21,937 results match your criteria longitudinal approach

Analysis of multivariate longitudinal immuno-epidemiological data using a pairwise joint modelling approach.

BMC Immunol 2021 Sep 17;22(1):63. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

MRC International Statistics and Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Immuno-epidemiologists are often faced with multivariate outcomes, measured repeatedly over time. Such data are characterised by complex inter- and intra-outcome relationships which must be accounted for during analysis. Scientific questions of interest might include determining the effect of a treatment on the evolution of all outcomes together, or grouping outcomes that change in the same way. Read More

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September 2021

Which bidomain conductivity is the most important for modelling heart and torso surface potentials during ischaemia?

Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep 8;137:104830. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia.

Mathematical simulations using the bidomain model, which represents cardiac tissue as consisting of an intracellular and an extracellular space, are a key approach that can be used to improve understanding of heart conditions such as ischaemia. However, key inputs to these models, such as the bidomain conductivity values, are not known with any certainty. Since efforts are underway to measure these values, it would be useful to be able to quantify the effect on model outputs of uncertainty in these inputs, and also to determine, if possible, which are the most important values to focus on in experimental studies. Read More

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September 2021

[Babysitter nerve transfer from the thenar branch to the deep terminal branch of the ulnar nerve : An option to preserve the intrinsic hand muscles in proximal lesions of the ulnar nerve].

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Klinisches Labor für bionische Extremitätenrekonstruktion, Universitätsklinik für Plastische, Rekonstruktive und Ästhetische Chirurgie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Österreich.

Objective: The objective of this surgery is to achieve early reinnervation of the intrinsic hand muscles through axons of the median nerve, preventing irreversible atrophy of the muscle tissue. The nerve transfer is achieved via a babysitter graft, which is sutured end-to-side to the donor as well as the recipient nerve. The procedure is carried out in combination with a proximal reconstruction of the ulnar nerve. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children by antibody detection in saliva: A prospective, longitudinal study protocol (Coro-Buddy).

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Institut für Tropenmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Wilhelmstraße 27, Tübingen, DE.

Background: The world is confronting with the COVID-19 pandemic for more than one year. Severe disease is more often found in elderly people, whereas most of young children and adolescents show mild symptoms or even remain asymptomatic, so that infection might be undiagnosed. Therefore, only limited epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young adults are available. Read More

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Do different means of recording sexual orientation affect its relationship with health and wellbeing?

Health Econ 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary Care, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Analyses of an individual's sexual orientation over time are desirable for policy evaluations and in estimating causal effects. We explore whether accounting for those who change sexual orientation over two time points, to create a measure of fluidity, produces substantially different results compared to sexual orientation measured at one time point and extrapolated to subsequent survey waves. We use seven waves of the UK Household Longitudinal Study which asked sexual orientation identity questions at two time points: waves three (2011-2013) and nine (2017-2019). Read More

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September 2021

The Relationship Between Mindfulness, Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life in Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:708808. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, a corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are frequently accompanied by comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as impaired quality of life (QoL). A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the relevance of mindfulness for SSD in recent years. The study examined the association between mindfulness, depression, anxiety, and QoL. Read More

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SSC-ILD mouse model induced by osmotic minipump delivered bleomycin: effect of Nintedanib.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18513. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Pharmacology & Toxicology Department, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Corporate Pre-Clinical R&D, Largo Belloli, 11/A, 43122, Parma, Italy.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an excessive production and accumulation of collagen in the skin and internal organs often associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Its pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown and the lack of animal models mimicking the features of the human disease is creating a gap between the selection of anti-fibrotic drug candidates and effective therapies. In this work, we intended to pharmacologically validate a SSc-ILD model based on 1 week infusion of bleomycin (BLM) by osmotic minipumps in C57/BL6 mice, since it will serve as a tool for secondary drug screening. Read More

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September 2021

Selection, optimization and compensation strategies and their relationship with well-being and impulsivity in early, middle and late adulthood in a Polish sample.

BMC Psychol 2021 Sep 16;9(1):144. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Faculty of Psychology, Kazimierz Wielki University, ul. Staffa 1, 85-867, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Background: The model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC model) characterises the life management strategies that contribute to successful development. Although the SOC model is an important developmental theory, until now there has been no Polish version of a measurement tool for SOC strategies. The studies conducted so far have consistently indicated a relationship between the use of these strategies and well-being. Read More

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September 2021

A cross-sectional survey of a public, evidence-based multimodal program for cognitive health in older adults.

Arch Public Health 2021 Sep 16;79(1):165. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: In recent decades, the proportion of older adults in the population has continued to rise, and with it, the need for intervention programs to maintain cognitive functions into old age. Multiple lifestyle factors, including physical, cognitive, and social activities, are crucial to forestalling a decline in cognitive functions. However, Covid-19 curtailed most activities, and therefore, strategies are needed to support older adults in remaining cognitively healthy. Read More

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September 2021

Effectiveness of Long-Term Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in Regular Care: Comparison of a Longitudinal and a Cross-Sectional Analysis Approach.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Sep 16:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Totzke & Dreher Scientific (TDS), Riehen, Switzerland.

Introduction: New drugs for multiple myeloma have considerably increased the options for consecutive treatment lines in regular care. Official treatment guidelines still discuss several regimens per line, and therefore, current practice is of topical interest. Large cross-sectional studies revealed a greater than linear loss of patients reaching consecutive treatment lines of ever decreasing effectiveness. Read More

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September 2021

Neuromuscular treatment approach for women with chronic pelvic pain syndrome improving pelvic pain and functionality.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Pelvic Rehabilitation Medicine Clinical Research Foundation, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.

Aims: Reporting the effects of treating underlying myofascial dysfunction and neuropathic pain in women with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).

Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study of 186 women with CPPS treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and trigger point injections to pelvic floor muscles alongside pelvic floor physical therapy once weekly for 6 weeks in an outpatient setting. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Functional Pelvic Pain Scale (FPPS) questionnaires quantified pain and function in the pelvis. Read More

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September 2021

Ethics and governance for a multi-site study in Australia: Navigating the snakes and ladders.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Multi-site research studies are essential if we are to conduct national research across all Australian jurisdictions. There is widespread agreement among clinicians and researchers that obtaining essential approvals to conduct multi-site research studies in Australia can be complex, bureaucratic and time consuming. Although there is inherent value in the review process, resources and months of valuable research time are often expended long before the study has begun. Read More

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September 2021

Sex and morph differences in age-dependent trait changes in a polymorphic songbird.

J Evol Biol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Research School of Biology, Australian National University.

There is growing evidence of important variation in how animals age, in particular in how the expression of traits changes with age among different species and populations. However, less is known about variation within populations, which may include variation in ageing patterns between different types of individuals (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

A longitudinal study of convergence between Black and White COVID-19 mortality: A county fixed effects approach.

Lancet Reg Health Am 2021 Sep 13;1:100011. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 1102 Hock Plaza, Box 2721, Durham, North Carolina, US.

Background: Non-Hispanic Black populations have suffered much greater per capita COVID-19 mortality than White populations. Previous work has shown that rates of Black and White mortality have converged over time. Understanding of COVID-19 disparities over time is complicated by geographic changes in prevalence, and some prior research has claimed that regional shifts in COVID-19 prevalence may explain the convergence. Read More

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September 2021

Perseverance of Effort and Consistency of Interest: A Longitudinal Perspective.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:743414. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of English Language and Literature, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.

The present research, enlightened by the dynamic approach to language learning, aimed to trace the co-development of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perseverance of effort (PE) and consistency of interest (CI), the two subdomains of grit, over a course time. To this aim, a factor of curves model (FCM) was employed to trace the covariance of the subdomains of L2 grit longitudinally over time; to explore how changes in PE and CI are affected by their initial states; and to what extent the variations in PE and CI are explained by the underlying global factor of L2 grit. For data collection, the L2 grit scale was used with 1,384 adult EFL learners in four measurement occasions. Read More

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Using institutional entrepreneurship to understand the role of innovation teams in healthcare: a longitudinal qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 15;11(9):e046750. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Objectives: We draw on institutional theory to explore the roles and actions of innovation teams and how this influences their behaviour and capabilities as 'institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)', in particular the extent to which they are both 'willing' and 'able' to facilitate transformational change in healthcare through service redesign.

Design: A longitudinal qualitative study that applied a 'researcher in residence' as an ethnographic approach.

Setting: The development and implementation of two innovation projects within a single public hospital setting in an Australian state jurisdiction. Read More

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September 2021

Microalgae as a natural ecological bioindicator for the simple real-time monitoring of aquaculture wastewater quality including provision for assessing impact of extremes in climate variance - A comparative case study from the Republic of Ireland.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 26;802:149800. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath, Ireland; Empower Eco Sustainability Hub, Boora, Co. Offaly, Ireland.

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food producing industries globally, providing ~50% of fish for human consumption. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture presents a range of challenges including balancing environmental impact that can be influenced by variations in climatic conditions. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters is traditionally used to evaluate aquaculture output quality; however, this approach does not indicate the cumulative ecotoxicological effects on receiving waters. Read More

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Pain and mortality among older adults in Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Sep 7:e2021058. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Graduated School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: With the rising elderly population subject to chronic disease, pain becomes crucial to understand and design an appropriate approach to it. While pain is a noted mortality risk factor, limited studies exists due to various causes of pain and subjectivity of pain expression. This study aims to examine the relationship between pain and mortality, controlling for other disease and socio-cultural factors. Read More

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September 2021

Modelling the relationship between poor sleep and problem anger in veterans: A dynamic structural equation modelling approach.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Sep 8;150:110615. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Phoenix Australia - Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, Centenary of Anzac Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Problem anger and poor sleep are common, particularly in military and veteran populations, but the nature of the relationship is poorly understood, and treatment approaches would benefit from improved understanding of how these constructs interact. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is suitable for monitoring day-to-day fluctuations in symptoms, and modelling dynamic relationships between variables.

Methods: This study aimed to examine these fluctuations and relationships involving sleep quality and anger experiences among veterans. Read More

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September 2021

Using an implementation science approach to build leader facilitation capability in healthcare: a novel approach for enhancing action learning set facilitation.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Sep;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Purpose: The study describes the implementation of a novel strategy, entitled the Action Learning Set Facilitation Model, to develop internal facilitation capability to lead change. The Model incorporated the Novice-Experienced-Expert pathway, a facilitation development approach underpinning the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services Implementation Framework, with action learning methodology.

Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-methods descriptive approach reports the results of 22 interviews, 182 Action Learning Sets and 159 post program survey data sets to explore facilitator experiences, strengths and potential application of the Model. Read More

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September 2021

Shift in Social Media App Usage During COVID-19 Lockdown and Clinical Anxiety Symptoms: Machine Learning-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Sep 15;8(9):e30833. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Anxiety symptoms during public health crises are associated with adverse psychiatric outcomes and impaired health decision-making. The interaction between real-time social media use patterns and clinical anxiety during infectious disease outbreaks is underexplored.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the usage pattern of 2 types of social media apps (communication and social networking) among patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment during the COVID-19 surge and lockdown in Madrid, Spain and their short-term anxiety symptoms (7-item General Anxiety Disorder scale) at clinical follow-up. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic variation in genes regulating skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodelling associated with weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. COPD patients with cachexia or weight loss have increased risk of death independent of body mass index (BMI) and lung function. We tested the hypothesis genetic variation is associated with weight loss in COPD using a genome-wide association study approach. Read More

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September 2021

The economic costs of child maltreatment in UK.

Health Econ 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, UK.

Child maltreatment is a major public health problem with significant consequences for individual victims and for society. In this paper, we quantify for the first time the economic costs of fatal and nonfatal child maltreatment in the UK in relation to several short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes ranging from physical and mental health problems to labor market outcomes and welfare use. We combine novel regression analysis of rich data from the National Child Development Study and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging with secondary evidence to produce an incidence-based estimate of the lifetime costs of child maltreatment from a societal perspective. Read More

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September 2021

Safety of Thermosensor Insertion in the Midline of the Spinal Canal Anterior to the Dura: A Cadaveric Study.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, 1, place de l'Hôpital, 67096, Strasbourg Cedex, France.

Objective: To evaluate the safety of the insertion of a blunt-tip thermosensor inside the anterior epidural space using the trans-osseous route in the dorsal spine and the double oblique trans-foraminal approach in the lumbar spine.

Materials And Methods: A total of 10 attempts were made on a 91 years old human specimen. Thermosensors were inserted under fluoroscopic guidance in the anterior part of the spinal canal using various oblique angulations. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary Patterns Characterized by Fat Type in Association with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study of UK Biobank Participants.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The fat type consumed is considered a risk factor for developing obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, these associations have not been investigated using a dietary patterns approach, which can capture combinations of foods and fat type consumed.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate associations between dietary patterns with varying proportions of SFAs, MUFAs, or PUFAs and obesity, abdominal obesity, and self-reported T2D incidence. Read More

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September 2021

Radiomics Based Bayesian Inversion Method for Prediction of Cancer and Pathological Stage.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2021 30;9:4300208. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringMichigan State University East Lansing MI 48824 USA.

Objective: To develop a Bayesian inversion framework on longitudinal chest CT scans which can perform efficient multi-class classification of lung cancer.

Methods: While the unavailability of large number of training medical images impedes the performance of lung cancer classifiers, the purpose built deep networks have not performed well in multi-class classification. The presented framework employs particle filtering approach to address the non-linear behaviour of radiomic features towards benign and cancerous (stages I, II, III, IV) nodules and performs efficient multi-class classification (benign, early stage cancer, advanced stage cancer) in terms of posterior probability function. Read More

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Effects of weight change on all causes, digestive system and other causes mortality in Southern Italy: a competing risk approach.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics National Institute of Gastroenterology, "S de Bellis" Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, BA, Italy.

Weight change is associated with all causes of death, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality and a heterogeneous group of other causes of death. We aimed to estimate the effect of weight change on all causes and cause-specific mortality in a cohort with a high prevalence of deaths due to diseases of the digestive system.MethodsIn this prospective cohort study, 2230 subjects aged 30 to 50 years were examined. Read More

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September 2021

The Babytwins Study Sweden (BATSS): A Multi-Method Infant Twin Study of Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing Infant Brain and Behavioral Development.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Sep 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.

Twin studies can help us understand the relative contributions of genes and environment to phenotypic trait variation, including attentional and brain activation measures. In terms of applying methodologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking, which are key methods in developmental neuroscience, infant twin studies are almost nonexistent. Here, we describe the Babytwins Study Sweden (BATSS), a multi-method longitudinal twin study of 177 MZ and 134 DZ twin pairs (i. Read More

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September 2021

Joint analysis of longitudinal measurements and spatially clustered competing risks HIV/AIDS data.

Somayeh Momenyan

Stat Med 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The joint modeling of repeated measurements and time-to-event provides a general framework to describe better the link between the progression of disease through longitudinal measurements and time-to-event outcome. In the survival data, a sample of individuals is frequently grouped into clusters. In some applications, these clusters could be arranged spatially, for example, based on geographical regions. Read More

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September 2021