51,436 results match your criteria macrophage activation


Exposure to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles enhances Toll-like Receptor 4 signal transduction and overcomes endotoxin tolerance in vitro and in vivo.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Emerging studies indicate hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) exhibit modest immunogenicity to elicit innate immune response which might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. This study was proposed to elucidate how HANPs direct over TLR4 signal activity in macrophage in response to TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study for the first time reveals that HANPs themselves can induce TLR4 endocytosis and activate pathways both of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which potentially trigger the production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophage. Read More

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September 2021

Hepatic Macrophages Express Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Inflammation 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

The activation of innate immune system is essential for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Among pattern recognition receptors, it is well-characterized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are deeply involved in the development of NASH to reflect exposure of the liver to gut-driven endotoxins. In contrast, it has not been elucidated whether retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are similarly implicated in the disease progression. Read More

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September 2021

Cancer derived exosomes induce macrophages immunosuppressive polarization to promote bladder cancer progression.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Sep 14;19(1):93. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China.

Background: Exosomes mediated crosstalk between tumor cells and other stromal cells including tumor associated macrophages plays an essential role in reprogramming tumor microenvironment (TME) to facilitate tumor progression. However, the mechanism of tumor derived exosomes promotes bladder cancer progression have not been defined.

Methods: Exosomes were extracted from bladder cancer cells MB49 conditioned medium by ultracentrifugation. Read More

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September 2021

The 3D nuclear conformation of the major histocompatibility complex changes upon cell activation both in porcine and human macrophages.

BMC Mol Cell Biol 2021 Sep 14;22(1):45. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 1388 GenPhySE, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31326 Cedex, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

Background: The crucial role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for the immune response to infectious diseases is well-known, but no information is available on the 3D nuclear organization of this gene-dense region in immune cells, whereas nuclear architecture is known to play an essential role on genome function regulation. We analyzed the spatial arrangement of the three MHC regions (class I, III and II) in macrophages using 3D-FISH. Since this complex presents major differences in humans and pigs with, notably, the presence of the centromere between class III and class II regions in pigs, the analysis was implemented in both species to determine the impact of this organization on the 3D conformation of the MHC. Read More

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September 2021

Water extract of medicinal ink (WEMI) attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production of Raw264.7 cells via downregulation JAK2/STAT3-mediated iNOS expression.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 11:114636. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan; Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan; Biomedical Industry Ph.D. Program, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Medicinal ink is used as a traditional topical medicine for treating inflammatory diseases via detoxification, relieving pain, hemostasis, and reducing swelling. However, the effect of medicinal ink on the inhibition of inflammatory responses and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory function of water extract of medical ink (WEMI) and elucidate its active mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Intravenous immunoglobulin in macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2020 09 1;58(5):634-643. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret", Departamento de Hematología. Ciudad de México, México.

Background: The hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a disease with a potential fatal evolution, caused by the activation of macrophages and histiocytes with hemophagocytosis in bone marrow and other reticuloendothelial systems, triggered by a defect in the T lymphocyte when stimulating the production of interleukin 1-beta, interleukin 6, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha that promote macrophage activation. This condition presents with fever, cytopenias, splenomegaly, hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia, in the context of an infectious, neoplastic or autoimmune disease. The objective of this article is to describe the utility of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in patients unable to receive immunosuppressive treatment. Read More

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September 2020

The role of glia in the physiology and pharmacology of GLP-1: Implications for obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative processes including glaucoma.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

The medical application of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists is ever-growing in scope, highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which GLP-1R activation impacts physiology and behavior. A new wave of research aims to elucidate the role GLP-1R signaling in glia plays in regulating energy balance, glycemic control, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Once controversial, existing evidence now suggests that subsets of glia (e. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic mineral oil administration increases hepatic inflammation in wild type mice compared to lipocalin 2 null mice.

Lab Invest 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), an acute-phase protein produced during acute liver injury, plays an important role in the innate immune response against bacterial infection via iron scavenging. LCN2 further influences neutrophil development and physiology leading to increased inflammatory responses. We investigated the roles of LCN2 in chronic inflammation and fibrosis, using repeated carbon tetrachloride (CCl) in mineral-oil injection. Read More

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September 2021

[CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ inhibits invasion and metastasis of liver cancer by regulating M1 type macrophages polarization].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Aug;29(8):794-798

Department of Hepatology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Hepatobiliary and Intestine Research Institute, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000, China.

To explore the regulation of macrophage polarization and its effects on liver cancer invasion, metastasis and apoptosis by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (CEBPD). THP-1 stable transfected cells with knockdown CEBPD (shCEBPD) and negative control shNC were constructed by lentviral transfection technique. THP-1 transfected cells were induced into macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon γ(IFNγ) by phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (PMA), and then the polarized macrophages were further induced to M1 type. Read More

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Virus-induced senescence is driver and therapeutic target in COVID-19.

Nature 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Virology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for organ damage and clinical severity of COVID-19. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), composed of pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators. Read More

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September 2021

Tanshinone IIA alleviates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-(H37Ra-) infected macrophages by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 10:114595. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine and Immunology Research, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tanshinone IIA (Tan), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is a perennial herbal plant widely used as a folk remedy in Asian countries. Several studies have proved that Tanshinone IIA possesses many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, free-radical scavenging abilities, antioxidant properties, liver protection, and anti-cancer properties.

Aim Of The Study: The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of Tan. Read More

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September 2021

Trimebutine suppresses Toll-like receptor 2/4/7/8/9 signaling pathways in macrophages.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Sep 10;711:109029. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan; Department of Genomic Medicinal Science, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Organization for Research Advancement, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Because of the critical roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in the pathophysiology of various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, continuous efforts have been made to discover novel therapeutic inhibitors of TLRs and RAGE to treat inflammatory disorders. A recent study by our group has demonstrated that trimebutine, a spasmolytic drug, suppresses the high mobility group box 1‒RAGE signaling that is associated with triggering proinflammatory signaling pathways in macrophages. Our present work showed that trimebutine suppresses interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a stimulant of TLR4)-stimulated macrophages of RAGE-knockout mice. Read More

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September 2021

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibitor 4-IPP downregulates stemness phenotype and mesenchymal trans-differentiation after irradiation in glioblastoma multiforme.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(9):e0257375. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Radiation therapy is among the most essential treatment methods for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Radio-resistance and cancer stem cell properties can cause therapeutic resistance, cancer heterogeneity, and poor prognoses in association with GBM. Furthermore, the GBM subtype transition from proneural to the most malignant mesenchymal subtype after radiation therapy also accounts for high resistance to conventional treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Tocilizumab treatment in severe COVID-19: a multicenter retrospective study with matched controls.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Health Science University Turkey, Bakırköy Sadi Konuk Education and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated pneumonia may progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Some patients develop features of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Elevated levels of IL-6 were reported to be associated with severe disease, and anti-IL-6R tocilizumab has been shown to be effective in some patients. Read More

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September 2021

Cyclin D1b induces changes in the macrophage phenotype resulting in promotion of tumor metastasis.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Sep 13:15353702211038511. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, P.R. China.

In breast cancer, tumor-associated macrophages with activated phenotypes promote tumor invasion and metastasis. The more aggressive mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells have a selective advantage, skewing macrophages toward the more immunosuppressive subtype. However, the mechanism underlying this shift is poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Isolation and characterization of porcine macrophages and their inflammatory and fusion responses in different stiffness environments.

Biomater Sci 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Irvine, 2412 Engineering Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Evaluating the host immune response to biomaterials is an essential step in the development of medical devices and tissue engineering strategies. To aid in this process, studies, whereby immune cells such as macrophages are cultured on biomaterials, can often expedite high throughput testing of many materials prior to implantation. While most studies to date utilize murine or human cells, the use of porcine macrophages has been less well described, despite the prevalent use of porcine models in medical device and tissue engineering development. Read More

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September 2021

Concentrated growth factor regulates the macrophage-mediated immune response.

Regen Biomater 2021 Oct 17;8(6):rbab049. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Prosthodontics, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China.

Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a promising regenerative material that serves as a scaffold and adjunct growth factor for tissue engineering. The host immune response, particularly macrophage activity, plays a critical role in injury repair and tissue regeneration. However, the biological effect of CGF on the immune response is not clear. Read More

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October 2021

Pharmacological Inhibition of STAT6 Ameliorates Myeloid Fibroblast Activation and Alternative Macrophage Polarization in Renal Fibrosis.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:735014. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States.

A hallmark of chronic kidney disease is renal fibrosis, which can result in progressive loss of kidney function. Currently, there is no effective therapy for renal fibrosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify potential drug targets for renal fibrosis. Read More

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Baicalein Potentiated M1 Macrophage Polarization in Cancer Through Targeting PI3Kγ/ NF-κB Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 25;12:743837. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Baicalein is one of the bioactive compounds extracted from . Recent studies indicated the antitumor effects of baicalein, however, the underlying mechanisms are needed to be further determined. In this study, we found that baicalein could inhibit the tumor growth in mice models of breast cancer and melanoma and worked as an immunomodulator to promote the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and skew the TAMs towards the M1-like phenotype. Read More

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Adiponectin Inhibits the Production of TNF-α, IL-6 and Chemokines by Human Lung Macrophages.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:718929. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Laboratory of Research in respiratory Pharmacology- Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaire (VIM)- UMR 0892 Université Paris-Saclay, Suresnes, France.

Obesity is associated with an elevated risk of severe respiratory infections and inflammatory lung diseases. The objectives were to investigate 1) the production of adiponectin by human lung explants, 2) the expression of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 by human lung macrophages (LMs), and 3) the impact of recombinant human adiponectin and a small-molecule APN receptor agonist (AdipoRon) on LMs activation. Human parenchyma explants and LMs were isolated from patients operated for carcinoma. Read More

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Mitochondrial bioenergetics boost macrophages activation promoting liver regeneration in metabolically compromised animals.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Transplant Coordination Unit. Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital-IDIVAL. Cantabria University, Santander, Spain.

Background And Aims: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of early post-transplantation organ failure, as mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are affected. Shortage of donors has extended liver donor criteria, including aged or steatotic livers, which are more susceptible to IRI. Given the lack of an effective treatment and the extensive transplantation waitlist, we aimed at characterizing the effects of an accelerated mitochondrial activity by silencing Methylation-controlled J protein (MCJ) in three pre-clinical models of IRI and liver regeneration, focusing on metabolically compromised animal models. Read More

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September 2021

An altered sputum macrophage transcriptome contributes to the neutrophilic asthma endotype.

Allergy 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Neutrophilic asthma (NA) is a clinically important asthma phenotype, the cellular and molecular basis of which is not completely understood. Airway macrophages are long-lived immune cells that exert important homeostatic and inflammatory functions which are dysregulated in asthma. Unique transcriptomic programmes reflect varied macrophage phenotypes in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Toxicological effects of air settled particles from the Vitoria Metropolitan Area mediated by oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory mediators and NFΚB pathway.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 9;204(Pt A):112015. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Laboratório de Cultura de Células, Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Brazil. Electronic address:

Atmospheric pollution is a major environmental and public health risk due to its effect on global air quality and climate. Increase in pollutants concentrations, especially particulate matter (PM), are associated with increased respiratory diseases. The pathophysiology of respiratory diseases involves molecular and cellular mechanisms as inflammatory biomarkers and reactive oxygen species production. Read More

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September 2021

Kawasaki Disease- Management Strategies Given Symptoms Overlap to COVID-19: A Review.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2021 Apr 30;59(236):417-424. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Children's Hospital of Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an Shanxi, 710001, China.

Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limiting vasculitis in children. Early treatment is necessary to prevent cardiovascular complications. The acute phase of Kawasaki disease may present with hemodynamic instability. Read More

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Macrophage-derived interleukin-6 is necessary and sufficient for choroidal angiogenesis.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 10;11(1):18084. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) commonly causes vision loss from aberrant angiogenesis, termed choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine that is correlated with AMD progression and nAMD activity. We hypothesize that anti-IL6 therapy is a potential nAMD therapeutic. Read More

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September 2021

The role of intestinal macrophages in gastrointestinal homeostasis: heterogeneity and implications in disease.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Intestinal macrophages play a key role in the gut immune system and the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology, including gut motility and secretion. Their ability to keep the gut from chronic inflammation despite constantly facing foreign antigens has been an important focus in gastrointestinal research. However, the heterogeneity of intestinal macrophages has impeded our understanding of their specific roles. Read More

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September 2021

Impaired macrophage trafficking and increased helper T cell recruitment with loss of cadherin-11 in atherosclerotic immune response.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 09 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN, United States.

Objective: Inflammation caused by infiltrating macrophages and T cells promotes plaque growth in atherosclerosis. Cadherin-11 (CDH11) is a cell-cell adhesion protein implicated in several fibrotic and inflammatory diseases. Much of the research on CDH11 concerns its role in fibroblasts, although its expression in immune cells has been noted as well. Read More

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September 2021

Intracellular TLRs of Mast Cells in Innate and Acquired Immunity.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Mast cells (MCs) distribute to interface tissues with environment, such as skin, airway, and gut mucosa, thereby functioning as the sentinel against invading allergens and pathogens. To respond to and exclude these external substances promptly, MCs possess granules containing inflammatory mediators, including heparin, proteases, tumor necrosis factor, and histamine, and produce these mediators as a consequence of degranulation within minutes of activation. As a delayed response to external substances, MCs de novo synthesize inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, by sensing pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns through their pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Read More

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September 2021

Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression.

Nat Cancer 2021 Feb 18;2(2):218-232. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano (Milan), Italy.

Complement has emerged as a component of tumor promoting inflammation. We conducted a systematic assessment of the role of complement activation and effector pathways in sarcomas. , and mice showed reduced susceptibility to 3-methylcholanthrene sarcomagenesis and transplanted sarcomas, whereas C1q and factor B deficiency had marginal effects. Read More

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February 2021