Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 11 26;19(12):95. Epub 2019 Nov 26.
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Purpose Of Review: Pediatric central nervous system demyelinating diseases include multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). As diagnostic criteria become more inclusive, the risk of misdiagnosis of atypical demyelinating diseases of rheumatologic, infectious, and autoimmune etiology increases.
Recent Findings: We review mimics of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, including rheumatologic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus and neuro-Behçet disease; infectious diseases: human immunodeficiency virus, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and subacute sclerosis panencephalitis; and autoimmune diseases including X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) and autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) encephalopathy. Read More