2,169 results match your criteria lower ketamine

Exploring the relation between BOLD fMRI and cognitive performance using a computer-based quantitative systems pharmacology model: Applications to the COMTVAL158MET genotype and ketamine.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 1;50:12-22. Epub 2021 May 1.

In Silico Biosciences, Hugo Geerts, 686 Westwind Dr, Berwyn, PA 19312, United States.

BOLD fMRI is increasingly used mostly in an observational way to probe the effect of genotypes or therapeutic intervention in normal and diseased subjects. We use a mechanism-based quantitative systems pharmacology computer model of a human cortical microcircuit, previously calibrated for the 2-back working memory paradigm, adding established biophysical principles, of glucose metabolism, oxygen consumption, neurovascular effects and the paramagnetic impact on blood oxygen levels to calculate a readout for the voxel-based BOLD fMRI signal. The objective was to study the effect of the Catechol-O-methyl Transferase Val158Met (COMT) genotype on performance and BOLD fMRI. Read More

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Efficacy of intranasal ketamine for acute pain management in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

X Li G-C Hua F Peng

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(8):3286-3295

Department of Pharmacy, Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, P.R. China.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intranasal (IN) ketamine for pain control with placebo and other analgesics in an emergency setting.

Materials And Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IN ketamine with placebo or other analgesics up to 1st January 2021. Studies were to be conducted on adults and in an emergency setting. Read More

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Comparative Efficacy of 6 Topical Pharmacological Agents for Preventive Interventions of Postoperative Sore Throat After Tracheal Intubation: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Anesth Analg 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

From the Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, China.

Background: Topical pharmacological agents typically used to treat postoperative sore throat (POST) after tracheal intubation include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, lidocaine, Glycyrrhiza (licorice), and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (including ketamine and magnesium). However, the optimal prophylactic drug remains elusive.

Methods: The literature published before September 8, 2019 was searched on the PubMed, the Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Read More

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Acute Effects of Ketamine Infusion on Postoperative Mood Scores in Patients Undergoing Dilation and Curettage: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Study.

Anesthesiol Res Pract 2021 23;2021:6674658. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Emotional and psychological effects following abortion are more common than physical side effects and can range from mild regret to more serious complications such as depression. In the last decade, it has been suggested that low dose of ketamine is a fast-acting antidepressant.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative ketamine infusion on postoperative mood score in patients undergoing Dilation and Curettage (D&C) under spinal anesthesia. Read More

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Opioid-free anesthesia for patients with joint hypermobility syndrome undergoing craneo-cervical fixation: a case-series study focused on anti-hyperalgesic approach.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 13;16(1):172. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Servei Central D'Anestesiología (Anestalia), Centro Médico Teknon, Carrer Vilana 12, 08022, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/Hypermobility Type (EDS-HT/JHS) and Craneo-Cervical Instability frequently suffer from severe widespread pain which is difficult to control. Chronic neuroinflammation, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization may explain this painful condition. The aim of this study was to determine if opioid-free anesthesia plus the postoperative administration of lidocaine, ketamine and dexmedetomidine can reduce postoperative pain and the need of methadone rescues in comparison with opioid-based management in these patients undergoing Craneo-Cervical Fixation (CCF). Read More

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Physiologic and blood gas effects of xylazine-ketamine versus xylazine-tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization of white-tailed deer before and after oxygen supplementation: a preliminary study.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Objective: To compare oxygenation and ventilation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) anesthetized with two treatments with and without oxygen supplementation.

Study Design: Randomized, blinded, crossover study.

Animals: A total of eight healthy adult white-tailed deer weighing 49-62 kg. Read More

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Meta-Analysis: Hemodynamic Responses to Sub-anesthetic Doses of Ketamine in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:549080. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Ketamine, a medication traditionally used as an anesthetic, has increasingly been recognized as an effective treatment for psychiatric disorders. At sub-anesthetic doses (defined here as ≤ 0.5 mg/kg), ketamine treatment has been studied in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Read More

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Prophylactic low dose ketamine infusion for prevention of shivering during spinal anesthesia: A randomized double blind clinical trial.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2020 Oct-Dec;36(4):506-510. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Biostatistics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry, India.

Background And Aims: Regional anesthesia is known to produce perioperative hypothermia and shivering. We aimed to evaluate if prophylactic low dose ketamine bolus followed by infusion would prevent intraoperative and postoperative shivering under spinal anesthesia.

Material And Methods: Sixty patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) 1 and 2 undergoing abdominal and lower limb surgery were randomized to receive either 0. Read More

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January 2021

Topical ketamine as a local anesthetic agent in reducing venipuncture pain: A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 3;48:48-53. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of General Surgery, Ealing Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, Uxbridge Road, Southall UB1 3HW, UK.

Aim: Pain control is an important aspect of ED patient management, and there are many different protocols used around the world influenced by both availability of local resources as well as staff competency and experience. This study aims to evaluate the use of topical ketamine in acute pain reduction by directly comparing it to lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 300 adult patients classified as level 4 or 5 by ESI triage system were enrolled. Read More

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The comparison of ketamine with tramadol for postoperative pain relief on children following adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e22541

Department of Pediatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.

Introduction: The comparison of ketamine with tramadol for pain control remains controversial in pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of ketamine vs tramadol for pain relief in children following adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

Methods: We have searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through October 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of ketamine vs tramadol for pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy. Read More

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Retrospective Comparison of Intramuscular Admixtures of Ketamine and Dexmedetomidine Versus Ketamine and Midazolam for Preoperative Sedation.

Anesth Prog 2021 03;68(1):3-9

Department of Anesthesiology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Precooperative children and patients with intellectual disabilities often require intramuscular (IM) sedation prior to the induction of general anesthesia (GA). Ketamine is an effective preinduction sedative but can produce significant adverse side effects. Dexmedetomidine, a sedative with sympatholytic and analgesic properties, may provide advantages when used in combination with ketamine. Read More

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Comparative Study Among Ketamine, Fentanyl, and Ropivacaine, as Pre-incisional Analgesic Given by Surgical Site Infiltration, in Cases Posted for Elective Lower Segment Cesarean Section Under General Anesthesia.

Cureus 2021 Feb 28;13(2):e13609. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Anaesthesiology, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Etawah, IND.

Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical site infiltration prior to giving incision, with ketamine, fentanyl, and ropivacaine, on perioperative hemodynamic parameters, pain, and any adverse outcomes. Methods The study was carried out on 68 patients divided into four groups of 17 each. After intubation, the study drug was infiltrated subcutaneously at the surgical site, seven min before incision, by the surgeon who was unaware of the injectate. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of perioperative saphenous and sciatic nerve blocks, lumbosacral epidural or morphine-lidocaine-ketamine infusion on postoperative pain and sedation in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the quality of postoperative analgesia and sedation after preoperative saphenous and sciatic nerve blockade, preoperative lumbosacral epidural injection and perioperative intravenous (IV) morphine, lidocaine and ketamine infusions in dogs undergoing stifle arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) under general anesthesia.

Study Design: Prospective, blinded, randomized, clinical comparison study.

Animals: A total of 45 dogs weighing 33. Read More

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Hypolipemiant Actions and Possible Cardioprotective Effects of Valine and Leucine: An Experimental Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 5;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Morphofunctional Sciences II, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iaşi, Romania.

Considering atherosclerosis as one of the more challenging threats to healthcare worldwide, any novel therapy that counteracts the risks for developing it, provides new opportunities for the management of this process. We performed an experimental research in which we induced a hypercholesterolemia via a cholesterol-rich diet. Our aim was to demonstrate the antiatherogenic potential of two essential amino acids (valine and leucine). Read More

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The association of ketamine induction with blood pressure changes in paramedic rapid sequence intubation of out-of-hospital traumatic brain injury.

Acad Emerg Med 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Paramedicine, Ambulance Victoria, Research and Evaluation, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is used to secure the airway of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, with ketamine frequently used for induction. Studies show that ketamine-induction RSI might cause lower blood pressures when compared to etomidate. It is not clear if the results from that research can be extrapolated to systems that use different dosing regimens for ketamine RSI. Read More

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Evaluation of the perioperative stress response from dexmedetomidine infusion alone, with butorphanol bolus or remifentanil infusion compared with ketamine and morphine infusions in isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate perioperative stress-related hormones in isoflurane-anesthetized horses administered infusions of dexmedetomidine alone or with butorphanol or remifentanil, compared with ketamine-morphine.

Study Design: Randomized, prospective, nonblinded clinical study.

Animals: A total of 51 horses undergoing elective surgical procedures. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of the analgesic effect of fentanyl-ketamine and fentanyl-lidocaine constant rate infusions in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Toronto Animal Health Partners Emergency and Specialty Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate anesthetic conditions and postoperative analgesia with the use of intraoperative constant rate infusions (CRIs) of fentanyl-lidocaine or fentanyl-ketamine in dogs undergoing thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical study.

Animals: A total of 32 client-owned dogs. Read More

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February 2021

Implication of cerebral astrocytes in major depression: A review of fine neuroanatomical evidence in humans.

Glia 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Verdun, Quebec, Canada.

Postmortem investigations have implicated astrocytes in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. Multiple brain regions from individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have lower expression levels of astrocyte markers and lower densities of astrocytes labeled for these markers, suggesting a loss of astrocytes in this mental illness. This paper reviews the general properties of human astrocytes, the methods to study them, and the postmortem evidence for astrocyte pathology in MDD. Read More

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Repeated Doses of Ketamine Affect the Infant Rat Urogenital System.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 11;15:1157-1165. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Medical Faculty, Department of Biochemistry, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: Long-term ketamine use is known to create an interstitial cystitis-like problem in the bladder. It is known that long-term intermittent ketamine is applied to the children receiving radiotherapy for sedation. This study was planned to investigate whether this effect seen in the bladder causes similar changes in the kidneys, testicles, epididymis and ductus deferens. Read More

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Rapid Recovery and Short Duration Anesthesia after Low Dose Ketamine and High Dose Dexmedetomidine in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Anesthesia in rhesus macaques is required for many procedures. Although ketamine is the backbone of most anestheticprotocols, tolerance to the drug can develop, resulting in the need for higher doses to provide sufficient restraint. Combination with other drugs, such as α-agonists, can be ketamine-sparing, providing for sufficient restraint at lower ketamine doses. Read More

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Perioperative Methadone and Ketamine for Postoperative Pain Control in Spinal Surgical Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

Anesthesiology 2021 05;134(5):697-708

Background: Despite application of multimodal pain management strategies, patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery frequently report severe postoperative pain. Methadone and ketamine, which are N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, have been documented to facilitate postoperative pain control. This study therefore tested the primary hypothesis that patients recovering from spinal fusion surgery who are given ketamine and methadone use less hydromorphone on the first postoperative day than those give methadone alone. Read More

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Depression treatment response to ketamine: sex-specific role of interleukin-8, but not other inflammatory markers.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Mar 15;11(1):167. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Inflammation plays a role in depression pathophysiology and treatment response, with effects varying by sex and therapeutic modality. Lower levels of interleukin(IL)-8 predict depression response to antidepressant medication and to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although ECT effects are specific to females. Whether IL-8 predicts depression response to ketamine and in a sex-specific manner is not known. Read More

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A Comprehensive Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Rotator Cuff Surgery Reduces Pain, Opioid Use, and Side Effects.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

J. T. YaDeau, E. M. Soffin, A. Tseng, H. Zhong, M. A. Gordon, B. H. Lee, K. Kumar, R. L. Kahn, M. A. Kirksey, A. A. Schweitzer, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Management, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Patients often have moderate to severe pain after rotator cuff surgery, despite receiving analgesics and nerve blocks. There are many suggested ways to improve pain after rotator cuff surgery, but the effects of adopting a pathway that includes formal patient education, a long-acting nerve block, and extensive multimodal analgesia are unclear.

Questions/purposes: (1) Does adoption of a clinical pathway incorporating patient education, a long-acting nerve block, and preemptive multimodal analgesia reduce the worst pain during the first 48 hours after surgery compared with current standard institutional practices? (2) Does adoption of the pathway reduce opioid use? (3) Does adoption of the pathway reduce side effects and improve patient-oriented outcomes?

Methods: From September 2018 to January 2020, 281 patients scheduled for arthroscopic ambulatory rotator cuff surgery were identified for this paired sequential prospective cohort study. Read More

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Effects of Low-Dose Ketamine Infusion on Alleviating the Opioid Burden for Patients Undergoing Myomectomy Surgery.

Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2021 Feb 24;49(1):52-57. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Anaesthesia, Surgical ICU and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Recent research has focused on the use of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists for pain management. Several drugs are known to have this action, including ketamine, which exerts its main analgesic effect through NMDA receptor antagonism. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-dose ketamine infusion on opioid exposure for patients undergoing myomectomy surgery under general anaesthesia. Read More

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February 2021

Investigation of urinary components in rat model of ketamine-induced bladder fibrosis based on metabolomics.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Feb;10(2):830-840

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Ketamine abuse has been linked to the system's damage, presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). While the pathogenesis of ketamine-induced urinary damage is not fully understood, fibrosis is believed to be a potential mechanism. A metabolomic investigation of the urinary metabolites in ketamine abuse was conducted to gain insights into its pathogenesis. Read More

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February 2021

Low Doses of Psilocybin and Ketamine Enhance Motivation and Attention in Poor Performing Rats: Evidence for an Antidepressant Property.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:640241. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Long term benefits following short-term administration of high psychedelic doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens, typified by psilocybin and ketamine respectively, support their potential as treatments for psychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder. The high psychedelic doses induce perceptual experiences which are associated with therapeutic benefit. There have also been anecdotal reports of these drugs being used at what are colloquially referred to as "micro" doses to improve mood and cognitive function, although currently there are recognized limitations to their clinical and preclinical investigation. Read More

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February 2021

Patient Outcomes Following Ketamine Administration for Acute Agitation with a Decreased Dosing Protocol in the Prehospital Setting.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Jun 8;36(3):276-282. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MassachusettsUSA.

Background: Agitated behaviors are frequently encountered in the prehospital setting and require emergent treatment to prevent harm to patients and prehospital personnel. Chemical sedation with ketamine works faster than traditional pharmacologic agents, though it has a higher incidence of adverse events, including intubation. Outcomes following varying initial doses of prehospital intramuscular (IM) ketamine use have been incompletely described. Read More

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The impact of alfaxalone, propofol and ketamine on canine peripheral blood lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Feb 28;136:182-184. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Clinical Sciences & Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States of America. Electronic address:

Anesthetics may worsen the outcome of patients undergoing oncologic surgery via immune suppression. This study examines the impact of propofol, ketamine, and alfaxalone on canine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytotoxic function in vitro. PBLs isolated from healthy canine blood were cultured in the presence or absence of alfaxalone, propofol, ketamine, their carrier solutions or dexamethasone as a positive control for 20 h. Read More

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February 2021

Rewarding subjective effects of the NMDAR antagonist, nitrous oxide ('laughing gas') are moderated by impulsivity and depressive symptoms in healthy volunteers.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, Research Department Clinical Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anaesthetic gas with both therapeutic and abuse potential. As an NMDAR antagonist, its effects are expected to resemble those of the prototypical NMDAR antagonist, ketamine. Here, we examine the subjective rewarding effects of N2O using measures previously employed in studies of ketamine. Read More

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