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Estimated dietary exposure to pesticide residues based on organic and conventional data in omnivores, pesco-vegetarians, vegetarians and vegans.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 9:112179. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Sorbonne Paris North University, Inserm, Inrae, Cnam, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre, University of Paris (CRESS), Bobigny, France.

Purpose: To examine dietary exposure to 25 pesticide residues in several diet groups including omnivores, pesco-vegetarians, vegetarians and vegans while accounting for the farming system (organic or conventional) of plant-based foods consumed.

Methods: Organic and conventional consumption data in combination with data on pesticide residues in plant-based foods were used to derive estimated dietary exposure to pesticide residues. Pesticide residue exposure was estimated based on observed data, and using two scenarios simulated for 100%-conventional and 100%-organic diets in 33,018 omnivores, 555 pesco-vegetarians, 501 vegetarians and 368 vegans from the NutriNet-Santé study. Read More

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Biomarkers of Inflammation and Risk of Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 10:e019168. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Population Health Research Institute McMaster University Hamilton Canada.

Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is very common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that biomarkers of inflammation can identify patients with AF at increased risk of this important complication. Methods and Results Patients with established AF were prospectively enrolled. Read More

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Body mass index trajectories among people with obesity and association with mortality: Evidence from a large Israeli database.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 23;7(2):148-158. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Clalit Research Institute Clalit Health Services Ramat Gan Israel.

Objective: Previous studies using longitudinal weight data to characterize obesity are based on populations of limited size and mostly include individuals of all body mass index (BMI) levels, without focusing on weight changes among people with obesity. This study aimed to identify BMI trajectories over 5 years in a large population with obesity, and to determine the trajectories' association with mortality.

Methods: For inclusion, individuals aged 30-74 years at index date (1 January 2013) with continuous membership in Clalit Health Services from 2008 to 2012 were required to have ≥1 BMI measurement per year in ≥3 calendar years during this period, of which at least one was ≥30 kg/m. Read More

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Calcium and phosphate levels after kidney transplantation and long-term patient and allograft survival.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 22;14(4):1106-1113. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including calcium and phosphate derangement, may play a role in mortality in renal transplant. The data regarding this effect are conflicting. Our aim was to assess the impact of calcium and phosphate derangements in the first 90 days post-transplant on allograft and recipient outcomes. Read More

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Can current farmland landscapes feed declining steppe birds? Evaluating arthropod abundance for the endangered little bustard () in cereal farmland during the chick-rearing period: Variations between habitats and localities.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 2;11(7):3219-3238. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Terrestrial Ecology Group (TEG) Department of Ecology, Research Center on Biodiversity and Global Change Autónoma University of Madrid Madrid Spain.

Agriculture intensification threatens farmland bird populations because, among other reasons, it reduces the availability of food resources required to rear their offspring. In our study, we sampled and analyzed total arthropod abundance, biomass and richness, and orthopteran and coleopteran abundance and biomass in different agricultural habitats (alfalfa fields, stubble fields, grazed fields, and field margins) across 4 study localities with different levels of agriculture abandonment-intensification, comparing between areas used and not used by one of the most threatened farmland birds in Europe, the little bustard (), during the chick-rearing season. Field margins were the taxonomically richest habitat, while alfalfa fields presented significantly higher total arthropod abundance and biomass than other habitats. Read More

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Hydropriming Applied on Fast Germinating Miller Seeds: Impact on Pre-germinative Metabolism.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:639336. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Seed priming can circumvent poor germination rate and uniformity, frequently reported in eggplant ( L.) and its crop wild relatives (CWRs). However, there is still a gap of knowledge on how these treatments impact the pre-germinative metabolism in a genotype- and/or species-dependent manner. Read More

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Prebiotics enhance the biotransformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides in rats by modulating gut microbiota.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 7;45(2):334-343. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China.

Background: Gut microbiota mainly function in the biotransformation of primary ginsenosides into bioactive metabolites. Herein, we investigated the effects of three prebiotic fibers by targeting gut microbiota on the metabolism of ginsenoside Rb1 .

Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were administered with ginsenoside Rb1 after a two-week prebiotic intervention of fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and fibersol-2, respectively. Read More

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Rethinking Leisure Time Use Metrics: Greater Diversity in Shared Sibling Leisure is Associated with Higher Relationship Quality during Emerging Adulthood.

J Soc Pers Relat 2020 Feb 11;37(2):516-537. Epub 2019 Aug 11.

The Pennsylvania State University.

Leisure diversity-the total number of unique leisure categories shared within a sibling dyad-may vary according to sibling characteristics (e.g. sibling gender, age difference) and predict sibling relationship quality. Read More

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February 2020

Association of knee extensor muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness with bone stiffness in Japanese adults: A cross-sectional study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

BackgroundKnee extensor muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are major components of physical fitness. Because the interactive association of knee extensor muscle strength and CRF with bone health remains unclear, we aimed to investigate such association in Japanese adults.MethodsAltogether, 8,829 Japanese adults (3,731 men and 5,098 women) aged ≥45 years completed the maximum voluntary knee extension test, submaximal exercise test, medical examination, and a questionnaire on lifestyle habits. Read More

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A novel recurrent neural network approach in forecasting short term solar irradiance.

ISA Trans 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Gyeongsang National University (Institute of Smart Farm), Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Forecasting solar irradiance is of utmost importance in supplying renewable energy efficiently and timely. This paper aims to experiment five variants of recurrent neural networks (RNN), and develop effective and reliable 5-minute short term solar irradiance prediction models. The 5 RNN classes are long-short term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU), Simple RNN, bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM), and bidirectional GRU (Bi-GRU); the first 3 classes are unidirectional and the last two are bidirectional RNN models. Read More

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Biochar supplementation regulates growth and heavy metal accumulation in tomato grown in contaminated soils.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan.

Biochar application has recently gained increased attention to reclaim heavy metal degraded soils. In this context, the present study investigated the effects of biochar on the growth regulation and heavy metal accumulation in tomato grown on contaminated soils. A two-factorial design with factor A including three treatments with mine (contaminated soil) and garden soil in the following ratio viz. Read More

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Concentrations of serum hydroxycotinine for US adult smokers aged ≥ 20 years by type of smoker.

Authors:
Ram B Jain

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

, Dacula, GA, USA.

Cross-sectional survey data (N = 3264) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2018 were used to investigate how serum hydroxycotinine concentrations vary among US adult smokers aged ≥ 20 years by smoker type. Those reporting using tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as smokers. Smokers were classified as being cigarette only smokers, cigar only smokers, cigar and cigarette smokers, dual cigarette and e-cigarette smokers, e-cigarette only smokers, smokeless tobacco only users, and all other smokers. Read More

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Brain Biomarkers in Children After Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:103-107

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Moscow, Russia.

Brain biomarkers (protein S100b and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)), antibodies (aAb) to the NR2 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NR2(NMDA)) and to the GluR1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluR1(AMPA)) subtype of glutamate receptors (GluR), NR2 and AMPA peptides, nitrogen oxides (NOx; "nitrites and nitrates"), and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) were measured in blood from 159 children after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), moderate traumatic brain injury (mdTBI), or severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) within 1-2 days and at intervals during the first 15 days after brain trauma. S100b and NSE levels on the first day were not a strict criterion for injury outcomes. Children with mTBI had the most significant elevations in antibodies to NR2(NMDA) and AMPA peptides, a slight increase in NOx, and, in 25% of cases, appearance of NT in the blood right after TBI. Read More

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January 2021

Environmental and health risks of VOCs in the longest inner-city tunnel in Xi'an, Northwest China: Implication of impact from new energy vehicles.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 1;282:117057. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

SKLLQG, Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Traffic source-dominated volatile organic compound (VOC) samples were collected during four time-intervals in a day (Ⅰ: 7:30-10:30, Ⅱ: 11:00-14:00, Ⅲ: 16:30-19:30, and Ⅳ: 20:00-23:00) in a tunnel in summer, 2019, in Xi'an, China. The total measured VOC (TVOC) in periods Ⅰ and Ⅲ (rush hours, 107.2 ± 8. Read More

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Fruit consumption and cardiometabolic risk in the PREDIMED-plus study: A cross-sectional analysis.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Reus, Spain; Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition Unit, Reus, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Total fruit consumption is important for cardiovascular disease prevention, but also the variety and form in which is consumed. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between total fruit, subgroups of fruits based on their color and fruit juices consumption with different cardiometabolic parameters.

Methods And Results: A total of 6633 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study were included in this analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Parallel analysis of global garlic gene expression and alliin content following leaf wounding.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):174. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Medicinal Plant of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Allium sativum (garlic) is an economically important food source and medicinal plant rich in sulfides and other protective substances such as alliin, the precursor of allicin biosynthesis. Cysteine, serine and sulfur is the precursor of alliin biosynthesis. However, little is known about the alliin content under abiotic stress or the mechanism by which it is synthesized. Read More

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Extended high frequency audiometry thresholds in healthy school children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 23;144:110686. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Paediatric Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø-Arctic University of Norway, Postboks 6050 Langnes, 9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Paediatrics and Adolescence Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 9038 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

Objectives: Extended high frequency (EHF) audiometry is the recommended method for monitoring oxotoxic hearing loss in children. This study aims to provide high quality reference audiological data for the EHF range in healthy children.

Methods: Participants were 126 healthy schoolchildren between 6 and 14 years of age. Read More

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Prognostic value of total testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):235-242

Cardiology Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Background: Endogenous testosterone levels decrease in men with aging. Controversies persist regarding the screening and treatment of low testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Methods And Results: Total serum testosterone levels were measured in 1054 men hospitalized for ACS that were part of a Swiss prospective cohort. Read More

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Clinical and demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity in participants enrolled in the OPTIMISE HFpEF study.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Forvie Site, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB22 5DT, UK.

Aims: This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) in participants with suspected heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and assess associations between PA and participant characteristics.

Methods And Results: Adults with presumed HFpEF were recruited and received diagnostic evaluation and clinical assessment. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers over 7 days. Read More

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Serum uric acid is associated with incident hip fractures in women and men - Results from a large Austrian population-based cohort study.

Maturitas 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria. Electronic address:

Objectives: Serum markers that can be used to estimate the risk of bone fractures are rare, and findings for one candidate marker, uric acid, are heterogeneous. Our aim was to investigate the potential of serum uric acid (SUA) to predict hip fractures occurring in people aged 50 years and over.

Study Design: During a medical prevention program over the period 1985-2005 in Vorarlberg, baseline data were collected on SUA levels and covariates (age, BMI, blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes, triglycerides and cholesterol) from 185,397 individuals, of whom 42,488 women and 35,908 men met the inclusion criteria of this population-based cohort study. Read More

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Identification of COVID-19 subtypes based on immunogenomic profiling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 27;96:107615. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Biomedical Informatics Research Lab, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Big Data Research Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Although previous studies have shown that the host immune response is crucial in determining clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, the association between host immune signatures and COVID-19 patient outcomes remains unclear. Based on the enrichment levels of 11 immune signatures (eight immune-inciting and three immune-inhibiting signatures) in leukocytes of 100 COVID-19 patients, we identified three COVID-19 subtypes: Im-C1, Im-C2, and Im-C3, by clustering analysis. Im-C1 had the lowest immune-inciting signatures and high immune-inhibiting signatures. Read More

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Estrogen receptor 2 mediates intraspecific aggressive behaviors of the female in the estrous cycle.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):77-85

College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, 273165 Shandong, P. R. China.

The social behavior mechanisms have not been thoroughly reported in the solitary female striped dwarf hamster (). In this study, the handling bag test and neutral arena measurements were used to detect the changes of aggression in the face of rivals of different genders of wild striped dwarf hamsters. We found that female hamsters had the highest aggressive performance in proestrus, followed by estrus, and the lowest in metestrus and the dioestrus, and the increased aggression during the proestrus or estrus period was low-intensity aggression such as intimidation, shock, boxing and counterattack, or even ritualized non-harmful behaviors to drive away opponents. Read More

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Health Equity of Rural Residents in Southwest China.

Front Public Health 2021 23;9:611583. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

The Chinese government stresses healthcare reform to improve the health of all residents in urban and rural areas. However, much research showed that inequities still existed in health status and health services utilization in China, especially in economically disadvantaged areas. Southwest China's Yunnan Province is an ethnic frontier region with lagging economic development. Read More

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Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D Levels of Healthy Children in Mid-Latitude, Asian Urban Area.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2021 Mar 4;24(2):207-217. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the seasonal changes in vitamin D levels in a healthy pediatric population living in mid-latitude East Asian urban areas.

Methods: A pediatric population was selected from single secondary hospital visitors. Clinical data and serum vitamin D levels were collected retrospectively. Read More

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Associations between Osteocalcin, Calciotropic Hormones, and Energy Metabolism in a Cohort of Chinese Postmenopausal Women: Peking Vertebral Fracture Study.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 24;2021:5585018. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Commission of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730, China.

Objective: The endocrine function of bone in energy metabolism may be mediated by the osteocalcin (OC). We examined the association between OC and energy metabolism among Chinese postmenopausal women. . Read More

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Why market orientation matters for agriculture and fishery workers? Unravelling the association between households' occupational background and caloric deprivation in India.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 8;21(1):681. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Population Research Centre, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi university Enclave, North Campus, Delhi, India.

Background: Developmental policies in low- and middle-income countries pose immense potential within the agriculture sectors to escalate economic growth and development. Almost one-half of the workforces continue to be engaged in agriculture and allied activities with a relatively lower economic contribution than those employed in other sectors. Hence, realizing such potential however requires tremendous scaling up of skill development activities in the sector. Read More

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Remnant Cholesterol and Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 9:CIRCIMAGING120010953. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China (S.Q., T.X., C.Z.).

Background: Remnant cholesterol makes great contribution to residual risk of cardiovascular disease, but population-based evidence on the relationship between remnant cholesterol and atherosclerosis is rare. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an imaging marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. We aimed to explore the association between remnant cholesterol levels and cIMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Read More

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Predictors of Remission and Relapse of Diabetes after Conventional Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Foregut Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Center for Obesity and Metabolic Diseases, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: We investigated whether preoperative clinical parameters predict diabetes remission and relapse after conventional gastrectomy for cancer and whether postoperative weight changes influence diabetes remission and relapse.

Study Design: This study included 5,150 patients with diabetes who underwent gastrectomy for cancer during 2004‒2014. Diabetes remission was defined in three ways according to postoperative antidiabetic medication and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Read More

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CT measures of adrenal gland length and caudal pole diameter are reproducible in large breed dogs: A pilot study.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Veterinary Medical Science, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly available to evaluate dogs with suspected adrenal disease, however, published studies describing the reproducibility of CT methods for quantifying adrenal gland (AG) measurements are lacking. This prospective, pilot, observer agreement study aimed to evaluate reproducibility and repeatability of two different methods of measurement of AGs on CT to establish a usable technique and define standard reference ranges. Multiplanar reformatted (MPR) CT images of both AGs of six large breed dogs were obtained with the MPR axis parallel to the spine and parallel to the long axis of the AG. Read More

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Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Ultra-Trace Analysis of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Fish.

J AOAC Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan.

Background: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) poses serious threat to public health and exploitation of aquatic resources from the various warm-water regions of the world. Hence, a process for the efficient determination of the relevant toxins is required.

Objective: We sought to develop and validate the first LC-MS/MS method to quantify the major toxins prevalent in fish from the Pacific Ocean. Read More

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