96 results match your criteria low-calorie ketogenic


Epigenetic landscape in blood leukocytes following ketosis and weight loss induced by a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with obesity.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 21;40(6):3959-3972. Epub 2021 May 21.

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Group. Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS) and Santiago de Compostela University (USC), Spain; CIBER Fisiopatologia de La Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBERobn), Spain.

Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health benefits of a ketogenic diet are unknown and could be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms.

Objective: To identify the changes in the obesity-related methylome that are mediated by the induced weight loss or are dependent on ketosis in subjects with obesity underwent a very-low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD).

Methods: Twenty-one patients with obesity (n = 12 women, 47. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reduction of Cardio-Metabolic Risk and Body Weight through a Multiphasic Very-Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet Program in Women with Overweight/Obesity: A Study in a Real-World Setting.

Nutrients 2021 May 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Background: The prevention and treatment of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications are relevant issues worldwide. Among lifestyle approaches, very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) have been shown to lead to rapid initial weight loss, resulting in better long-term weight loss maintenance. As no information on VLCKD studies carried on in a real-world setting are available, we conducted this multi-centre study in a real-world setting, aiming at assessing the efficacy and the safety of a specific multiphasic VLCKD program in women with overweight or obesity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Obesity and Circulating Levels of Vitamin D before and after Weight Loss Induced by a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet.

Nutrients 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Unit of Laboratory Medicine, AOU Policlinico "P. Giaccone", 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, also influencing bone tissue. Several studies have reported that vitamin D blood levels were significantly lower in people with obesity, probably due to its uptake by the adipose tissue. Clinical studies that investigated the changes of circulating levels of vitamin D following weight loss reported controversial data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Potential Roles of Very Low Calorie, Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diets and Very Low Carbohydrate Diets on the Gut Microbiota Composition.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 14;12:662591. Epub 2021 May 14.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona "Istituto Santa Margherita", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Several studies have described a strong correlation between diet, weight loss, and gut microbiota composition. The aim of this review was to evaluate the potential effects of energy-restricted diets, namely very low calorie diets (VLCDs), very low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs), and very low carbohydrate diets (VLCarbDs), on the composition of the gut microbiota in humans. We performed a literature search using the following terms (with their abbreviations or acronyms): "very low calorie diet", "very low calorie ketogenic diet", "very low carbohydrate diet", and "gut microbiota". Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Validity and efficacy of diets used for preoperative weight reduction among patients qualified for bariatric surgery.

Pol Przegl Chir 2021 Mar;93(2):53-58

Department of Clinical Dietetics, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Bariatric surgery is the most effective method of weight reduction among patients suffering from morbid obesity. Reduction of body weight before surgery is an important element. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge on preoperative weight reduction and diet for this purpose. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 15;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Spanish Society of Precision Health, SENMO/SESAP, 38320 Canary Islands, Spain.

As the incidence of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCDs) increases, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, calorie restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing the benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs. ketosis-inducing diets, including intermittent fasting (IF), classic ketogenic diet (CKD), fasting mimicking diet (FMD), very-low-calorie ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish ketogenic Mediterranean diet (SKMD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults with a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Obes Facts 2021 21;14(2):222-245. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Dipartimento di Medicina, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been recently proposed as an appealing nutritional strategy for obesity management. The VLCKD is characterized by a low carbohydrate content (<50 g/day), 1-1.5 g of protein/kg of ideal body weight, 15-30 g of fat/day, and a daily intake of about 500-800 calories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beyond weight loss in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the role of carbohydrate restriction.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Jul;24(4):349-353

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: The low fat diet (LFD) is currently the first choice to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alongside with physical activity. However, low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) and ketogenic diets have gained attention lately, thanks to their favourable impact in reducing intrahepatic triglyceride content. We therefore aimed at providing an update on recent evidence evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of such dietary interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet as a Safe and Valuable Tool for Long-Term Glycemic Management in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy.

Obesity-related type 2 diabetes represents one of the most difficult challenges for the healthcare system. This retrospective study aims to determine the efficacy, safety and durability of a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD), compared to a standard low-calorie diet (LCD) on weight-loss, glycemic management, eating behavior and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. Thirty patients with obesity and T2DM, aged between 35 and 75 years, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted to adhere to a VLCKD or a LCD nutritional program, were consecutively selected from our electronic database. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Different Weight Loss Intervention Approaches Reveal a Lack of a Common Pattern of Gut Microbiota Changes.

J Pers Med 2021 Feb 8;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Endocrinología y Nutrición del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 29010 Málaga, Spain.

Options for treatment of obesity include dietary approaches and bariatric surgery. Previous studies have shown that weight loss interventions have an impact on gut microbiota. However, a pattern of gut microbiota changes associated with weight loss independently of the type of intervention has not been described yet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

"It's the single best thing I've done in the last 10 years": a qualitative study exploring patient and dietitian experiences with, and perceptions of, a multi-component dietary weight loss program for knee osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 04 9;29(4):507-517. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Explore patient and dietitian experiences with a multi-component dietary weight loss program for knee osteoarthritis to understand enablers and challenges to success at 6-months.

Design: Qualitative study embedded within a randomised controlled trial. Semi-structured individual interviews with 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis who undertook, and five dietitians who supervised, a weight management program (involving a ketogenic very low calorie diet (VLCD), video consultations, educational resources) over 6 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Interplay between a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet and the Infant Gut Microbiota and Its Therapeutic Implications for Reducing Asthma.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 16;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Heart, Mind & Body Research Group, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia.

Gut microbiota is well known as playing a critical role in inflammation and asthma development. The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) is suggested to affect gut microbiota; however, the effects of VLCKD during pregnancy and lactation on the infant gut microbiota are unclear. The VLCKD appears to be more effective than caloric/energy restriction diets for the treatment of several diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Choosing and following a very low calorie diet program in Australia: A quasi-mixed methods study to understand experiences, barriers, and facilitators in a self-initiated environment.

Nutr Diet 2021 04 6;78(2):202-217. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Nutrition Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: In Australian adults, this study seeks to describe the experiences and factors associated with the perceived outcomes of using a very low calorie diet (VLCD) program for ≥4 weeks.

Methods: A mixed method study using the method perspective was conducted to analyse individual semi-structured interviews conducted via videoconference and cross-sectional survey data. Australians 18 to 65 years were eligible if they were currently consuming at least one VLCD product daily for ≥4 weeks or had ceased consumption within 4 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of a Low-Calorie Ketogenic vs a Standard Low-Calorie Diet on Fat-Free Mass in Patients Receiving an Elipse™ Intragastric Balloon Treatment.

Obes Surg 2021 04 20;31(4):1514-1523. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Medicine, Surgery, and Dentistry, "Scuola Medica Salernitana", University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA, Italy.

Background: The Elipse™ intragastric balloon (EIGB) is a new swallowable balloon for weight loss (WL). Preserving metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) during WL are crucial to maximize fat mass (FM) loss. After EIGB placement, a standard low-calorie diet (LCD) is generally prescribed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet for the management of obesity, overweight and related disorders.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 Jun 19;46(2):161-167. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Clinic for Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC), Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Introduction: Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) is a promising lifestyle intervention for the management of overweight and obesity. It is characterized by a restriction of both calories and carbohydrates, while assuring the adequate proteins, fats and micronutrients intake. Significant results in terms of excess body weight loss have been reported and this strategy considered also in the preoperative settings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Psoriasis Patients: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomic Study.

J Proteome Res 2021 03 9;20(3):1509-1521. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

NutriKeto_LAB Unisa-"San Giuseppe Moscati" National Hospital (AORN), Contrada Amoretta, 83100 Avellino, Avellino, Italy.

Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the epidermis based on an immunological mechanism involving Langerhans cells and T lymphocytes that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Genetic factors, environmental factors, and improper nutrition are considered triggers of the disease. Numerous studies have reported that in a high number of patients, psoriasis is associated with obesity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diets to Treat Patients With Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Ren Nutr 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Optimal Diet Strategies for Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance.

Authors:
Ju Young Kim

J Obes Metab Syndr 2021 Mar;30(1):20-31

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Obesity has become one of the most important public health problems worldwide, which suggests the need for evidence-based dietary strategies for weight loss and its maintenance. Weight management depends upon complex factors such as amount of food eaten, type of food eaten, and timing of meals. In this review, we identified evidence-based dietary strategies for weight management based on these three components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Urine dipsticks are not accurate for detecting mild ketosis during a severely energy restricted diet.

Obes Sci Pract 2020 Oct 10;6(5):544-551. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

School of Human Sciences, Faculty of Science The University of Western Australia Crawley Western Australia Australia.

Background: Detection of the mild ketosis induced by severely energy-restricted diets may be a clinically useful way to monitor and promote dietary adherence. Mild ketosis is often assessed using urine dipsticks, but accuracy for this purpose has not been tested.

Objective: To determine the accuracy of urine dipsticks to detect mild ketosis during adherence to a severely energy-restricted diet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

The ketogenic diet corrects metabolic hypogonadism and preserves pancreatic ß-cell function in overweight/obese men: a single-arm uncontrolled study.

Endocrine 2021 May 15;72(2):392-399. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: Overweight and obesity are increasingly spread in our society. Low testosterone levels are often present in these patients, the so-called metabolic hypogonadism, that further alters the metabolic balance in a sort of vicious cycle. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been reported to efficiently reduce body weight, glycaemia, and the serum levels of insulin, glycated hemoglobin, but its effects on β-cell function and total testosterone (TT) levels are less clear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy of a 2-Month Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) Compared to a Standard Low-Calorie Diet in Reducing Visceral and Liver Fat Accumulation in Patients With Obesity.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 14;11:607. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Currently the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is based on weight loss through lifestyle changes, such as exercise combined with calorie-restricted dieting. To assess the effects of a commercially available weight loss program based on a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat content compared to a standard low-calorie (LC) diet. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the effect on liver stiffness measurements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effectiveness of a Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Testicular Function in Overweight/Obese Men.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 28;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Background: Obesity has become an increasingly worrisome reality. A very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) represents a promising option by which to achieve significant weight loss. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of VLCKD on metabolic parameters and hormonal profiles of obese male patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with psoriasis and obesity: an update for dermatologists and nutritionists.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Sep 24:1-17. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Unit of Endocrinology, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin immune-mediated disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation; both genetic and lifestyles factors contribute to its pathogenesis and severity. In this context, nutrition plays a significant role, , in psoriasis' pathogenesis. Obesity is another important risk factor for psoriasis, and weight reduction may improve psoriasis' clinical severity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Very low calorie ketogenic diets in overweight and obesity treatment: Effects on anthropometric parameters, body composition, satiety, lipid profile and microbiota.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2020 Nov - Dec;14(6):491-503. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Unit of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the prevalence of obesity tripled worldwide since 1975. Obesity prevention and treatment is based upon lifestyle changes involving eating habits, physical activity and behaviour therapy. Various dietary patterns have been used as nutritional strategies and, in recent years, interest has been shown in very low calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that provide less than 800 calories (kcal), no more than 20-50 g/day of carbohydrates and 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Ketogenic diets as treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2020 Sep;21(3):381-397

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela University (USC), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS), Santiago, Spain.

During the last decades, several interventions for the management of overweight and obesity have been proposed. Among diets, the first studies focused on the effect of water only and total fasting diets with or without proteins. Unfortunately, they were found to be associated with adverse events which lead to the abandon of these strategies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Effects of Low-Calorie and Non-Calorie Sweeteners.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 16;11:444. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Since excessive sugar consumption has been related to the development of chronic metabolic diseases prevalent in the western world, the use of sweeteners has gradually increased worldwide over the last few years. Although low- and non-calorie sweeteners may represent a valuable tool to reduce calorie intake and prevent weight gain, studies investigating the safety and efficacy of these compounds in the short- and long-term period are scarce and controversial. Therefore, future studies will need to elucidate the potential beneficial and/or detrimental effects of different types of sweeteners on metabolic health (energy balance, appetite, body weight, cardiometabolic risk factors) in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Baseline HOMA IR and Circulating FGF21 Levels Predict NAFLD Improvement in Patients Undergoing a Low Carbohydrate Dietary Intervention for Weight Loss: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 18;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease. Very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) represent a feasible treatment as they induce profound weight loss and insulin resistance (IR) improvement. Despite the recognized benefits on NAFLD deriving from pharmacological administration of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), whose endogenous counterpart is a marker of liver injury, little is known about its physiology in humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Scientific evidence underlying contraindications to the ketogenic diet: An update.

Obes Rev 2020 10 10;21(10):e13053. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

First identified as a feasible treatment for intractable epilepsy, the ketogenic diet (KD) has recently gained popularity thanks to growing evidence on applications such as weight loss, most importantly, but also NAFLD, cancer, neurologic conditions and chronic pain. As with any treatment, whether pharmacologic or not, the KD might not be an appropriate intervention for every individual, and a number of contraindications have been proposed, now deeply rooted into clinical practice, excluding de facto many patients that could benefit from its use. However, many of these concerns were expressed due to the absence of clinical studies conducted on fragile populations, and an assessment of lately emerged evidence relative to KD safety is currently lacking and much needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

The Effects of a Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Glycaemic Control Variables in Hyperinsulinemic Overweight/Obese Females.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 22;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Sport Nutrition, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, 72a Mikołowska Street, 40-065 Katowice, Poland.

Diet is a factor which can influence both glycaemic variables and body mass. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a 12-week, well-planned, low-calorie ketogenic diet (LCKD) on hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic and lipid profile in adult, overweight or obese females. Ninety-one females who participated in the study were divided into two groups: a LCKD group who followed a hypocaloric ketogenic diet (8% of carbohydrate, 72% of fat and 20% of proteins) ( = 46), and a control group (CG) ( = 45) who continued their typical diet (50% of carbohydrates, 32% of fat and 18% of proteins). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Weight loss normalizes enhanced expression of the oncogene survivin in visceral adipose tissue and blood leukocytes from individuals with obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 01 16;45(1):206-216. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Epigenomics in Endocrinology and Nutrition Group, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background/objectives: Survivin is an oncogene associated with a decrease in apoptosis, an increase in tumor growth, and poor clinical outcome of diverse malignancies. A correlation between obesity, cancer, and survivin is reported in the literature. To date, the impact of weight loss on change in survivin levels is understudied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021