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Alcohol use is associated with mental health problems and brain structural alterations in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection on ART.

Alcohol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Alcohol use, presents unique challenges for HIV-1 treatment in adolescents with perinatally acquired infection. The effects of alcohol on host-virus interaction in the brain and the immune system remains understudied in this population. Adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV) well established on ART, from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort who self-reported alcohol use (PHIV+alcohol) (n=26) were compared to age matched 26 PHIV (PHIV-alcohol) and 26 healthy controls (HC) who reported no use of alcohol. Read More

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September 2021

Neuropathology of progressive supranuclear palsy after treatment with tilavonemab - Author's reply.

Lancet Neurol 2021 Oct;20(10):787-788

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

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October 2021

The sexual health, orientation, and activity of autistic adolescents and adults.

Autism Res 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Small studies suggest significant differences between autistic and nonautistic individuals regarding sexual orientation and behavior. We administered an anonymized, online survey to n = 2386 adults (n = 1183 autistic) aged 16-90 years to describe sexual activity, risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and sexual orientation. Autistic individuals are less likely to report sexually activity or heterosexuality compared to nonautistic individuals, but more likely to self-report asexuality or an 'other' sexuality. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of high-risk HPV by RNA assay in home self-collected samples among underscreened people in North Carolina.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA American Sexual Health Association, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Burlington, NC, USA.

Background: Low-income and uninsured people with a cervix (PWC) are at highest risk of being underscreened for cervical cancer. We evaluated the prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) on home self-collected samples, as well as rates of in-clinic follow-up and risk factors associated with hrHPV positivity in this at-risk population.

Methods: My-Body-My-Test-3 was conducted between 2016-2019 in North Carolina among individuals aged 25-64 years, overdue for cervical cancer screening, and with incomes of <250% of the U. Read More

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September 2021

Tactics of the tobacco industry in an Arab nation: a review of tobacco documents in Oman.

Tob Control 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Tobacco Control, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Few studies have investigated tobacco industry interference in the tobacco control policies of Arab nations. This paper explores the tactics used by the industry to subvert tobacco control policies in Oman and offers lessons on how to prevent such interference in the future.

Methods: We searched the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Archive using the word 'Oman', names of government institutions, policymakers and local tobacco distributors. Read More

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September 2021

Using systems science to advance health equity in tobacco control: a causal loop diagram of smoking.

Tob Control 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Develop and use a causal loop diagram (CLD) of smoking among racial/ethnic minority and lower-income groups to anticipate the intended and unintended effects of tobacco control policies.

Methods: We developed a CLD to elucidate connections between individual, environmental and structural causes of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in smoking. The CLD was informed by a review of conceptual and empirical models of smoking, fundamental cause and social stress theories and 19 qualitative interviews with tobacco control stakeholders. Read More

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September 2021

Tensile creep behavior and mechanism of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy.

Micron 2021 Sep 8;150:103144. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Material Physics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Microelectronics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China. Electronic address:

As a potential novel superalloy, the study on the creep of high entropy alloys is of great significance. Equiatomic ratio CoCrFeMnNi with a mass of 6.7 kg was fabricated by vacuum induction levitation melting. Read More

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September 2021

Conspecific alarm cues are a potential effective barrier to regulate foraging behavior of the sea urchin Mesocentrotus nudus.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Sep 10;171:105476. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China. Electronic address:

A cost-effective approach to controlling foraging and feeding behaviors of sea urchins is essential for the management of kelp beds. Laboratory experiments were designed to investigate whether alarm cues from crushed conspecific urchins can effectively prevent the foraging and feeding behaviors of the sea urchin Mesocentrotus nudus under the static seawater condition. The present study found that the number of M. Read More

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September 2021

Is left-behind a real reason for children's social cognition deficit? An fNIRS study on the effect of social interaction on left-behind preschooler's prefrontal activation.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0254010. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

The left-behind phenomenon, caused by parent out-migration, has become a common social issue and might lead to long-term and potential risks for children in rural areas of China. It is important to investigate the effect of social interaction on prefrontal activation of left-behind children in China because of possible effects of parent out-migration on children's social cognition. We recruited 81 rural Chinese preschoolers aged 52-76 months (mean = 64. Read More

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September 2021

Thin Thermoresponsive Polymer Films for Cell Culture: Elucidating an Unexpected Thermal Phase Behavior by Atomic Force Microscopy.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 8-2 Trubetskaya Street, Moscow 119991, Russia.

Application of poly--isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) and its more hydrophobic copolymers with --butylacrylamide (NtBA) as supports for cell sheets has been validated in numerous studies. The binary systems of these polymers with water are characterized by a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in a physiologically favorable region. Upon lowering the temperature below the LCST, PNIPAM chains undergo a globule-to-coil transition, causing the film dissolution and cell sheet detachment. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic intravascular coagulation in liver cirrhosis predicts a high hemorrhagic risk.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Sep;25(17):5518-5524

Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Objective: In liver cirrhosis, a complex coagulopathy does exist. The aim was to investigate whether a possible chronic consumption coagulopathy is the underlying phenomenon of the disease.

Patients And Methods: We measured endogenous thrombin generation with and without thrombomodulin (ETP ratio) along with D-Dimer in a group of consecutive 282 cirrhotic patients. Read More

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September 2021

Parametrizing the genioplasty: a biomechanical virtual study on soft tissue behavior.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Craniofacial Group, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health-The Zayed Centre for Research, 20 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1DZ, UK.

Purpose: Sliding genioplasty is used to surgically correct a retruded or misaligned chin: in this procedure, an osteotomy is performed and the bony segment is repositioned. In this study we investigate the effect of surgical parameters (bony segment movement, osteotomy design) on postop soft tissue changes in a patient cohort.

Methods: Seven patients were retrospectively recruited. Read More

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September 2021

Biomass, carbon stock and sequestration potential of Oxytenanthera abyssinica forests in Lower Beles River Basin, Northwestern Ethiopia.

Carbon Balance Manag 2021 Sep 17;16(1):29. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

International Bamboo and Rattan Organization, Beijing, 100102, China.

Background: Given the large bamboo resource base with considerable potential to act as an important carbon sink, Ethiopia has included bamboo in the national Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+) and Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) programs. However, little is known about the carbon stock and sequestration potential of bamboo forests. As a result, this research was conducted to quantify the carbon sequestration and storage capacity of Oxytenanthera abyssinica forests in the Lower Beles River Basin, northwestern Ethiopia. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and trends in obesity among Austrian conscripts from 1983 to 2017.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, Vienna, Austria.

This article describes the recent prevalence and trend in weight status in young men over three and half decades among Austrian conscripts overall and by subgroups defined by education and smoking behavior. We extracted medical record data from six medical examination stations across the country of all Austrian military conscripts (aged 17-19 years) recruited between 1983 and 2017 (n = 1.5 million). Read More

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September 2021

International Changes in COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories Across 315 Hospitals and 6 Countries: a 4CE Consortium Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Institute for Biomedical Informatics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, US.

Background: Many countries have experienced two predominant waves of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Comparing the clinical trajectories of patients hospitalized in separate waves of the pandemic enables further understanding of the evolving epidemiology, pathophysiology, and healthcare dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed electronic health record (EHR) data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections hospitalized in participating healthcare systems representing 315 hospitals across six countries. Read More

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September 2021

Functional diversity loss and change in nocturnal behavior of mammals under anthropogenic disturbance.

Conserv Biol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

In the Anthropocene epoch, understanding the impacts of anthropogenic influence on biodiversity and behavior of vulnerable wildlife communities is increasingly relevant to effective conservation. However, comparative studies aimed at disentangling the concurrent effect of different types of human disturbance on multifaceted biodiversity and on activity patterns of mammals are surprisingly rare. We applied a multi-region community model to separately estimate the effects of cumulative human modification (settlement, agriculture, and transportation etc. Read More

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September 2021

On the validity of longitudinal comparisons of central location consumer testing results prior to COVID-19 versus home use testing data during the pandemic.

J Food Sci 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Consumer testing assays a panel's liking of a food or other sensory stimulus. However, liking can be influenced by mood, with people feeling more uncomfortable, or more unhappy reporting lower liking ratings than those in a higher affect. Though consumer testing typically takes place as a central location test (CLT, usually in a set of standardized sensory booths), the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global pivot to home use tests (HUTs), where panelists can taste and smell samples unmasked more safely while in their own homes. Read More

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September 2021

A meta-analysis and systematic review of holmium laser treatment of bladder stones.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Aug;10(8):3465-3475

Department of Urology, Luzhou People's Hospital, Luzhou, China.

Background: Holmium lasers have been used to treat bladder stones and achieve good therapeutic effects, but its efficacy remains to be explored.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, Springer, and Web of Sciences databases were searched from their establishment to December 31, 2020. Studies of randomized control trials (RCTs) examining the treatment of vesical calculi by holmium laser lithotripsy were identified. Read More

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The Rapid Cytological Process of Grain Determines Early Maturity in Weedy Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:711321. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Weed Research Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Shorter grain-filling period and rapid endosperm development endow weedy rice (WR) with early maturity compared to cultivated rice (CR). However, the role of the cytological features and antioxidative enzyme system during grain development are largely unexplored. We selected four biotypes of WR and their associated cultivated rice (ACR) types from different latitudes to conduct a common garden experiment. Read More

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Pan-Cancer Analysis of PARP1 Alterations as Biomarkers in the Prediction of Immunotherapeutic Effects and the Association of Its Expression Levels and Immunotherapy Signatures.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:721030. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP1) alterations are associated with PARP1 inhibitor resistance, regulating the function of Treg cells and PDL1 expression in tumor cells, and high PARP1 expression is significantly associated with aggressive behavior and chemotherapeutic resistance in several tumors. However, a comprehensive analysis of the predictive values of PARP1 alteration for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) effectiveness in tumors remains unclear, and the associations between its expression and immunotherapy signatures also needs to be explored further.

Methods: We performed some analyses with the cBioPortal online database (https://www. Read More

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Comparison of Behavior-Related Features in the MMSE Sentence in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:733153. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

: Despite the ubiquity of cognitive assessments using the MMSE, there has been little investigation of currently unscored features of the MMSE sentence item relevant to behavior and language in patients with behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). : To describe and compare the unscored content and grammar elements of the MMSE sentence item in patients with bvFTD and AD. : Categorization of predefined content and grammar elements of the MMSE sentence was performed by two blinded raters in patients with bvFTD ( = 74) and AD ( = 84). Read More

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Children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders show cognitive heterogeneity and require a person-centered approach.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18463. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Academic Secretariat, School of Public Health of Mexico, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

We aimed to identify patterns of cognitive differences and characterize subgroups of Mexican children and adolescents with three neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD): intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 74 children and adolescents 6-15 years; 34% had ID, ASD or ADHD, 47% had ID in comorbidity with ASD, ADHD or both, 11% had ASD + ADHD, 8% were children without NDD. We applied WISC-IV, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Structured Interview, Child Behavior Checklist, and UNICEF Child Functioning Module. Read More

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September 2021

Epidemiological risk factors associated with primary infection by Epstein-Barr virus in HIV-1-positive subjects in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18476. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

To identify the prevalence and risk factors for primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-positive adult treatment-naïve patients between January 2018 and December 2019 in a state of the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 268 HIV-1 positive patients and 65 blood donors participated in the study. Epidemiological data were obtained from medical records and through a designed questionnaire. Read More

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September 2021

Shape of the OGTT glucose response curve: relationship with β-cell function and differences by sex, race, and BMI in adults with early type 2 diabetes treated with metformin.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Sep;9(1)

Research and Development, VA Puget Sound Health Care System Seattle Division, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Introduction: The shape of the glucose curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) reflects β-cell function in populations without diabetes but has not been as well studied in those with diabetes. A monophasic shape has been associated with higher risk of diabetes, while a biphasic pattern has been associated with lower risk. We sought to determine if phenotypic or metabolic characteristics were associated with glucose response curve shape in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin alone. Read More

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September 2021

Healthy Sleep Patterns and Risk of Incident Arrhythmias.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(12):1197-1207

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence has linked sleep behaviors with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The various sleep behaviors are typically correlated; however, most of the previous studies only focused on the individual sleep behavior, without considering the overall sleep patterns.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the associations between a healthy sleep pattern with the risks of cardiac arrhythmias. Read More

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September 2021

Circuit imaging biomarkers in preclinical and prodromal Parkinson's disease.

Mol Med 2021 Sep 16;27(1):111. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Parkinson's disease (PD) commences several years before the onset of motor features. Pathophysiological understanding of the pre-clinical or early prodromal stages of PD are essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Two categories of patients are ideal to study the early disease stages. Read More

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September 2021