79,130 results match your criteria macaque

Rhesus macaques build new social connections after a natural disaster.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters such as hurricanes, wildfires, floods, and droughts. Understanding resilience and vulnerability to these intense stressors and their aftermath could reveal adaptations to extreme environmental change. In 2017, Puerto Rico suffered its worst natural disaster, Hurricane Maria, which left 3,000 dead and provoked a mental health crisis. Read More

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The superior parietal lobule of primates: a sensory-motor hub for interaction with the environment.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):157-171

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

The superior parietal lobule of the macaque monkey occupies the postero-medial part of the parietal lobe and plays a crucial role in the integration of different sources of information (from visual, motor and somatosensory brain regions) for the purpose of high-level cognitive functions, as perception for action. This region encompasses the intraparietal sulcus and the parieto-occipital sulcus and includes also the precuneate cortex in the mesial surface of the hemisphere. It hosts several areas extensively studied in the macaque: PE, PEip, PEci anteriorly and PEc, MIP, PGm and V6A posteriorly. Read More

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A Re-evaluation of Whether Non-monosynaptic Homonymous H Reflex Facilitation Tests Propriospinal Circuits.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 23;15:641816. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Henry Wellcome Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

The C3-C4 propriospinal system is an important pathway mediating movement in cats; it contributes to movements in primates (including humans), and may have a role in recovery after lesion. Validated clinical tests of this system would find many applications, therefore we sought to test whether non-monosynaptic homonymous facilitation of the forearm flexor H reflex is mediated solely via a C3-C4 propriospinal pathway. In one anesthetized macaque monkey, median nerve stimulation elicited an H reflex in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR). Read More

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Primate ventral striatum maintains neural representations of the value of previously rewarded objects for habitual seeking.

Nat Commun 2021 04 8;12(1):2100. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

The ventral striatum (VS) is considered a key region that flexibly updates recent changes in reward values for habit learning. However, this update process may not serve to maintain learned habitual behaviors, which are insensitive to value changes. Here, using fMRI in humans and single-unit electrophysiology in macaque monkeys we report another role of the primate VS: that the value memory subserving habitual seeking is stably maintained in the VS. Read More

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Functional variability of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) NAT2 gene for drug-metabolising arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114545. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Human NAT2 is a polymorphic pharmacogene encoding for N-acetyltransferase 2, a hepatic enzyme active towards arylamine and arylhydrazine drugs, including the anti-tubercular antibiotic isoniazid. The isoenzyme also modulates susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis, particularly of the bladder. Human NAT2 represents an ideal model for anthropological investigations into the demographic adaptation of worldwide populations to their xenobiotic environment. Read More

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Age-related calcium dysregulation linked with tau pathology and impaired cognition in non-human primates.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departments of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Yale University, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires non-genetically modified animal models.

Methods: The relationship of tau phosphorylation to calcium-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) dysregulation was analyzed in aging rhesus macaque dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and rat primary cortical neurons using biochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy. The influence of calcium leak from ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on neuronal firing and cognitive performance was examined in aged macaques. Read More

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The structure, function and evolution of a complete human chromosome 8.

Nature 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

The complete assembly of each human chromosome is essential for understanding human biology and evolution. Here we use complementary long-read sequencing technologies to complete the linear assembly of human chromosome 8. Our assembly resolves the sequence of five previously long-standing gaps, including a 2. Read More

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Robust vestibular self-motion signals in macaque posterior cingulate region.

Elife 2021 Apr 8;10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Self-motion signals, distributed ubiquitously across parietal-temporal lobes, propagate to limbic hippocampal system for vector-based navigation via hubs including posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Although numerous studies have indicated posterior cingulate areas are involved in spatial tasks, it is unclear how their neurons represent self-motion signals. Providing translation and rotation stimuli to macaques on a 6-degree-of-freedom motion platform, we discovered robust vestibular responses in PCC. Read More

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Bilateral control of interceptive saccades: evidence from the ipsipulsion of vertical saccades after caudal fastigial inactivation.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone (INT), French National Centre for Scientific Research, France.

The caudal fastigial nuclei (cFN) are the output nuclei by which the medio-posterior cerebellum influences the production of saccades toward a visual target. On the basis of the organization of their efferences to the premotor burst neurons and the bilateral control of saccades, the hypothesis was proposed that the same unbalanced activity accounts for the dysmetria of all saccades during cFN unilateral inactivation, regardless of whether the saccade is horizontal, oblique, or vertical. We further tested this hypothesis by studying, in two head-restrained macaques, the effects of unilaterally inactivating the caudal fastigial nucleus on saccades toward a target moving vertically with a constant, increasing or decreasing speed. Read More

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Stimulus-dependent relationships between behavioral choice and sensory neural responses.

Elife 2021 Apr 7;10. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.

Understanding perceptual decision-making requires linking sensory neural responses to behavioral choices. In two-choice tasks, activity-choice covariations are commonly quantified with a single measure of choice probability (CP), without characterizing their changes across stimulus levels. We provide theoretical conditions for stimulus dependencies of activity-choice covariations. Read More

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Likelihood approximation networks (LANs) for fast inference of simulation models in cognitive neuroscience.

Elife 2021 Apr 6;10. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Robert J and Nancy D Carney Institute for Brain Science; Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, United States.

In cognitive neuroscience, computational modeling can formally adjudicate between theories and affords quantitative fits to behavioral/brain data. Pragmatically, however, the space of plausible generative models considered is dramatically limited by the set of models with known likelihood functions. For many models, the lack of a closed-form likelihood typically impedes Bayesian inference methods. Read More

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The neutralizing antibody, LY-CoV555, protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

AbCellera Biologics Inc., Vancouver, BC, V5Y0A1, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a public health threat for which preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies are a key class of therapeutics which may bridge widespread vaccination campaigns and offer a treatment solution in populations less responsive to vaccination. Herein, we report that high-throughput microfluidic screening of antigen-specific B-cells led to the identification of LY-CoV555 (also known as bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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Functional parcellation of human and macaque striatum reveals human-specific connectivity in the dorsal caudate.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 2:118006. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-7, Brain and Behaviour), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany. Electronic address:

A wide homology between human and macaque striatum is often assumed as in both the striatum is involved in cognition, emotion and executive functions. However, differences in functional and structural organization between human and macaque striatum may reveal evolutionary divergence and shed light on human vulnerability to neuropsychiatric diseases. For instance, dopaminergic dysfunction of the human striatum is considered to be a pathophysiological underpinning of different disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Read More

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Greater Reduction in Contralesional Hand Use After Frontoparietal Than Frontal Motor Cortex Lesions in .

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 18;15:592235. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD, United States.

We previously reported that rhesus monkeys recover spontaneous use of the more impaired (contralesional) hand following neurosurgical lesions to the arm/hand representations of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) (F2 lesion) when tested for reduced use (RU) in a fine motor task allowing use of either hand. Recovery occurred without constraint of the less impaired hand and with occasional forced use of the more impaired hand, which was the preferred hand for use in fine motor tasks before the lesion. Here, we compared recovery of five F2 lesion cases in the same RU test to recovery after unilateral lesions of M1, LPMC, S1 and anterior portion of parietal cortex (F2P2 lesion - four cases). Read More

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Female ornaments: is red skin color attractive to males and related to condition in rhesus macaques?

Behav Ecol 2021 Mar-Apr;32(2):236-247. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Sexual selection produces extravagant male traits, such as colorful ornaments, via female mate choice. More rarely, in mating systems in which males allocate mating effort between multiple females, female ornaments may evolve via male mate choice. Females of many anthropoid primates exhibit ornaments that indicate intraindividual cyclical fertility, but which have also been proposed to function as interindividual quality signals. Read More

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January 2021

Fecal Bacterial Microbiota of Healthy Free-Ranging, Healthy Corralled, and Chronic Diarrheic Corralled Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

Comp Med 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

A clinical challenge to nearly every primate facility in North America is chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID), the pathogenesis of which has yet to be fully elucidated. However, wild macaques appear resistant to CID, a trend that we observed in the free-ranging population of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. The gastrointestinal microbiota has been shown to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of disease and in maintaining normal health and development of the gut. Read More

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The effect of tocilizumab on COVID-19 patient mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 24;96:107602. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Pulmonary, Department of Internal Medicine, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of tocilizumab for treating patients with COVID-19.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the preprint server of medRxiv. Read More

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LC-MS/MS measurement of endogenous oxytocin in the posterior pituitary and CSF of macaques: A pilot study.

Peptides 2021 Mar 31;140:170544. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006-3448, USA. Electronic address:

Oxytocin (OT) is a nanopeptide released into systemic circulation via the posterior pituitary (peripheral) and into the central nervous system via widespread OTergic pathways (central). Central OT plays a significant role in variety of functions from social and executive cognition to immune regulation. Many ongoing studies explore its therapeutic potential for variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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Tibetan Macaques with Higher Social Centrality and More Relatives Emit More Frequent Visual Communication in Collective Decision-Making.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China.

Animals on the move often communicate with each other through some specific postures. Previous studies have shown that social interaction plays a role in communication process. However, it is not clear whether the affinity of group members can affect visual communication. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Host miRNAs Correlated with Immune Gene Dysregulation during Fatal Disease Progression in the Ebola Virus Cynomolgus Macaque Disease Model.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 23;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Diagnostic Systems Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702, USA.

Ebola virus is a continuing threat to human populations, causing a virulent hemorrhagic fever disease characterized by dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive host immune responses. Severe cases are distinguished by an early, elevated pro-inflammatory response followed by a pronounced lymphopenia with B and T cells unable to mount an effective anti-viral response. The precise mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of the host immune system are poorly understood. Read More

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Sex-Specific Variation of Social Play in Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

International Collaborative Research Center for Huangshan Biodiversity and Tibetan Macaque Behavioral Ecology, Hefei 230601, China.

Theories proposed to explain social play have centered on its function in establishing social relationships critical for adulthood, its function in developing motor skills needed to survive, and promoting cognitive development and social learning. In this study, we compared variations in social play among infant and juvenile male and female . Given that this species is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal, we hypothesized that immature females use social play as a mechanism to develop bonds that persist through adulthood whereas immature males use play to develop social skills needed to successfully enter new groups. Read More

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Dimethyl Fumarate, an Approved Multiple Sclerosis Treatment, Reduces Brain Oxidative Stress in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques: Potential Therapeutic Repurposing for HIV Neuroprotection.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, induces antioxidant enzymes, in part through transcriptional upregulation. We hypothesized that DMF administration to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques would induce antioxidant enzyme expression and reduce oxidative injury and inflammation throughout the brain. Nine SIV-infected, CD8-T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques were studied. Read More

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Sexual Interference Behaviors in Male Adult and Subadult Tibetan Macaques ().

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China.

Male nonhuman primate sexual interference, which includes copulation interruption and copulation harassment, has been related to reproductive success, but its significance has been challenging to test. Copulation interruption results in the termination of a copulation before ejaculation, whereas copulation harassment does not. We conducted this study using the all-occurrence behavior sampling method on sexual interference behaviors of seven adult and four subadult male Tibetan macaques () in mating and non-mating seasons at Mt. Read More

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Genotyping of Entamoeba nuttalli strains from the wild rhesus macaques of Myanmar and comparison with those from the wild rhesus macaques of Nepal and China.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Mar 30;92:104830. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Parasitology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan. Electronic address:

Entamoeba nuttalli found in macaques is phylogenetically the closest species to Entamoeba histolytica and is potentially pathogenic. In this study, the prevalence of Entamoeba infections was examined in wild rhesus macaques by examining 73 and 90 fecal samples collected from two sites, Popa Taung Kalat (PTK) and Pho Win Taung (PWT), in Myanmar. The positive rates of E. Read More

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HLA-G in Mayas from Yucatan: An evolutionary approach.

Int J Immunogenet 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico.

HLA-G allele frequencies were studied in Yucatán (Mexico) Maya Amerindians by a direct exon DNA sequencing technique. It is described that Mayas are probably one of the first populations together with Olmecs that populated Meso America and that important HLA genetic differences between Mexican and Guatemalan Mayas support that Maya languages were imposed to several neighbouring Amerindian groups. HLA-G*01:01:02, HLA-G*01:01:01 and HLA-G*01:04:01 are the most frequent alleles in this population. Read More

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Non-neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute to Suppression of SIVmac239 Viremia in Indian Rhesus Macaques.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:657424. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States.

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with , , and , as part of a previous study conducted by our group. Read More

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The Subcortical Atlas of the Rhesus Macaque (SARM) for Neuroimaging.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 29:117996. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre for Integrative Neurosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany; Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation, Orangeburg, NY, USA; International Center for Primate Brain Research, Songjiang, Shanghai, PRC. Electronic address:

Digitized neuroanatomical atlases that can be overlaid onto functional data are crucial for localizing brain structures and analyzing functional networks identified by neuroimaging techniques. To aid in functional and structural data analysis, we have created a comprehensive parcellation of the rhesus macaque subcortex using a high-resolution ex vivo structural imaging scan. This anatomical scan and its parcellation were warped to the updated NIMH Macaque Template (NMT v2), an in vivo population template, where the parcellation was refined to produce the Subcortical Atlas of the Rhesus Macaque (SARM) with 210 primary regions-of-interest (ROIs). Read More

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Comparison of macaque and human L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Mar 29;206:108556. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: The macaque retina is often used as a model for the human retina. However, there are only a handful of direct in vivo comparisons of the retinal physiology in humans and macaques. In the current study, ERG responses to luminance, L-cone isolating and M-cone isolating stimuli with sinusoidal, sawtooth and square wave temporal profiles were measured. Read More

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The Rhesus Macaque Serves As a Model for Human Lateral Branch Nephrogenesis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio

Background: Most nephrons are added in late gestation. Truncated extrauterine nephrogenesis in premature infants results in fewer nephrons and significantly increased risk for CKD in adulthood. To overcome the ethical and technical difficulties associated with studies of late-gestation human fetal kidney development, third-trimester rhesus macaques served as a model to understand lateral branch nephrogenesis (LBN) at the molecular level. Read More

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Separable neuronal contributions to covertly attended locations and movement goals in macaque frontal cortex.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 31;7(14). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

We investigated the spatial representation of covert attention and movement planning in monkeys performing a task that used symbolic cues to decouple the locus of covert attention from the motor target. In the three frontal areas studied, most spatially tuned neurons reflected either where attention was allocated or the planned saccade. Neurons modulated by both covert attention and the motor plan were in the minority. Read More

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