42,960 results match your criteria macaca mulatta

Dual RNA Sequencing Meta-analysis in Infection Identifies Host-Parasite Interactions.

mSystems 2021 Apr 20;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Dual RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is the simultaneous transcriptomic analysis of interacting symbionts, for example, in malaria. Potential cross-species interactions identified by correlated gene expression might highlight interlinked signaling, metabolic, or gene regulatory pathways in addition to physically interacting proteins. Often, malaria studies address one of the interacting organisms-host or parasite-rendering the other "contamination. Read More

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Identification of miRNA Associated with Reduced Survival after Whole-Thorax Lung Irradiation in Non-Human Primates.

Radiat Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

ChromoLogic LLC, Monrovia, California 91016.

Thoracic exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to delayed injuries to the heart and lung that are serious and even life-threatening. These injuries are difficult to predict since they manifest over many weeks and months. To identify non-invasive, tissue-specific biomarkers for the early detection of late radiation injury, circulating microRNA (miRNA) levels were measured in non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that received a single exposure of whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) at a dose likely to result in 20% or 75% mortality within 180 days (9. Read More

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Assessment of medical morbidities in a rhesus monkey model of naturally occurring low sociality.

Autism Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit a variety of medical morbidities at significantly higher rates than the general population. Using an established monkey model of naturally occurring low sociality, we investigated whether low-social monkeys show an increased burden of medical morbidities compared to their high-social counterparts. We systematically reviewed the medical records of N = 152 (n = 73 low-social; n = 79 high-social) rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to assess the number of traumatic injury, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory events, as well as the presence of rare medical conditions. Read More

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Rhesus macaques build new social connections after a natural disaster.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters such as hurricanes, wildfires, floods, and droughts. Understanding resilience and vulnerability to these intense stressors and their aftermath could reveal adaptations to extreme environmental change. In 2017, Puerto Rico suffered its worst natural disaster, Hurricane Maria, which left 3,000 dead and provoked a mental health crisis. Read More

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Functional variability of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) NAT2 gene for drug-metabolising arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5;188:114545. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Human NAT2 is a polymorphic pharmacogene encoding for N-acetyltransferase 2, a hepatic enzyme active towards arylamine and arylhydrazine drugs, including the anti-tubercular antibiotic isoniazid. The isoenzyme also modulates susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis, particularly of the bladder. Human NAT2 represents an ideal model for anthropological investigations into the demographic adaptation of worldwide populations to their xenobiotic environment. Read More

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Greater Reduction in Contralesional Hand Use After Frontoparietal Than Frontal Motor Cortex Lesions in .

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 18;15:592235. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD, United States.

We previously reported that rhesus monkeys recover spontaneous use of the more impaired (contralesional) hand following neurosurgical lesions to the arm/hand representations of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) (F2 lesion) when tested for reduced use (RU) in a fine motor task allowing use of either hand. Recovery occurred without constraint of the less impaired hand and with occasional forced use of the more impaired hand, which was the preferred hand for use in fine motor tasks before the lesion. Here, we compared recovery of five F2 lesion cases in the same RU test to recovery after unilateral lesions of M1, LPMC, S1 and anterior portion of parietal cortex (F2P2 lesion - four cases). Read More

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Fecal Bacterial Microbiota of Healthy Free-Ranging, Healthy Corralled, and Chronic Diarrheic Corralled Rhesus Macaques ().

Comp Med 2021 Apr 4;71(2):152-165. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

A clinical challenge to nearly every primate facility in North America is chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID), the pathogenesis of which has yet to be fully elucidated. However, wild macaques appear resistant to CID, a trend that we observed in the free-ranging population of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. The gastrointestinal microbiota has been shown to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of disease and in maintaining normal health and development of the gut. Read More

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Non-neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute to Suppression of SIVmac239 Viremia in Indian Rhesus Macaques.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:657424. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States.

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with , , and , as part of a previous study conducted by our group. Read More

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A continuum of invariant sensory and behavioral-context perceptual coding in secondary somatosensory cortex.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):2000. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Instituto de Fisiología Celular─Neurociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

A crucial role of cortical networks is the conversion of sensory inputs into perception. In the cortical somatosensory network, neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) show invariant sensory responses, while frontal lobe neuronal activity correlates with the animal's perceptual behavior. Here, we report that in the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), neurons with invariant sensory responses coexist with neurons whose responses correlate with perceptual behavior. Read More

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Single trial neuronal activity dynamics of attentional intensity in monkey visual area V4.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):2003. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurobiology and Neuroscience Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Understanding how activity of visual neurons represents distinct components of attention and their dynamics that account for improved visual performance remains elusive because single-unit experiments have not isolated the intensive aspect of attention from attentional selectivity. We isolated attentional intensity and its single trial dynamics as determined by spatially non-selective attentional performance in an orientation discrimination task while recording from neurons in monkey visual area V4. We found that attentional intensity is a distinct cognitive signal that can be distinguished from spatial selectivity, reward expectations and motor actions. Read More

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Multicentric tracking of multiple agents by anterior cingulate cortex during pursuit and evasion.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):1985. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, and Center for Neuroengineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Successful pursuit and evasion require rapid and precise coordination of navigation with adaptive motor control. We hypothesize that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which communicates bidirectionally with both the hippocampal complex and premotor/motor areas, would serve a mapping role in this process. We recorded responses of dACC ensembles in two macaques performing a joystick-controlled continuous pursuit/evasion task. Read More

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Study of Relationship between Learning and Behavioral Parameters in Mature Male Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Mar 31;170(5):669-671. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Institute of Medical Primatology, Sochi, Russia.

A study of mature male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was carried out to determine the relationships between learning ability, and behavioral parameters. In individuals with low behavioral scores of aggression, sociability, and mobility, the levels of learning, training, and skill retention were significantly higher than in individuals with higher behavioral scores. At the same time, individuals with a high level of anxiety were characterized with enhanced level of learning, training and skill stability. Read More

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Disentangling perceptual awareness from nonconscious processing in rhesus monkeys ().

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511.

Scholars have long debated whether animals, which display impressive intelligent behaviors, are consciously aware or not. Yet, because many complex human behaviors and high-level functions can be performed without conscious awareness, it was long considered impossible to untangle whether animals are aware or just conditionally or nonconsciously behaving. Here, we developed an empirical approach to address this question. Read More

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Changes in the gut microbiome community of nonhuman primates following radiation injury.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Mar 29;21(1):93. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Radioprotectants, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Composition and maintenance of the microbiome is vital to gut homeostasis. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the impact of high doses of radiation, which can occur as a result of cancer radiation therapy, nuclear accidents or intentional release of a nuclear or radioactive weapon, on the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, we sought to analyze alterations to the gut microbiome of nonhuman primates (NHPs) exposed to high doses of radiation. Read More

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Corrigendum to "Sensorimotor cortex injury effects on recovery of contralesional dexterous movements in Macaca mulatta" [Experimental Neurology 281 (2016) 37-52].

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 17:113702. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.

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How do non-human primates represent others' awareness of where objects are hidden?

Cognition 2021 Mar 24;212:104658. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Although non-human primates (NHPs) generally appear to predict how knowledgeable agents use knowledge to guide their behavior, the cognitive mechanisms that enable this remain poorly understood. We assessed the conditions under which NHPs' representations of an agent's awareness break down. Free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) watched as an agent observed a target object being hidden in one of two boxes. Read More

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Generation and Cultivation of Transgene-Free Macaque and Baboon iPSCs Under Chemically Defined Conditions.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Research Platform Degenerative Diseases, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

Non-human primates (NHP), and in particular Old World monkeys including macaques and baboons, are key animal models for the late preclinical testing of novel stem cell-based therapies and other advanced therapy medical products (ATMP) for the treatment of degenerative diseases. These pathologies are characterized by the loss of functional cells in an organ, as in Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, or after myocardial infarction. For preclinically relevant testing of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based therapies, robust, and standardized protocols for the generation, characterization, and differentiation of NHP-iPSCs are required. Read More

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Combination therapy protects macaques against advanced Marburg virus disease.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1891. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, USA.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and remdesivir, a small-molecule antiviral, are promising monotherapies for many viruses, including members of the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus (family Filoviridae), and more recently, SARS-CoV-2. One of the major challenges of acute viral infections is the treatment of advanced disease. Thus, extending the window of therapeutic intervention is critical. Read More

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Age and sex-associated variation in the multi-site microbiome of an entire social group of free-ranging rhesus macaques.

Microbiome 2021 03 22;9(1):68. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, USA.

Background: An individual's microbiome changes over the course of its lifetime, especially during infancy, and again in old age. Confounding factors such as diet and healthcare make it difficult to disentangle the interactions between age, health, and microbial changes in humans. Animal models present an excellent opportunity to study age- and sex-linked variation in the microbiome, but captivity is known to influence animal microbial abundance and composition, while studies of free-ranging animals are typically limited to studies of the fecal microbiome using samples collected non-invasively. Read More

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Transcriptome of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) exposed to total-body irradiation.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6295. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Radioprotectants, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine "America's Medical School", Uniformed Serices University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The field of biodosimetry has seen a paradigm shift towards an increased use of molecular phenotyping technologies including omics and miRNA, in addition to conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, we have used a nonhuman primate (NHP) model to study the impact of gamma-irradiation on alterations in blood-based gene expression. With a goal to delineate radiation induced changes in gene expression, we followed eight NHPs for 60 days after exposure to 6. Read More

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Rapid Recovery and Short Duration Anesthesia after Low Dose Ketamine and High Dose Dexmedetomidine in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Anesthesia in rhesus macaques is required for many procedures. Although ketamine is the backbone of most anestheticprotocols, tolerance to the drug can develop, resulting in the need for higher doses to provide sufficient restraint. Combination with other drugs, such as α-agonists, can be ketamine-sparing, providing for sufficient restraint at lower ketamine doses. Read More

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Children and monkeys overestimate the size of high-contrast stimuli.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The letter height superiority effect reveals that human adults judge letters to be taller than identically sized pseudoletters. This effect extends to words, such that words are estimated to be greater in size or lasting longer in duration than pseudowords of the same size or those presented for the same duration. The physical properties of letters and words also impact their perceived size, such that higher contrast between figure-ground stimuli leads to greater size estimates. Read More

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Parental genetic contributions to neonatal temperament in a nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta) model.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Psychology Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Temperament is an individual's nature and is widely believed to have a heritable foundation. Few studies, however, have evaluated paternal and maternal contributions to the triadic dimensions of temperament. Rhesus monkeys are widely utilized to model genetic contributions to human development due to their close genetic-relatedness and common temperament structure, providing a powerful translational model for investigating paternal and maternal genetic influences on temperament. Read More

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RF9 Rescues Cortisol-Induced Repression of Testosterone Levels in Adult Male Macaques.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:630796. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neuroendocrinology, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Cortisol inhibits hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis whereas RF9, a potent agonist of kisspeptin receptor (GPR54) activates HPG-axis during fasting-induced stress and under normal physiological conditions. However, the effect of RF9 on the cortisol-induced repressed HPG-axis is not studied yet. This study investigated whether exogenous cortisol-induced repression of the HPG-axis can be rescued by RF9. Read More

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February 2021

Inosine induces acute hyperuricaemia in rhesus monkey () as a potential disease animal model.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):175-182

KPC Pharmaceuticals Inc., Kunming, China.

Context: The uric acid metabolism pathway is more similar in primates and humans than in rodents. However, there are no reports of using primates to establish animal models of hyperuricaemia (HUA).

Objectives: To establish an animal model highly related to HUA in humans. Read More

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December 2021

Integrated cytokine and metabolite analysis reveals immunometabolic reprogramming in COVID-19 patients with therapeutic implications.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1618. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a major cause of the multi-organ injury and fatal outcome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in severe COVID-19 patients. Metabolism can modulate the immune responses against infectious diseases, yet our understanding remains limited on how host metabolism correlates with inflammatory responses and affects cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. Here we perform both metabolomics and cytokine/chemokine profiling on serum samples from healthy controls, mild and severe COVID-19 patients, and delineate their global metabolic and immune response landscape. Read More

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Two Human Monoclonal HLA-Reactive Antibodies Cross-React with Mamu-B*008, a Rhesus Macaque MHC Allotype Associated with Control of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 10;206(8):1957-1965. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Comparative Genetics and Refinement, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, 2288 GJ Rijswijk, the Netherlands.

MHC class I molecules play an important role in adaptive immune responses against intracellular pathogens. These molecules are highly polymorphic, and many allotypes have been characterized. In a transplantation setting, a mismatch between MHC allotypes may initiate an alloimmune response. Read More

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Single cell transcriptomics of primate sensory neurons identifies cell types associated with chronic pain.

Nat Commun 2021 03 8;12(1):1510. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Distinct types of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons may have unique contributions to chronic pain. Identification of primate sensory neuron types is critical for understanding the cellular origin and heritability of chronic pain. However, molecular insights into the primate sensory neurons are missing. Read More

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IFN signaling and neutrophil degranulation transcriptional signatures are induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Commun Biol 2021 03 5;4(1):290. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 92 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old macaques following infection. Genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated, as also seen in lungs of macaques with tuberculosis. Read More

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