA), Universitätsklinikum Münster (UKM), Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude D11, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.

Semen analysis (spermiogram) is a crucial component of the diagnostic work-up of infertile patients, in cases of cryopreservation of semen for fertility protection prior to potentially gonadotoxic treatment or for the assessment of sperm quality for sperm donation. Practical semen analysis follows the recommendations of the WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human sperm. The aim of semen analysis is to characterize the fertility potential of the male, which is supplemented by clinical and endocrine investigations before a final decision on treatment options is made. Read More

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An investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of gabapentin on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disease with treatment options which exhibit low efficacies and lead to considerable side effects. Hence, the challenge to alleviate IBD complications is remained to be resolved. The purpose of this study is evaluating anti-inflammatory impacts of gabapentin on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Read More

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Effect of Prophylactic Vaccination with the Membrane-Bound Acid Phosphatase Gene of in the Murine Model of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

J Immunol Res 2021 9;2021:6624246. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, Mexico.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Current treatments for leishmaniasis are long, toxic, and expensive and are not available in some endemic regions. Attempts to develop an effective vaccine are feasible, but no vaccine is in active clinical use. Read More

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[A pulmonary tumor that racks our brains!]

Ann Pathol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Cabinet de pathologie Medipath site de Paris, 17, rue Gazan, 75014 Paris, France.

We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who, as part of the follow-up for two breast cancers, presented a 2cm long lung nodule. A microscopic examination of the biopsy under a scanner showed a proliferation of epithelial appearance but whose immunophenotypic profile did not permit a precise diagnosis (negativity of CK7, GATA3, TTF1, negative estrogen receptors but positive progesterone receptors). Wedge resection surgery was performed. Read More

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Characterization of the Structure, Mechanical Properties and Erosive Resistance of the Laser Cladded Inconel 625-Based Coatings Reinforced by TiC Particles.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Welding Department, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Street 18A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

The article presents research in the field of laser cladding of metal-matrix composite (MMC) coatings. Nickel-based superalloys show attractive properties including high tensile strength, fatigue resistance, high-temperature corrosion resistance and toughness, which makes them widely used in the industry. Due to the insufficient wear resistance of nickel-based superalloys, many scientists are investigating the possibility of producing nickel-based superalloys matrix composites. Read More

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Dose-Dependent Impact of Bee Pollen Supplementation on Macroscopic and Microscopic Structure of Femoral Bone in Rats.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia.

Bee pollen has been successfully used as a feed additive with beneficial impacts on productive, reproductive, and immune conditions of animals. However, its effect on bone structure and bone health remains controversial. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine the impact of bee pollen supplementation on macroscopic and microscopic structure of a femoral bone using rats as suitable animal models. Read More

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Update on the Diagnostic Pitfalls of Autopsy and Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cardiomyopathies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Health Surveillance and Bioethics, Section of Legal Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Inherited cardiomyopathies are frequent causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD), especially in young patients. Despite at the autopsy they usually have distinctive microscopic and/or macroscopic diagnostic features, their phenotypes may be mild or ambiguous, possibly leading to misdiagnoses or missed diagnoses. In this review, the main differential diagnoses of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (e. Read More

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Synthesis of Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) Copolymer: Structure, Toughness, and Elasticity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

Biodegradable and bioabsorbable polymers have drawn considerable attention because of their mechanical properties that mimic human soft tissue. Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), the copolymer of L-lactic (LA) and ε-caprolactone (CL), has been applied in many tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields. However, both the synthesis of PLCL and the structure-activity relationship of the copolymer need to be further investigated to allow tuning of different mechanical properties. Read More

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Theory of Charged Gels: Swelling, Elasticity, and Dynamics.

Gels 2021 Apr 21;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The fundamental attributes of charged hydrogels containing predominantly water and controllable amounts of low molar mass electrolytes are of tremendous significance in biological context and applications in healthcare. However, a rigorous theoretical formulation of gel behavior continues to be a challenge due to the presence of multiple length and time scales in the system which operate simultaneously. Furthermore, chain connectivity, the electrostatic interaction, and the hydrodynamic interaction all lead to long-range interactions. Read More

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Lateral Neck Dissection for Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Is Prophylactic Level V Neck Dissection Necessary? A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Apr 29:1455613211003805. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck, Maxillofacial Surgery, Israel.

Objective: The presence of clinically detectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastases in the lateral neck is an indication for neck dissection (ND) and thyroidectomy. Although there is a consensus regarding the importance of therapeutic selective ND of involved levels II to IV in patients with clinically evident locoregional metastatic disease, the prognostic benefit of level V prophylactic ND remains debatable.

Methods: All patients who underwent thyroidectomy with ND for metastatic PTC between 2006 and 2019 were included in a single-institution retrospective study. Read More

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Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of clopyralid herbicide on Allium cepa roots.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uşak University, 1 Eylül Campus, 64300, Uşak, Turkey.

Clopyralid is one of the synthetic pyridine-carboxylate auxin herbicides and used to control perennial and annual broadleaf weeds in wheat, sugar beets, canola, etc. In this study, dose-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of clopyralid at different concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) have been evaluated on the Allium cepa roots. The evaluation has been performed at macroscopic (root growth) and microscopic levels [mitotic index (MI), chromosome aberrations (CAs) in ana-telophase cells, and DNA damage] using root growth inhibition, Allium ana-telophase, and comet tests. Read More

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First Report of a Leaf Blight Caused by on in Paraguay.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Camara Paraguaya de Exportadores de Cereales y Oleaginosos (CAPECO), Asunción, Paraguay;

The genus contains several fungal species known to cause diseases on plants in the Poaceae family (Klaubauf et al. 2014; Wang et al. 2019). Read More

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