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Effect of atorvastatin on delirium status of patients in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

Arch Med Sci 2021 12;17(5):1423-1428. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: Delirium is one of the most prevalent complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, which is related to worse clinical outcomes including a longer ICU stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, higher mortality rates and increased risk of cognitive impairment. Observational studies have suggested that statins might have a positive effect on delirium status of hospitalized patients. To date, there has been no trial assessing the effect of atorvastatin on delirium status in critically ill patients. Read More

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November 2019

A Comparison of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Hypernatraemia in Patients who are Acutely Admitted to Hospital.

Ir Med J 2021 Aug 19;114(7):407. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Saolta University Health Care Group (SUHCG), University Hospital Galway, Co. Galway.

Background Hypernatraemia is associated with a short-term mortality of 20-60%. Age-related physiological changes predispose patients to hypernatraemia. This study reviewed acutely admitted patients comparing those with community-acquired (CAH) and hospital-acquired hypernatraemia (HAH). Read More

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Two-year follow-up of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in emergency service personnel: A randomized clinical trial.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Emergency service personnel experience elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are few controlled trials for PTSD in this population, and none report longer term effects of treatment. This study evaluated the benefits of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for PTSD in emergency service personnel who received either brief exposure (CBT-B) to trauma memories or prolonged exposure (CBT-L) 2 years following treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of maternal depression in low-income women: A feasibility study from Kilifi, Kenya.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 13:e14862. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Aims Of The Study: To test the feasibility of a group psychosocial intervention called Learning Through Play (LTP) plus Culturally adapted Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CaCBT) for depressed Kenyan mothers with children aged 0-36 months.

Methods Used To Conduct The Study: This study was a single-arm mixed methods feasibility study to test an integrated parenting intervention for maternal depression in a low-income rural area of Fumbini village in Kilifi District of Kenya. Women between the ages of 18 and 45 years with children up to three years were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Read More

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September 2021

Initial cognitive impairment predicts shorter survival of patients with glioblastoma.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Neurology, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.

Objectives: Seizures as presenting symptom of glioblastoma (GBM) are known to predict prolonged survival, whereas the clinical impact of other initial symptoms is less known. Our main objective was to evaluate the influence of different presenting symptoms on survival in a clinical setting. We also assessed lead times, tumour size and localization. Read More

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September 2021

Social Determinants of Health and Delirium Occurrence and Duration in Critically Ill Adults.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Sep 7;3(9):e0532. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Intensive Care, Radboud Institute for Health Science, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, NL.

Social determinants of health may affect ICU outcome, but the association between social determinants of health and delirium remains unclear. We evaluated the association between three social determinants of health and delirium occurrence and duration in critically ill adults.

Design: Secondary, subgroup analysis of a cohort study. Read More

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September 2021

Factors Affecting the Length of Convalescent Hospital Stay Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

Prog Rehabil Med 2021 27;6:20210033. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objectives: : An important role of convalescent rehabilitation wards is the short-term improvement of mobility and activities of daily living (ADL). We aimed to identify predictors associated with the length of stay (LOS) in a convalescent hospital after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

Methods: : This study included 308 patients hospitalized in a convalescent ward following total hip or total knee arthroplasty. Read More

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Cognitive Impairment After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence and Knowledge Gaps.

Front Neurol 2021 27;12:716632. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, United States.

Cognitive impairment (CI) is commonly observed after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). While a growing number of studies have explored this association, several evidence gaps persist. This review seeks to investigate the relationship between CI and ICH. Read More

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The Developing Brain in the Digital Era: A Scoping Review of Structural and Functional Correlates of Screen Time in Adolescence.

Front Psychol 2021 27;12:671817. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.

The widespread diffusion of screen-based devices in adolescence has fueled a debate about the beneficial and detrimental effects on adolescents' well-being and development. With the aim of summarizing the existing literature on the associations between screen time (including Internet-related addictions) and adolescent brain development, the present scoping review summarized evidence from 16 task-unrelated and task-related neuroimaging studies, published between 2010 and 2020. Results highlight three important key messages: (i) a frequent and longer duration of screen-based media consumption (including Internet-related addictive behaviors) is related to a less efficient cognitive control system in adolescence, including areas of the Default Mode Network and the Central Executive Network; (ii) online activities act as strong rewards to the brain and repeated screen time augments the tendency to seek short-term gratifications; and (iii) neuroscientific research on the correlates between screen time and adolescent brain development is still at the beginning and in urgent need for further evidence, especially on the underlying causality mechanisms. Read More

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Venezuelan Forced Migration to Peru During Sociopolitical Crisis: an Analysis of Perceived Social Support and Emotion Regulation Strategies.

J Int Migr Integr 2021 Sep 8:1-34. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Universidad de Lima, Av. Javier Prado Este 4600 - Surco, Lima, Perú.

While many studies have examined the impact of forced migration on Venezuelan migrants in Latin America, to date scholars have not examined the effect of certain coping mechanisms, namely social support and emotion regulation. Using data from 386 Venezuelan migrants living in Peru ( = 20.22 years,  = 1. Read More

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September 2021

Longer-term soy nut consumption improves cerebral blood flow and psychomotor speed: results of a randomized, controlled crossover trial in older men and women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Effects of soy foods on cerebral blood flow (CBF)-a marker of cerebrovascular function-may contribute to the beneficial effects of plant-based diets on cognitive performance.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate longer-term effects of soy nut consumption on CBF in older adults. Changes in 3 different domains of cognitive performance were also studied. Read More

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September 2021

Time coding in rat dorsolateral striatum.

Neuron 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Cognitive Neuroscience, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

To assess the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in time coding, we recorded neuronal activity in rats tasked with comparing the durations of two sequential vibrations. Bayesian decoding of population activity revealed a representation of the unfolding of the trial across time. However, further analyses demonstrated a distinction between the encoding of trial time and perceived time. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and efficacy of dietary supplement (gintonin-enriched fraction from ginseng) in subjective memory impairment: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Integr Med Res 2022 Mar 22;11(1):100773. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Gintonin inhibits β-amyloid production, increases acetylcholine level in the brain, and promotes neurogenesis. We evaluated the efficacy of gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) in improving the cognitive performance in subjective memory impairment.

Methods: In this 8-week, randomized, assessor and participant blinded, placebo-controlled study, participants with subjective memory impairment but preserved cognitive function (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination [K-MMSE] score ≥23) were assigned to GEF 300mg/day or placebo. Read More

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A Metabolic Intervention for Improving Human Cognitive Performance During Hypoxia.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Jul;92(7):556-562

During hypoxia an operators cognitive performance may decline. This decline is linked to altered brain metabolism, resulting in decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Ketone bodies are an alternative substrate to glucose for brain metabolic requirements; previous studies have shown that the presence of elevated ketone bodies in the blood maintains brain ATP levels and reduces cerebral glycolysis during hypoxia. Read More

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Factors associated with employment stability following traumatic brain injury, in a sample who have received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Sep 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: To quantify employment stability of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation (VR) using different measures to identify difficulties experienced and factors associated with employment stability.

Materials And Methods: 72 individuals with predominantly moderate-severe TBI were interviewed. Neuropsychological assessment scores were collected. Read More

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September 2021

Self-perceptions of ageing: A systematic review of longitudinal studies.

Psychol Aging 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Health and Behavioural Sciences.

As the population of older adults increases, it is important to understand what may assist every older person to live well and longer. Using a systematic review, this study examined the longitudinal consequences of self-perceptions of ageing (SPA), a measure of internalized stereotypes of ageing, in participants 50 years or older. The sample comprised 21 studies published in English that used the Attitudes Toward Own Aging (ATOA) scale to measure SPA. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of Two Multidisciplinary Occupational Rehabilitation Programs Based on Multimodal Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Self-Rated Health and Work Ability.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:669770. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Psychology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Musculoskeletal pain and common mental disorders constitute the largest proportion of people who are on sick leave. This study investigated the efficacy of two multidisciplinary occupational rehabilitation programs on self-rated health and work-related outcomes. The interventions were identical in content but differed in length. Read More

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Outcomes in the treatment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) with CBTip: Response in seizure frequency, depression, anxiety, and quality of life.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Sep 4;123:108277. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

The Charles Shor Epilepsy Center Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

Rationale: Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) are seizure-like episodes without EEG abnormality, and are of psychological origin. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a type of psychological counseling, is known to be the best intervention to treat PNES and the underlying psychiatric symptoms. Yet, many remain untreated because of limited access to specialized counseling programs. Read More

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September 2021

End in view: Joint end-state comfort depends on gaze and extraversion.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Sep 4;80:102867. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Perception and Action, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

This study investigated how humans adapt to a partner's movement in a joint pick-and-place task and examined the role of gaze behavior and personality traits in adapting to a partner. Two participants sitting side-by-side transported a cup from one end of a table to the other. The participant sitting on the left (the agent) moved the cup to an intermediate position from where the participant sitting on the right (the partner) transported it to a goal position with varying orientations. Read More

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September 2021

Cognitive and Physiological Measures of Listening Effort During Degraded Speech Perception: Relating Dual-Task and Pupillometry Paradigms.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Sep 7;64(9):3627-3652. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Purpose Listening effort is quickly becoming an important metric for assessing speech perception in less-than-ideal situations. However, the relationship between the construct of listening effort and the measures used to assess it remains unclear. We compared two measures of listening effort: a cognitive dual task and a physiological pupillometry task. Read More

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September 2021

Atypical functional connectome hierarchy impacts cognition in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Neuroimaging of Epilepsy Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with hippocampal pathology. However, widespread network alterations are increasingly recognized and suggested to perturb cognitive function in multiple domains. Here we tested (1) whether TLE shows atypical cortical hierarchical organization, differentiating sensory and higher order systems; and (2) whether atypical hierarchy predicts cognitive impairment. Read More

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September 2021

Concealing Untrustworthiness: The Role of Conflict Monitoring in a Social Deception Task.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:718334. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Deception studies emphasize the important role of event-related potentials (ERPs) to uncover deceptive behavior based on underlying neuro-cognitive processes. The role of conflict monitoring as indicated by the frontal N2 component during truthful and deceptive responses was investigated in an adapted Concealed Information Test (CIT). Previously memorized pictures of faces should either be indicated as truthfully trustworthy, truthfully untrustworthy or trustworthy while concealing the actual untrustworthiness (untrustworthy-probe). Read More

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Predicting progression and cognitive decline in amyloid-positive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 09 6;13(1):151. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid- β (A β) peptides aggregate in the lowering CSF amyloid levels - a key pathological hallmark of the disease. However, lowered CSF amyloid levels may also be present in cognitively unimpaired elderly individuals. Therefore, it is of great value to explain the variance in disease progression among patients with A β pathology. Read More

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September 2021

A Comparison of Functional Abilities in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Parkinson's Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Assessment Methods.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Sep 6:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Northwest Neurological, PLLC, Spokane, WA, USA.

Objective: This study used multiple assessment methods to examine instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) compared to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively healthy older adults (HOA). Associations between functional performance and cognition were also examined.

Methods: Eighteen individuals with PD-MCI, 48 individuals with MCI, and 66 HOAs were assessed with multiple IADL measures, including direct observation, a performance-based measure, and self- and informant-report questionnaires. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Before Operational Stress: A Program to Support Mental Health and Proactive Psychological Protection in Public Safety Personnel.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:511755. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Canadian Institute for Public Safety Research & Treatment, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.

Public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., communications officials, corrections workers, firefighters, paramedics, and police officers) are at risk of developing mental health problems due to experiencing potentially psychologically traumatic events during their career. Read More

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The Impact of Stereotactic or Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Neurocognitive Functioning in Adult Patients with Brain Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Sep 3:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background & Objectives: Radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain metastases (BMs), although it may lead to radiation-induced cognitive impairment. This review explores the impact of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on cognition.

Methods: The PRISMA guidelines were used to identify articles on PubMed and EmBase reporting on objective assessment of cognition before, and at least once after radiotherapy, in adult patients with nonresected BMs. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of IPS plus cognitive remediation in early psychosis: 18-month functioning outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

Schizophr Res 2021 Sep 3;236:115-122. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Phrenos Center of Expertise, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Tranzo, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Background: After a first episode of psychosis, cognitive impairments present an important barrier to successful (re-)entry into work and education. We assessed whether cognitive remediation (CR) as an add-on to Individual Placement and Support (IPS) can improve participation in regular employment and education.

Method: Participants with early psychosis (N = 73) were randomly assigned to receive IPS supplemented with computerized CR, or IPS plus an active control intervention (computer games). Read More

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September 2021

The Bidirectional Link Between Sleep Disturbances and Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms: A Role for Glymphatic Dysfunction?

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Departments of Neurology, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, and Department of Medicine - Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; Neurology Service and National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research, Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often referred to as concussion, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Sleep disturbances are common after mTBI. Moreover, subjects who develop subjective sleep complaints after mTBI also report more severe somatic, mental health, and cognitive impairment and take longer to recover from mTBI sequelae. Read More

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The longitudinal associations between change in physical activity and cognitive functioning in older adults with chronic illness (es).

BMC Geriatr 2021 09 4;21(1):478. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Faculty of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 AT, Heerlen, the Netherlands.

Background: Regular physical activity (PA) is potentially beneficial for age-related cognitive decline. Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mostly advised, older adults with chronic illnesses might benefit more from light physical activity (LPA), as they suffer from mobility problems, pain, and fatigue, limiting high-intensity PA. Therefore, the longitudinal association between change in LPA and MVPA and the change in cognitive functioning (CF) is investigated in older adults with chronic illnesses. Read More

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September 2021