13,199 results match your criteria low atmospheric

Identification and characteristics of combined agrometeorological disasters caused by low temperature in a rice growing region in Liaoning Province, China.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9968. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang, 110166, China.

Owing to climate change, agrometeorological disasters are becoming increasingly complex. Here, we analysed the characteristics of combined agrometeorological disaster (CAD) caused by low temperature in annual rice crops in Liaoning Province, China, from 1961 to 2017. We assessed the repeat occurrence of natural disasters on rice production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of multiple-scale circulation interactions on the spring diurnal precipitation over Luzon.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9937. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan.

This study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of diurnal precipitation over Luzon and the nearby oceans in boreal spring. The study focuses on exploring the impact of the interaction between large- and local-scale circulation changes on the modulation of diurnal precipitation. We analyze the satellite precipitation data obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Global Precipitation Measurement Mission during the spring (March-May) of 2001-2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Review of the toxic effects of ionic liquids.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147309. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Beakje-dearo, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, South Korea. Electronic address:

Interest in ionic liquids (ILs), called green or designer solvents, has been increasing because of their excellent properties such as thermal stability and low vapor pressure; thus, they can replace harmful organic chemicals and help several industrial fields e.g., energy-storage materials production and biomaterial pretreatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficient Thin Polymer Coating as a Selective Thermal Emitter for Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

DLR Institute of Networked Energy Systems, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany.

Radiative cooling to subambient temperatures can be efficiently achieved through spectrally selective emission, which until now has only been realized by using complex nanoengineered structures. Here, a simple dip-coated planar polymer emitter derived from polysilazane, which exhibits strong selective emissivity in the atmospheric transparency window of 8-13 μm, is demonstrated. The 5 μm thin silicon oxycarbonitride coating has an emissivity of 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Global declines in coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification and warming.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(21)

Oceans Graduate School and Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia.

Ocean warming and acidification threaten the future growth of coral reefs. This is because the calcifying coral reef taxa that construct the calcium carbonate frameworks and cement the reef together are highly sensitive to ocean warming and acidification. However, the global-scale effects of ocean warming and acidification on rates of coral reef net carbonate production remain poorly constrained despite a wealth of studies assessing their effects on the calcification of individual organisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomolecular Engineering, University Of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, United States.

The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Late Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular-Scale Mechanism of Sequential Reaction of Oxalic Acid with SO: Potential Participator in Atmospheric Aerosol Nucleation.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Recent research has shown the almost barrierless cycloaddition reaction of the carboxylic acid with one SO to form products with group of -OSOH, which can form stable clusters with the nucleation precursors through hydrogen bonds (Mackenzie et al., 2015, 349, 58). Oxalic acid (OA), the simplest and prevalent dicarboxylic acid, was selected as an example to clarify the possibility to react with two SO sequentially and the nucleation potential of products. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toxicity Assessment of Nano-ZnO Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiome, Metabolic Functions, and Resistome Using an In Vitro Colon Simulator.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), IRDR ICoE on Risk Interconnectivity and Governance on Weather/Climate Extremes Impact and Public Health, Fudan Tyndall Centre, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Nano-ZnO, as a commonly used nanomaterial, has been found in drinking water, food, and medicine; therefore, it poses potential health risks via the digestion system. However, little is known about the toxicity of nano-ZnO on the human intestinal microbiome, which plays critical roles in human health. This study comprehensively investigated the impact of nano-ZnO on the human gut microbiome, metabolic functions, and resistome using an in vitro colon simulator. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

LABEC, the INFN ion beam laboratory of nuclear techniques for environment and cultural heritage.

Eur Phys J Plus 2021 30;136(4):472. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

INFN Division of Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

The LABEC laboratory, the INFN ion beam laboratory of nuclear techniques for environment and cultural heritage, located in the Scientific and Technological Campus of the University of Florence in Sesto Fiorentino, started its operational activities in 2004, after INFN decided in 2001 to provide our applied nuclear physics group with a large laboratory dedicated to applications of accelerator-related analytical techniques, based on a new 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. The new accelerator greatly improved the performance of existing Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) applications (for which we were using since the 1980s an old single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator) and in addition allowed to start a novel activity of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), in particular for C dating. Switching between IBA and AMS operation became very easy and fast, which allowed us high flexibility in programming the activities, mainly focused on studies of cultural heritage and atmospheric aerosol composition, but including also applications to biology, geology, material science and forensics, ion implantation, tests of radiation damage to components, detector performance tests and low-energy nuclear physics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An electrodeless atmospheric microwave plasma jet for efficient degradation of antibiotic norfloxacin.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 6;291:112729. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China. Electronic address:

Plasma technology is increasingly being used for the degradation of residual antibiotics in aquatic environments. However, the electrodes in conventional plasma generators are subject to erosion, which can pollute the reaction system and shorten its lifetime. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an electrodeless high-flow atmospheric microwave plasma jet (MPJ) for fast and efficient degradation of residual norfloxacin (NOR), a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is frequently detected in the aquatic environment owing to its widespread use in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laser assisted sampling vs direct desorption flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry of complex polymer samples: Forensic implications for pressure sensitive tape chemical analysis.

Talanta 2021 Aug 27;231:122333. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409-1061, USA. Electronic address:

Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) mass spectrometry (MS) is an easy-to-use, cost-effective, and potentially portable technique that allows direct desorption/ionization from samples with little-to-no sample preparation for real-time chemical analysis. However, it has limitations regarding analytes with low desorption efficiency, such as polymers. Here, laser assisted sampling (LAS) is developed and coupled to FAPA MS to allow access to a wider range of chemical information from polymer samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Response of the Indian summer monsoon to global warming, solar geoengineering and its termination.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9791. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi), New Delhi, 110016, India.

The response of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) to global warming, solar geoengineering and its termination is examined using the multi-model mean of seven global climate model simulations from G2 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. Under the global warming scenario, land-ocean temperature contrasts and low-level monsoon circulation progressively strengthen accompanied by enhanced precipitation over the Indian subcontinent. Notably, in the solar geoengineered scenario, marginal surface cooling is projected over the majority of the ISM region, and there is strengthening of both upper and lower level circulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Climatic modification effects on the association between PM1 and lung cancer incidence in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 7;21(1):880. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Nationwide studies that examine climatic modification effects on the association between air pollution and health outcome are limited in developing countries. Moreover, few studies focus on PM1 pollution despite its greater health effect.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the modification effects of climatic factors on the associations between PM1 and the incidence rates of lung cancer for males and females in China. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Has Carbon Emissions Trading Reduced PM in China?

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Business School, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

China today has an urgent need to develop low-carbon policies that also address local air pollution. This study uses a difference-in-differences model to estimate the extent to which China's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which directly addresses CO emissions, has also generated cobenefits by reducing PM. Using monthly PM concentration and weather data for 297 Chinese cities from January 2005 to December 2017, we find that (1) China's ETS has reduced PM concentrations by 4. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Direct observation of spin correlations in an artificial triangular lattice Ising spin system with grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory for Mesoscopic Systems, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. and Laboratory for Multiscale Materials Experiments, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

The triangular lattice with Ising magnetic moments is an archetypical example of geometric frustration. In the case of dipolar-coupled out-of-plane moments, the geometric frustration results in a disordered classical spin-liquid state at higher temperatures while the system is predicted to transition to an anti-ferromagnetic stripe ground state at low temperatures. In this work we fabricate artificial triangular Ising spin systems without and with uniaxial in-plane compression to tune the nature and temperature of the correlations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mobility and environmental monitoring of pesticides in the atmosphere - a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Knowledge of the partition mechanisms in the agrochemical environment is fundamental for understanding their behavior within an ecosystem and mitigating possible adverse effects of these products. In this review, the objective was to present the main transport mechanisms, physical-chemical properties, and atmospheric monitoring methodologies of the most diverse types of agrochemicals used in agriculture that can reach the atmosphere and affect different compartments. It has been verified that volatilization is one of more considerable significance of the various forms of transport since a significant part of the applied pesticides can volatilize in a few days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in PM within the urban boundary layer in southern China: Sources and formation pathways.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 19;285:117185. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, School of Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, PR China.

Low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, which are important components of secondary organic aerosols, have been extensively studied in recent years. Many studies have focused on ground-level observations and literature reports on the vertical distribution of the organic aerosols within the urban boundary layer are limited. In this study, the vertical profiles of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds (DCRCs) in PM were investigated at altitudinal levels (ground level and 488 m above the ground level) at the Canton Tower in Guangzhou, southern China, to elucidate their primary sources and secondary formation processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aerial survey estimates of polar bears and their tracks in the Chukchi Sea.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251130. Epub 2021 May 6.

Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Polar bears are of international conservation concern due to climate change but are difficult to study because of low densities and an expansive, circumpolar distribution. In a collaborative U.S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Projected land ice contributions to twenty-first-century sea level rise.

Nature 2021 May 5;593(7857):74-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

The land ice contribution to global mean sea level rise has not yet been predicted using ice sheet and glacier models for the latest set of socio-economic scenarios, nor using coordinated exploration of uncertainties arising from the various computer models involved. Two recent international projects generated a large suite of projections using multiple models, but primarily used previous-generation scenarios and climate models, and could not fully explore known uncertainties. Here we estimate probability distributions for these projections under the new scenarios using statistical emulation of the ice sheet and glacier models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association of meteorological factors with the frequency of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Japan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9559. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.

This 5-year ecological study assessed the association between meteorological factors and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) frequency in 571 eyes of 543 cases of primary RRD at the Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, Japan. We examined the monthly and seasonal distributions of RRD frequency using one-way analysis of variance. We then evaluated the relationship between monthly RRD frequency and 36 meteorological parameters using Poisson regression analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isotopic evidence for acidity-driven enhancement of sulfate formation after SO emission control.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan.

After the 1980s, atmospheric sulfate reduction is slower than the dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO) emissions. However, a lack of observational evidence has hindered the identification of causal feedback mechanisms. Here, we report an increase in the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate ([Formula: see text]) in a Greenland ice core, implying an enhanced role of acidity-dependent in-cloud oxidation by ozone (up to 17 to 27%) in sulfate production since the 1960s. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasma tailored reactive nitrogen species in MOF derived carbon materials for hybrid sodium-air batteries.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China and State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

The rational design of efficient and durable electrocatalysts to accelerate sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics is highly desirable for enhancing the efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Here, we demonstrated a low-temperature plasma strategy at atmospheric pressure for enhancing the catalytic activity of metal-organic framework derived N-doped carbon nanotubes (MOF-NCNTs) by changing the relative contents of Co-Nx sites, Co-Co bonds and pyridinic-N. The increase of pyridinic-N/pyrrolic-N ratio improves the ORR performance, while unsaturated Co-Nx sites and strong Co-Co bonds promote the OER performance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

measurements of human cough aerosol hygroscopicity.

J R Soc Interface 2021 May 5;18(178):20210209. Epub 2021 May 5.

International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH), School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

The airborne dynamics of respiratory droplets, and the transmission routes of pathogens embedded within them, are governed primarily by the diameter of the particles. These particles are composed of the fluid which lines the respiratory tract, and is primarily mucins and salts, which will interact with the atmosphere and evaporate to reach an equilibrium diameter. Measuring organic volume fraction (OVF) of cough aerosol has proved challenging due to large variability and low material volume produced after coughing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Wounding-Induced VOC Emissions in Five Tropical Agricultural Species.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51006 Tartu, Estonia.

Leaf mechanical wounding triggers a rapid release-within minutes-of a blend of volatile organic compounds. A wounding-induced VOC blend is mainly composed of oxygenated ubiquitous stress volatiles such as methanol and volatile products of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway (mainly C5 and C6 alcohols and aldehydes and their derivatives), but also includes multiple minor VOCs that collectively act as infochemicals, inducing defences in non-damaged plant leaves and neighbouring plants and attracting herbivore enemies. At present, the interspecific variability of the rate of induction and magnitude of wounding-induced emissions and the extent to which plant structural traits and physiological activity alter these emissions are poorly known. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent Advances in the Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Textiles, Graphic Arts and Design, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

An overview of recent work on the low-temperature plasma-assisted synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is presented and interpreted in terms of gas-phase and surface reactions with illustrated examples. The thermodynamical nonequilibrium conditions allow the formation of chemically reactive species with a potential energy of several eV, which readily interact with the Zn precursors and initiate reactions leading to the formation of nanoparticles or nanowires. The high-quality nanowires were synthesized from Zn powders only upon interaction with moderately ionized plasma in a narrow range of plasma parameters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel Fe-Based Amorphous Composite Coating with a Unique Interfacial Layer Improving Thermal Barrier Application.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

To improve thermal barrier applications in advanced vehicle engines, a novel Fe-based amorphous composite coating was designed by introducing ceramic oxides and was prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The microstructure and related properties of the as-deposited coating were investigated in detail. The composite coating comprises a well-formed FeCrNbBSi amorphous metallic matrix and dispersed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) splats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of Venus Cloud Aerosol and Gas Composition Including Potential Biogenic Materials via an Aerosol-Sampling Instrument Package.

Astrobiology 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), Toulouse, France.

A lightweight, low-power instrument package to measure, both (1) the local gaseous environment and (2) the composition and microphysical properties of attendant venusian aerosols is presented. This Aerosol-Sampling Instrument Package (ASIP) would be used to explore cloud chemical and possibly biotic processes on future aerial missions such as multiweek balloon missions and on short-duration (<1 h) probes on Venus and potentially on other cloudy worlds such as Titan, the Ice Giants, and Saturn. A quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS; Madzunkov and Nikolić, 25:1841-1852, 2014) fed alternately by (1) an aerosol separator that injects only aerosols into a vaporizer and mass spectrometer and (2) the pure aerosol-filtered atmosphere, achieves the compositional measurements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Calculating source contributions to urban atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using 1-nitropyrene and pyrene: An application to an Asian dust event.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130662. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-machi, Matsue, 690-8504, Japan.

A method to calculate source contributions to atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated congeners (NPAHs) is proposed, using pyrene (Pyr) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), as respective representatives of PAHs and NPAHs. This is based on the known increases in NPAH to PAH ratios as combustion temperatures increase. The fractions of 1-NP and Pyr from high temperature combustion sources in total 1-NP and Pyr are respectively calculated as a (0 Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The need for Pan-European automatic pollen and fungal spore monitoring: A stakeholder workshop position paper.

Clin Transl Allergy 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, Payerne, Switzerland.

Background: Information about airborne pollen concentrations is required by a range of end users, particularly from the health sector who use both observations and forecasts to diagnose and treat allergic patients. Manual methods are the standard for such measurements but, despite the range of pollen taxa that can be identified, these techniques suffer from a range of drawbacks. This includes being available at low temporal resolution (usually daily averages) and with a delay (usually 3-9 days from the measurement). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Indirect competitive-structured electrochemical immunosensor for tetrabromobisphenol A sensing using CTAB-MnO nanosheet hybrid as a label for signal amplification.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a kind of brominated flame retardant that is usually added to products to reduce their flame retardancy. However, its extensive use has resulted in their residues being found in the environment, which is very harmful. Herein, an indirect competitive immunosensor has been established for TBBPA detection based on the signal amplification system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF