78,807 results match your criteria macaques


Ultrasensitive detection and quantification of viral nucleic acids with raindance droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

Methods 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, United States.

Sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids is critically important for diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of infectious diseases such as those caused by SARS-CoV2, HIV-1, and other viruses. In HIV-1 infection cases, assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions that are superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has benefited tremendously from the development of sensitive HIV-1 DNA and RNA quantitation assays. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Rhesus macaques is similar in many key aspects to human HIV-1 infection and consequently this non-human primate (NHP) model has and continues to prove instrumental in evaluating HIV prevention, treatment and eradication approaches. Read More

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Comparative analysis reveals distinctive epigenetic features of the human cerebellum.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009506. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anthropology and Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

Identifying the molecular underpinnings of the neural specializations that underlie human cognitive and behavioral traits has long been of considerable interest. Much research on human-specific changes in gene expression and epigenetic marks has focused on the prefrontal cortex, a brain structure distinguished by its role in executive functions. The cerebellum shows expansion in great apes and is gaining increasing attention for its role in motor skills and cognitive processing, including language. Read More

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Not all yawns tell the same story: The case of Tonkean macaques.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 6:e23263. Epub 2021 May 6.

Natural History Museum, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Here we show for the first time that the plasticity in morphology and duration of yawning in Macaca tonkeana can be associated with different functional contexts. Macaca tonkeana is classified as a tolerant macaque species characterized by social interactions minimally constrained by dominance rank or kinship. Tonkean macaques, as other egalitarian species, rely on a complex facial communicative system. Read More

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The germline mutational process in rhesus macaque and its implications for phylogenetic dating.

Gigascience 2021 May;10(5)

Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Background: Understanding the rate and pattern of germline mutations is of fundamental importance for understanding evolutionary processes.

Results: Here we analyzed 19 parent-offspring trios of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at high sequencing coverage of ∼76× per individual and estimated a mean rate of 0.77 × 10-8de novo mutations per site per generation (95% CI: 0. Read More

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Comparison of the Full Distribution of Fitness Effects of New Amino Acid Mutations Across Great Apes.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):953-966

Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Castellano et al. provide the first comparison of the full distribution of fitness effects (including deleterious, neutral but also beneficial mutations) in the great apes. The authors investigate which aspects of the full DFE are likely. Read More

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November 2019

Comparison of the Full Distribution of Fitness Effects of New Amino Acid Mutations Across Great Apes.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):953-966

Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Castellano et al. provide the first comparison of the full distribution of fitness effects (including deleterious, neutral but also beneficial mutations) in the great apes. The authors investigate which aspects of the full DFE are likely. Read More

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November 2019

Fecal metabolite analysis of Japanese macaques in Yakushima by LC-MS/MS and LC-QTOF-MS.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Chubu University Academy of Emerging Sciences.

We performed a comprehensive fecal metabolite analysis using LC-MS/MS and LC-QTOF-MS approaches as a preliminary study. Feces of Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island were collected from five monkeys at two separate locations. Using the former methodology, 59 substances such as free amino acids, nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleic acid bases, and organic acids in the citrate cycle were quantitatively detected and successfully differentiated in two different monkey groups by the concentrations of nucleic acid metabolites and free amino acids. Read More

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Preclinical evaluation for engraftment of CD34 cells gene-edited at the sickle cell disease locus in xenograft mouse and non-human primate models.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Apr 20;2(4):100247. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics Branch, National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes (NHLBI)/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a 20A > T mutation in the β-globin gene. Genome-editing technologies have the potential to correct the SCD mutation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), producing adult hemoglobin while simultaneously eliminating sickle hemoglobin. Here, we developed high-efficiency viral vector-free non-footprint gene correction in SCD CD34 cells with electroporation to deliver SCD mutation-targeting guide RNA, Cas9 endonuclease, and 100-mer single-strand donor DNA encoding intact β-globin sequence, achieving therapeutic-level gene correction at DNA (∼30%) and protein (∼80%) levels. Read More

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Reduced purine biosynthesis in humans after their divergence from Neandertals.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

We analyze the metabolomes of humans, chimpanzees and macaques in muscle, kidney and three different regions of the brain. Whereas several compounds in amino acid metabolism occur at either higher or lower concentrations in humans than in the other primates, metabolites downstream of adenylosuccinate lyase, which catalyzes two reactions in purine synthesis, occur at lower concentrations in humans. This enzyme carries an amino acid substitution that is present in all humans today but absent in Neandertals. Read More

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Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in rhesus macaques on the nucleus accumbens core transcriptome.

Addict Biol 2021 May 4:e13021. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been repeatedly demonstrated to be a key component of the circuitry associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Previous studies have illustrated that in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of chronic ethanol consumption, there is significant epigenetic remodeling of the NAcc. In the current study, RNA-Seq was used to examine genome-wide gene expression in eight each of control, low/binge (LD*), and high/very high (HD*) rhesus macaque drinkers. Read More

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Infant rhesus macaques as a non-human primate model of Bordetella pertussis infection.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 3;21(1):407. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

Background: The prevalent resurgence of pertussis has recently become a critical public health problem worldwide. To understand pertussis pathogenesis and the host response to both the pathogen and vaccines, a suitable pertussis animal model, particularly a non-human primate model, is necessary. Recently, a non-human primate pertussis model was successfully established with baboons. Read More

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Captivity Is Associated With Gut Mycobiome Composition in Tibetan Macaques ().

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:665853. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, China.

Although recent studies have revealed that gut fungi may play an important functional role in animal biology and health, little is known concerning the effects of anthropogenic pressures on the gut mycobiome. Here, we examined differences of the gut mycobiome in wild and captive populations of Tibetan macaques () targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and using next generation sequencing. Our findings demonstrate that the diversity, composition, and functional guild of the Tibetan macaque gut mycobiome differ across populations living in different habitats. Read More

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Investigating Behavioral Responses to Mirrors and the Mark Test in Adult Male Zebra Finches and House Crows.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:637850. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Brain Research Centre, Gurugram, India.

Earlier evidence suggests that besides humans, some species of mammals and birds demonstrate visual self-recognition, assessed by the controversial "mark" test. Whereas, there are high levels of inter-individual differences amongst a single species, some species such as macaques and pigeons which do not spontaneously demonstrate mirror self-recognition (MSR) can be trained to do so. We were surprised to discover that despite being widely used as a model system for avian research, the performance of zebra finches () on the mark test had not been studied earlier. Read More

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Treatment of Limb Ischemia with Conducted Effects of Catheter-Based Endovascular Ultrasound.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA; Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:

Ultrasound (US) is known to stimulate endogenous shear-dependent pathways, and can lower microvascular resistance through mediators that are conducted downstream from US exposure. We hypothesized that endovascular US, already in use for thrombolysis in humans, can improve tissue perfusion in the setting of acute limb ischemia through downstream-conducted effects. Models of severe peripheral arterial disease were developed in mice and in rhesus macaques. Read More

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Mental health ecologies and urban wellbeing.

Health Place 2021 Apr 29;69:102577. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Professor of Animal Behaviour and Cognition, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bengaluru, 560 012, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

How might urban mental health be understood when animals reconfigure human wellbeing in the lived city? Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork on people and macaques in New Delhi and forging novel conversations between urban studies, ecology and psychiatry, our ontology of urban mental health moves from lived experience of the built environment to those configured by dwelling with various interlocutors: animals, astral bodies and supernatural currents. These relations create microspaces of wellbeing, keeping forces of urban precarity at bay. This paper discusses mental health ecologies in different registers: subjectivity being environmental, its scale being relational rather than binary, enmeshed in the dynamics of other-than-human life, and involving conversations between medical and vernacular practices rather than hierarchies of knowledge. Read More

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Attention reduces the burstiness of V1 neurons involved in attended target enhancement.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Attention-dependent reduction in the tendency for neurons to fire bursts (burstiness) is widely observed in the visual cortex. However, the underlying mechanism and the functional role of this phenomenon remain unclear. We recorded well-isolated single-unit activities in primary visual cortex (V1) from two primates (Macaca mulatta) while they performed a detection task engaging spatial attention with two levels of difficulty (hard/easy). Read More

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MRI characteristics of Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis: Comparison to human diseases.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background And Purpose: To describe MRI findings in Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME) with emphasis on lesion characteristics, lesion evolution, normal-appearing brain tissue, and similarities to human demyelinating disease.

Methods: MRI data were obtained from 114 Japanese macaques, 30 presenting neurological signs of JME. All animals were screened for presence of T -weighted white matter signal hyperintensities; animals with behavioral signs of JME were additionally screened for contrast-enhancing lesions. Read More

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Transcriptomic phases of periodontitis lesions using the nonhuman primate model.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9282. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center for Oral Health Research College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

We used a nonhuman primate model of ligature-induced periodontitis to identify patterns of gingival transcriptomic after changes demarcating phases of periodontitis lesions (initiation, progression, resolution). A total of 18 adult Macaca mulatta (12-22 years) had ligatures placed (premolar, 1st molar teeth) in all 4 quadrants. Gingival tissue samples were obtained (baseline, 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months during periodontitis and at 5 months resolution). Read More

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Development and Characterization of a cDNA-Launch Recombinant Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein: ORF 2b' Is Not Required for In Vitro Virus Replication.

Viruses 2021 04 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes acute, lethal disease in macaques. We developed a single-plasmid cDNA-launch infectious clone of SHFV (rSHFV) and modified the clone to rescue an enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing rSHFV-eGFP that can be used for rapid and quantitative detection of infection. SHFV has a narrow cell tropism in vitro, with only the grivet MA-104 cell line and a few other grivet cell lines being susceptible to virion entry and permissive to infection. Read More

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Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Papillomaviruses Isolated from Oral and Anogenital Neoplasms of Japanese Macaques ().

Viruses 2021 04 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a diverse group of host species-specific DNA viruses, etiologically linked with various benign and malignant neoplasms of cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Here, we describe the detection and characterization of the first two PVs naturally infecting Japanese macaques (), including the determination of their etiological association(s) with the development of original neoplasms. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses were performed on complete genome sequences of Macaca fuscata PV types 1 (MfuPV1) and 2 (MfuPV2), which were completely sequenced in samples of a malignant oral tumor and benign anogenital neoplasm of Japanese macaques, respectively. Read More

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Enhanced Intestinal TGF-β/SMAD-Dependent Signaling in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Rhesus Macaques.

Cells 2021 Apr 4;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

Transforming growth factor-β signaling (TGF-β) maintains a balanced physiological function including cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation and regulation of immune system by modulating either SMAD2/3 and SMAD7 (SMAD-dependent) or SMAD-independent signaling pathways under normal conditions. Increased production of TGF-β promotes immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection. However, the cellular source and downstream events of increased TGF-β production that attributes to its pathological manifestations remain unknown. Read More

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Comparison of three non-human primate aerosol models for glanders, caused by Burkholderia mallei.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 27;155:104919. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Burkholderia mallei is a gram-negative obligate animal pathogen that causes glanders, a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease of solipeds including horses, mules, and donkeys. Humans are also susceptible, and exposure can result in a wide range of clinical forms, i.e. Read More

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Animal Models of COVID-19 II. Comparative Immunology.

ILAR J 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Developing strong animal models is essential for furthering our understanding of how the immune system functions in response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The alarming speed at which SARS-CoV-2 has spread, and the high mortality rate of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has required both basic science and clinical research to move at an unprecedented pace. Models previously developed to study the immune response against SARS-CoV have been rapidly deployed to now study SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Immunization by exposure to live virus (SIVmne/HIV-2287) during antiretroviral drug prophylaxis may reduce risk of subsequent viral challenge.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0240495. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC), Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Rationale/study Design: A major challenge in the development of HIV vaccines is finding immunogens that elicit protection against a broad range of viral strains. Immunity to a narrow range of viral strains may protect infants of HIV-infected women or partners discordant for HIV. We hypothesized that immunization to the relevant viral variants could be achieved by exposure to infectious virus during prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs. Read More

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Sustained fetal hemoglobin induction in vivo is achieved by interference and coexpressed truncated erythropoietin receptor.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr;13(591)

Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics Branch, National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes (NHLBI)/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for hemoglobin disorders, including sickle cell disease, requires high-efficiency lentiviral gene transfer and robust therapeutic globin expression in erythroid cells. Erythropoietin is a key cytokine for erythroid proliferation and differentiation (erythropoiesis), and truncated human erythropoietin receptors (thEpoR) have been reported in familial polycythemia. We reasoned that coexpression of thEpoR could enhance the phenotypic effect of a therapeutic vector in erythroid cells in xenograft mouse and autologous nonhuman primate transplantation models. Read More

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Recombinant Herpesvirus Vectors: Durable Immune Responses and Durable Protection Against SIVmac239 Acquisition.

J Virol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, Jupiter, Florida, USA.

A prophylactic vaccine that confers durable protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) would provide a valuable tool to prevent new HIV/AIDS cases. As herpesviruses establish lifelong infections that remain largely subclinical, the use of persistent herpesvirus vectors to deliver HIV antigens may facilitate the induction of long-term anti-HIV immunity. We previously developed recombinant (r) forms of the gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rRRV) expressing a replication-incompetent, near-full-length simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVnfl) genome. Read More

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Similar masking effects of natural backgrounds on detection performances in humans, macaques, and macaque-V1 population responses.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The University of Texas at Austin, United States.

Visual systems evolve to process the stimuli that arise in the organism's natural environment and hence to fully understand the neural computations in the visual system it is important to measure behavioral and neural responses to natural visual stimuli. Here we measured psychometric and neurometric functions and thresholds in the macaque monkey for detection of a windowed sine-wave target in uniform backgrounds and in natural backgrounds of various contrasts. The neurometric functions and neurometric thresholds were obtained by near-optimal decoding of voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging (VSDI) responses at the retinotopic scale in primary visual cortex (V1). Read More

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Immunogenicity and efficacy of one and two doses of Ad26.COV2.S COVID vaccine in adult and aged NHP.

J Exp Med 2021 07;218(7)

Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, Netherlands.

Safe and effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines are urgently needed to control the ongoing pandemic. While single-dose vaccine regimens would provide multiple advantages, two doses may improve the magnitude and durability of immunity and protective efficacy. We assessed one- and two-dose regimens of the Ad26. Read More

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Protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection by a mucosal vaccine in rhesus macaques.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, United States of America.

Effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are urgently needed. While most vaccine strategies have focused on systemic immunization, here we compared the protective efficacy of two adjuvanted subunit vaccines with spike protein S1: an intramuscular (IM)- primed /boosted vaccine and an IM-primed/intranasal (IN)-boosted mucosal vaccine, in rhesus macaques. The IM-alum-only vaccine induced robust binding and neutralizing antibody and persistent cellular immunity systemically and mucosally, while IN boosting with nanoparticles including IL-15 and TLR agonists elicited weaker T-cell and antibody responses, but higher dimeric IgA and IFNa. Read More

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Longitudinal Profiling of the Macaque Vaginal Microbiome Reveals Similarities to Diverse Human Vaginal Communities.

mSystems 2021 Apr 27;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA

The vaginal microbiota plays an important role in women's reproductive and urogenital health. It is now well accepted that a "healthy" vaginal microbiome is dominated by species. Disturbances in this microbial community can lead to several adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and bacterial vaginosis (BV), as well as increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, miscarriage, and preterm births. Read More

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