454 results match your criteria macrophages engulf


Macrophage-Mediated Tumor Cell Phagocytosis: Opportunity for Nanomedicine Intervention.

Adv Funct Mater 2021 Jan 10;31(5). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Macrophages are one of the most abundant non-malignant cells in the tumor microenvironment, playing critical roles in mediating tumor immunity. As important innate immune cells, macrophages possess the potential to engulf tumor cells and present tumor-specific antigens for adaptive antitumor immunity induction, leading to growing interest in targeting macrophage phagocytosis for cancer immunotherapy. Nevertheless, live tumor cells have evolved to evade phagocytosis by macrophages via the extensive expression of anti-phagocytic molecules, such as CD47. Read More

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January 2021

Administration of GDF3 Into Septic Mice Improves Survival Enhancing LXRα-Mediated Macrophage Phagocytosis.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:647070. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

The defective eradication of invading pathogens is a major cause of death in sepsis. As professional phagocytic cells, macrophages actively engulf/kill microorganisms and play essential roles in innate immune response against pathogens. Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF3) was previously implicated as an important modulator of inflammatory response upon acute sterile injury. Read More

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February 2021

Microglial/Macrophage polarization and function in brain injury and repair after stroke.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 1;27(5):515-527. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders & Recovery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and mortality, with limited treatment options. After stroke injury, microglia and CNS-resident macrophages are rapidly activated and regulate neuropathological processes to steer the course of functional recovery. To accelerate this recovery, microglia can engulf dying cells and clear irreparably-damaged tissues, thereby creating a microenvironment that is more suitable for the formation of new neural circuitry. Read More

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The Role of Complement System and the Immune Response to Tuberculosis Infection.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jan 20;57(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Life Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University of London, Uxbridge UB8 3PN, UK.

The complement system orchestrates a multi-faceted immune response to the invading pathogen, . Macrophages engulf the mycobacterial bacilli through bacterial cell surface proteins or secrete proteins, which activate the complement pathway. The classical pathway is activated by C1q, which binds to antibody antigen complexes. Read More

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January 2021

Melatonin administration provokes the activity of dendritic reticular cells in the seminal vesicle of Soay ram during the non-breeding season.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):872. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 71526, Egypt.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells which engulf, process and present antigens to the naïve T-lymphocyte cells. However, little is known about the effect of melatonin on the DCs. The present study aimed to investigate the morphology and distribution of the DCs by transmission electron microscopy and Immunohistochemistry after melatonin administration. Read More

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January 2021

Particulate β-glucan activates early and delayed phagosomal maturation and autophagy within macrophage in a NOX-2 dependent manner.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 10;266:118851. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Immunobiochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Aims: Macrophage is known to readily engulf any particulate material they encounter, including invading microbes and nano- or micro-particles. While recent studies show that some microparticles (MP) are immunogenic even without drug-cargo, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is yet unclear. Phagocytosis induces NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX-2) mediated ROS generation that is reported to regulate antibacterial autophagy. Read More

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February 2021

Cell relay-delivery improves targeting and therapeutic efficacy in tumors.

Bioact Mater 2021 Jun 19;6(6):1528-1540. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, 100850, PR China.

Cell-mediated drug delivery system (CDDS) has shown great potential for cancer therapy. However, a single cell-mediated drug delivery mechanism has not generally been successful, particularly for systemic administration. To augment the antitumor therapy efficacy, herein, we propose a strategy of cell relay-delivery for the use of artificially damaging/aging erythrocytes to hitchhike on circulating monocytes/macrophages for intratumoral accumulation of anticancer drugs. Read More

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IL-4/STAT6 signaling facilitates innate hematoma resolution and neurological recovery after hemorrhagic stroke in mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 8;117(51):32679-32690. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders & Recovery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213;

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke affecting millions of people worldwide. Parenchymal hematoma triggers a series of reactions leading to primary and secondary brain injuries and permanent neurological deficits. Microglia and macrophages carry out hematoma clearance, thereby facilitating functional recovery after ICH. Read More

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December 2020

Cobalt Chloride Induces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation: A Chemical Hypoxia Model for Anti-Atherosclerotic Drug Screening.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2021 01 24;19(1):38-45. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

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January 2021

Furosemide as a Probe Molecule for the Treatment of Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 12 23;11(24):4152-4168. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

The accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) is one postulated cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to its direct toxicity on neurons, Aβ may induce neuroinflammation through the concomitant activation of microglia. Emerging evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

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December 2020

Multivalent, Soluble Nano-Self Peptides Increase Phagocytosis of Antibody-Opsonized Targets while Suppressing "Self" Signaling.

ACS Nano 2020 11 13;14(11):15083-15093. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Macrophages engulf "foreign" cells and particles, but phagocytosis of healthy cells and cancer cells is inhibited by expression of the ubiquitous membrane protein CD47 which binds SIRPα on macrophages to signal "self". Motivated by some clinical efficacy of anti-CD47 against liquid tumors and based on past studies of CD47-derived polypeptides on particles that inhibited phagocytosis of the particles, here we design soluble, multivalent peptides to bind and block SIRPα. Bivalent and tetravalent nano-Self peptides prove more potent ( ∼ 10 nM) than monovalent 8-mers as agonists for phagocytosis of antibody opsonized cells, including cancer cells. Read More

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November 2020

Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Impedes Silica-Induced Macrophage Corpse Accumulation by Attenuating Cell Death and Potentiating Efferocytosis.

Front Immunol 2020 6;11:2179. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Airway exposure of lupus-prone NZBWF1 mice to crystalline silica (cSiO), a known trigger of human autoimmune disease, elicits sterile inflammation and alveolar macrophage death in the lung that, in turn, induces early autoimmune onset and accelerates lupus progression to fatal glomerulonephritis. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), markedly ameliorates cSiO-triggered pulmonary, systemic, and renal manifestations of lupus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DHA influences both cSiO-induced death and efferocytotic clearance of resultant cell corpses using three murine macrophage models: (i) primary alveolar macrophages (AM) isolated from NZBWF1 mice; (ii) self-renewing AM-like Max Planck Institute (MPI) cells isolated from fetuses of C57BL/6 mice, and (iii) RAW 264. Read More

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October 2020

Inflammation Unrestrained by SIRPα Induces Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Independent of IFN-γ.

J Immunol 2020 11 7;205(10):2821-2833. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Program of Immunology and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302; and

A hallmark of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), a severe form of cytokine storm syndrome, is the emergence of overactivated macrophages that engulf healthy host blood cells (i.e., hemophagocytosis) and contribute to the dysregulated inflammation-driven pathology. Read More

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November 2020

Evidence and speculation: the response of confronted by autophagy in macrophages.

Future Microbiol 2020 Sep;15:1277-1286

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Jiangsu University School of Medicine, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China.

Bacteria of the genus cause diseases ranging from self-limited gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. Macrophages are immune cells that engulf and restrict . These cells will carry into the circulatory system and provoke a systemic infection. Read More

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September 2020

[What happened in the acupoint area of mouse after blood injection?]

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Sep;40(9):1225-1229

Department of Rheumatology, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510330, China.

Objective: Autologous blood acupoint injection has practiced for treatment of various diseases, but its therapeutic mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the histological changes in the acupoint area after blood injection.

Methods: Blood samples (0. Read More

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September 2020

The cationic amino acid exporter Slc7a7 is induced and vital in zebrafish tissue macrophages with sustained efferocytic activity.

J Cell Sci 2020 10 22;133(20). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institut Pasteur, Department of Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, 75015 Paris, France

Most tissues harbor a substantial population of resident macrophages. Here, we elucidate a functional link between the Slc7a7 cationic amino acid transporter and tissue macrophages. We identified a mutant zebrafish devoid of microglia due to a mutation in the gene. Read More

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October 2020

Astrocytic phagocytosis is a compensatory mechanism for microglial dysfunction.

EMBO J 2020 11 22;39(22):e104464. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Microglia are the principal phagocytes that clear cell debris in the central nervous system (CNS). This raises the question, which cells remove cell debris when microglial phagocytic activity is impaired. We addressed this question using Siglech mice, which enable highly specific ablation of microglia. Read More

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November 2020

Sensing and clearance of apoptotic cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Feb 24;68:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Biochemistry & Immunology, World Premier International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Macrophages specifically engulf apoptotic cells but not healthy cells. Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is localized at the inner leaflet of plasma membranes as a result of the action of flippases (ATP11A and 11C). When cells undergo apoptosis, caspase 3 cleaves and inactivates the flippases, while simultaneously cleaving XKR8 to activate its phospholipid scramblase activity. Read More

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February 2021

Myo/Nog cells are nonprofessional phagocytes.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(8):e0235898. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Myo/Nog cells were discovered in the chick embryo epiblast. Their expression of MyoD reflects a commitment to the skeletal muscle lineage and capacity to differentiate into myofibroblasts. Release of Noggin by Myo/Nog cells is essential for normal morphogenesis. Read More

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September 2020

Wound Matrix Stiffness Imposes on Macrophage Activation.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2193:111-120

Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The immune system depends on two major paths-the innate and the adaptive immunity. Macrophage, with its unique features as the first line of immune defense to engulf and digest invaders, serves as the key effector cells integrating those two paths. The dynamic plasticity of macrophage activation during wound repair, inflammation resolution, and tissue remodeling are emerging biomedical and bioengineering hot topics in immune function studies such as the various secretions of cytokines and chemokines and the signaling pathways with ligands and their cognate receptors. Read More

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Macrophage ablation significantly reduces uptake of imaging probe into organs of the reticuloendothelial system.

Acta Radiol 2020 Aug 9:284185120943048. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Macrophages engulf particulate contrast media, which is pivotal for biomedical imaging.

Purpose: To introduce a macrophage ablation animal model by showing its power to manipulate the kinetics of imaging probes.

Material And Methods: The kinetics of a particulate computed tomography (CT) contrast media was compared in macrophage ablative mice and normal mice. Read More

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Comparative Effects of Graphene and Molybdenum Disulfide on Human Macrophage Toxicity.

Small 2020 09 2;16(35):e2002194. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

CNRS, Immunology, Immunopathology and Therapeutic Chemistry UPR 3572, University of Strasbourg, ISIS, Strasbourg, 67000, France.

Graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, have been increasingly used in electronics, composites, and biomedicine. In particular, MoS and graphene hybrids have attracted a great interest for applications in the biomedical research, therefore stimulating a pertinent investigation on their safety in immune cells like macrophages, which commonly engulf these materials. In this study, M1 and M2 macrophage viability and activation are mainly found to be unaffected by few-layer graphene (FLG) and MoS at doses up to 50 µg mL . Read More

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September 2020

The Tim gene family in efferocytosis.

Genes Genomics 2020 09 9;42(9):979-986. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, 61005, Korea.

One of the key features of the plasma membrane is the asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids across it. Especially, phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively locates on its inner leaflet. Thus, the exposure of PS on the surface of cells could function as a signal initiating various cellular processes such as phagocytosis of apoptotic cells called efferocytosis, blood clotting, muscle formation, and viral entry. Read More

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September 2020

I want to break free - macrophage strategies to recognize and kill Candida albicans, and fungal counter-strategies to escape.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2020 12 27;58:15-23. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Junior Research Group Adaptive Pathogenicity Strategies, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knöll Institute (HKI), Adolf-Reichwein-Straße 23, 07745, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Candida albicans is a major cause of fungal nosocomial infections. Host defense against disseminated infections caused by this yeast strongly relies on myeloid cells of the innate immune system. Recently, several breakthroughs have been made that significantly improved our understanding of the role of macrophages during candidiasis and how C. Read More

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December 2020

Distinguishing Extravascular from Intravascular Ferumoxytol Pools within the Brain: Proof of Concept in Patients with Treated Glioblastoma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 07 11;41(7):1193-1200. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Departments of Neurology (H.L.M., C.N.K., L.S., C.G.V., P.A., L.L.M., E.A.N.)

Background And Purpose: Glioblastoma-associated macrophages are a major constituent of the immune response to therapy and are known to engulf the iron-based MR imaging contrast agent, ferumoxytol. Current ferumoxytol MR imaging techniques for localizing macrophages are confounded by contaminating intravascular signal. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of a newly developed MR imaging technique, segregation and extravascular localization of ferumoxytol imaging, for differentiating extravascular-from-intravascular ferumoxytol contrast signal at a delayed 24-hour imaging time point. Read More

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Antitumor efficacy of interferon-γ-modified exosomal vaccine in prostate cancer.

Prostate 2020 08 19;80(11):811-823. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Exosomes secreted by tumor cells can be regarded as carriers of tumor-associated antigens and have potential value in tumor immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of a novel exosomal vaccine (interferon-γ [IFN-γ]-modified exosomal vaccine) in prostate cancer.

Methods: Prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes were used to prepare the exosomal vaccine using our protein-anchoring technique. Read More

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Metabolic Reprogramming of Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages Following Erythrophagocytosis.

Front Physiol 2020 30;11:396. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States.

Reticuloendothelial macrophages engulf ∼0.2 trillion senescent erythrocytes daily in a process called erythrophagocytosis (EP). This critical mechanism preserves systemic heme-iron homeostasis by regulating red blood cell (RBC) catabolism and iron recycling. Read More

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The antibiotic bedaquiline activates host macrophage innate immune resistance to bacterial infection.

Elife 2020 05 4;9. Epub 2020 May 4.

Unit for Integrated Mycobacterial Pathogenomics, CNRS UMR 3525, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Although known for their microbicidal activity, antibiotics may also interfere with the host's immune system. Here, we analyzed the effects of bedaquiline (BDQ), an inhibitor of the mycobacterial ATP synthase, on human macrophages. Read More

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Regulation of Microglial Functions by Purinergic Mechanisms in the Healthy and Diseased CNS.

Cells 2020 04 29;9(5). Epub 2020 Apr 29.

International Collaborative Centre on Big Science Plan for Purine Signalling, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 610075 Chengdu, China.

Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), exist in a process-bearing, ramified/surveying phenotype under resting conditions. Upon activation by cell-damaging factors, they get transformed into an amoeboid phenotype releasing various cell products including pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and the excytotoxic ATP and glutamate. In addition, they engulf pathogenic bacteria or cell debris and phagocytose them. Read More

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Computational Approach to Identifying Universal Macrophage Biomarkers.

Front Physiol 2020 8;11:275. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.

Macrophages engulf and digest microbes, cellular debris, and various disease-associated cells throughout the body. Understanding the dynamics of macrophage gene expression is crucial for studying human diseases. As both bulk RNAseq and single cell RNAseq datasets become more numerous and complex, identifying a universal and reliable marker of macrophage cell becomes paramount. Read More

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