21,465 results match your criteria long-chain fatty

Protein acylation by saturated very long chain fatty acids and endocytosis are involved in necroptosis.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA. Electronic address:

Necroptosis is a form of cell death characterized by receptor-interacting protein kinase activity and plasma membrane permeabilization via mixed-lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL). This permeabilization is responsible for the inflammatory properties of necroptosis. We previously showed that very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are functionally involved in necroptosis, potentially through protein fatty acylation. Read More

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Understanding the Function of Mammalian Sirtuins and Protein Lysine Acylation.

Annu Rev Biochem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Protein lysine acetylation is an important posttranslational modification that regulates numerous biological processes. Targeting lysine acetylation regulatory factors, such as acetyltransferases, deacetylases, and acetyl-lysine recognition domains, has been shown to have potential for treating human diseases, including cancer and neurological diseases. Over the past decade, many other acyl-lysine modifications, such as succinylation, crotonylation, and long-chain fatty acylation, have also been investigated and shown to have interesting biological functions. Read More

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Flexibility of equine bioenergetics and muscle plasticity in response to different types of training: An integrative approach, questioning existing paradigms.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249922. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Research Group of Comparative Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Equine bioenergetics have predominantly been studied focusing on glycogen and fatty acids. Combining omics with conventional techniques allows for an integrative approach to broadly explore and identify important biomolecules. Friesian horses were aquatrained (n = 5) or dry treadmill trained (n = 7) (8 weeks) and monitored for: evolution of muscle diameter in response to aquatraining and dry treadmill training, fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional area of the M. Read More

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Lipid nutritional quality of marine and freshwater bivalves and their aquaculture potential.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 13:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Marine Sciences, Shantou University, Shantou, China.

Omega-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are beneficial to human health. Since the industrial revolution, with the tremendous increase of human population, the supply of natural n-3 LC-PUFA is far lower than the nutritional need of n-3 LC-PUFA. Therefore, a new alternative source of natural n-3 LC-PUFA is urgently needed to reduce the supply and demand gap of n-3 LC-PUFA. Read More

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Short-term forage substitution with ensiled olive cake increases beneficial milk fatty acids in lactating cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 12;53(2):257. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O Box 50329, Limassol, Cyprus.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term forage substitution with ensiled olive cake (OC), on yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of cows' milk. Mid-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned for 21 days to two isoenergetic and isoproteic feeding treatments (12 animals per treatment), containing 0 and 10% DM of ensiled OC (C and OC groups, respectively). Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected at 14 and 21 days of the trial for analyzing the fat, protein, and FA profile of milk. Read More

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Sapropterin (BH4) Aggravates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Depletion of the enzyme cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), in T-cells was shown to prevent their proliferation upon receptor stimulation in models of allergic inflammation in mice, suggesting that BH4 drives autoimmunity. Hence, the clinically available BH4 drug (sapropterin) might increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. The present study assessed the implications for multiple sclerosis (MS) as an exemplary CNS autoimmune disease. Read More

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Dysregulated Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 Exacerbates Colonic Adenoma Formation in Mice: Relation to Metabolism and Gut Microbiota Composition.

J Cancer Prev 2021 Mar;26(1):32-40

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Free fatty acid receptor 2 () has been reported as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer development. The current study investigated the effects of signaling on energy metabolism and gut microbiota profiling in a colorectal cancer mouse model ( ). deficiency promoted colonic polyp development and enhanced fatty acid oxidation and bile acid metabolism. Read More

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Role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human nutrition and health: review of recent studies and recommendations.

Peter Van Dael

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Apr 4;15(2):137-159. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Nutrition Science & Advocacy, DSM Nutritional Products, 4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland.

Long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are nutrients involved in many metabolic and physiological processes, and are referred to as n-3 LCPUFA. They have been extensively studied for their effects in human nutrition and health. This paper provides an overview on metabolism, sources, dietary intake, and status of n-3 LCPUFA. Read More

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Simultaneous Treatment of Long-chain Monounsaturated Fatty Acid and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Decreases Lipid and Cholesterol Levels in HepG2 Cell.

J Oleo Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology.

The n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from fish oil exhibit health benefits such as triacylglycerol- and cholesterol-lowering effects. Some pelagic fishes contain long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs) such as eicosenoic acid (C20:1), which exert health-promoting effects. However, no study has evaluated beneficial effects of n-3PUFA and LC-MUFA combination. Read More

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Plasma Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients After an Acute Coronary Syndrome in MERLIN-TIMI 36.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 12:e017401. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

TIMI Study Group Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have been shown to be inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular death in primary prevention. The risk relationship in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome is less well established. Methods and Results Baseline plasma ω3-PUFA composition (α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) was assessed through gas chromatography with flame ionization detection in a case-cohort study involving 203 patients with cardiovascular death, 325 with myocardial infarction, 271 with ventricular tachycardia, and 161 with atrial fibrillation, and a random sample of 1612 event-free subjects as controls from MERLIN-TIMI 36 (Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation-Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36), a trial of patients hospitalized with non-ST-segment-elevation -acute coronary syndrome. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of short-chain fatty alcohols in aged oil and biodiesels by stable isotope labeling assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Talanta 2021 Jul 9;229:122223. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Short-chain fatty alcohols (SCFAs) are one of the reactants for the production of biodiesels. The SCFA residues at the trace level have a significant impact on biodiesel quality. However, the analysis of SCFAs in aged biodiesels has not been reported so far, which is probably due to the unavailability of an appropriate analytical method for the simultaneous determination of SCFAs. Read More

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A Ratiometric Fluorescent Biosensor Reveals Dynamic Regulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Esters Metabolism.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Central China Normal University, Chemistry, CHINA.

Despite increasing awareness of the biological impacts of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters (LCACoAs), our knowledge about the subcellular distribution and regulatory functions of these acyl-CoA molecules is limited by a lack of methods for detecting LCACoAs in living cells. Here, we report development of a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor that enables ratiometric quantification of LCACoAs in living cells and subcellular compartments. We demonstrate how this FadR-cpYFP fusion "LACSer sensor" undergoes LCACoA-induced conformational changes reflected in easily detectable fluorescence responses, and show proof-of-concept for real-time monitoring of LCACoAs in human cells. Read More

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Chronotropic effects and mechanisms of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on heartbeat: the latest insights.

Weiguo Zhang

Nutr Rev 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

W. Zhang is with the Las Colinas Institutes, Irving, Texas, USA.

The roles of the resting heart rate (RHR) have been actively investigated and increasingly recognized in recent decades, because of the growing evidence that fast RHR is associated with and predicts the risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, as well as all-cause mortality. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (eg, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) have been shown to have chronotropic effects on heartbeat in both healthy people and patients with various disease conditions. The aims of this review are (1) to briefly summarize the importance of elevated RHR in disease pathogenesis and mortality; (2) to provide an update on the negative chronotropic effect of omega-3 PUFAs on the heart; (3) to highlight how omega-3 PUFAs regulate heart rate through the autonomic nervous system - a central control mechanism; and (4) to highlight how omega-3 PUFAs modulate the trans-membrane ionic channels in cardiomyocytes - a fundamental mechanism of cardiac automaticity. Read More

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Genetic suppression of lethal mutations in fatty acid biosynthesis mediated by a secondary lipid synthase.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA USA

The biosynthesis and incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipid membranes is a unique feature of certain marine Gammaproteobacteria inhabiting high-pressure and/or low temperature environments. In these bacteria, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids are produced via the classical dissociated Type II fatty acid synthase mechanism, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (20:53) and DHA (22:63) are produced by a hybrid polyketide/fatty acid synthase - encoded by the genes - also referred to as the secondary lipid synthase mechanism. In this work, phenotypes associated with partial or complete loss of monounsaturated biosynthesis are shown to be compensated for by several-fold increased production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the model marine bacterium SS9. Read More

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Fish oil replacement prevents, while docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin DX mitigates end-stage-renal-disease in atherosclerotic diabetic mice.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21559

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We used high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS)-fed LDLr /ApoB mice with transgenic overexpression of IGFII in pancreatic β-cells (LRKOB100/IGFII) as a model of ESRD to test whether dietary long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids LCω3FA-rich fish oil (FO) could prevent ESRD development. We further evaluated the potential of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived pro-resolving lipid mediators, 17-hydroxy-DHA (17-HDHA) and Protectin DX (PDX), to reverse established ESRD damage. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms detected in yak lung tissue via transcriptome-wide analysis provide insights into adaptation to high altitudes.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7786. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China.

Due to their long-term colonization of and widespread distribution in plateau environments, yaks can serve as an ideal natural animal model for the adaptive evolution of other plateau species, including humans. Some studies reported that the lung and heart are two key organs that show adaptive transcriptional changes in response to high altitudes, and most of the genes that show differential expression in lung tissue across different altitudes display nonlinear regulation. To explore the molecular mechanisms that are activated in yak lung tissue in response to hypoxia, the mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs of lung tissue from 9 yaks living at three different altitudes (3400 m, 4200 m and 5000 m), with three repetitions per altitude, were sequenced. Read More

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Role of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Healthy Metabolism: A Clinical Perspective.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Biomedical Science and Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) serve not only as an energy source but also regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. The unique transport and rapid metabolism of MCFAs provide additional clinical benefits over other substrates such as long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and have prompted interest in the use of MCFAs for treating metabolic and neurological disorders. This review focuses on the metabolic role of MCFAs in modulating cellular signaling and regulating key circulating metabolites and hormones. Read More

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Plasma glycerophospholipid profile, erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs, and metabolic syndrome incidence: a prospective study in Chinese men and women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Background: Animal studies have highlighted critical roles of glycerophospholipid (GP) metabolism in various metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related features such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and insulin resistance. However, human prospective studies of associations between circulating GPs and risks of MetS are scarce.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether GPs are associated with incidence of MetS in a well-established cohort. Read More

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Functional Role of Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases in Plant Development and Stress Responses.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:640996. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

Fatty acids (FAs) play vital roles in plants as components of lipid membranes that demarcate cells and organelles, as sources of stored energy in the form of neutral lipids, and as signaling molecules that elicit plant responses to adverse conditions. The activation of FAs through the formation of acyl-CoA intermediates by acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) family enzymes is required for their synthesis and degradation. Long-chain ACSs (LACSs) represent a small subgroup of ACS enzymes that specifically convert long-chain or very-long-chain FAs into corresponding thioesters for multiple lipid-associated processes. Read More

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Consumption of vitamin A-deficient diet elevates endoplasmic reticulum stress marker and suppresses high fructose-induced orexigenic gene expression in the brain of male Wistar rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Lipid Biochemistry Division, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Objective: Here, we assessed the impact of vitamin A deficiency (both alone and in combination with fructose) on the retinol status, phospholipids fatty acid composition and pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and energy homeostasis of the brain. For this purpose, weanling male Wistar rats were divided into four groups consisting of 8 rats each, except 16 for the second group and they received one of the following diets; control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), high fructose (HFr) and HFr with VAD for 16 weeks, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats, were shifted to HFr diet, after 8 weeks period.

Results: The retinol content of the whole brain remained comparable across the groups, despite a significant reduction in the plasma at the end of VAD diet feeding. Read More

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Expression of novel acidic lipase from Micrococcus luteus in Pichia pastoris and its application in transesterification.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Apr 7;19(1):55. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biotechnology Research and Development, PT Wilmar Benih Indonesia, Bekasi, 17530, Indonesia.

Background: Lipases are promising biocatalysts for industrial applications and attract attention to be explored. A novel acidic lipase has been isolated from the lipolytic bacteria Micrococcus luteus EMP48-D (LipEMP48-D) screened from tempeh. The lipase gene had previously been overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21, but the expression level obtained was relatively low. Read More

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The maize ZmMIEL1 E3 ligase and ZmMYB83 transcription factor proteins interact and regulate the hypersensitive defence response.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

The plant hypersensitive response (HR), a rapid cell death at the point of pathogenesis, is mediated by nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) resistance proteins (R-proteins) that recognize the presence of specific pathogen-derived proteins. Rp1-D21 is an autoactive maize NLR R-protein that triggers HR spontaneously. We previously mapped loci associated with variation in the strength of HR induced by Rp1-D21. Read More

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Manipulating fatty-acid profile at unit chain-length resolution in the model industrial oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis.

Metab Eng 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Single-Cell Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Biofuels and Shandong Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong, China; Laboratory of Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory of Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The chain length (CL) of fatty acids (FAs) is pivotal to oil property, yet to what extent it can be customized in industrial oleaginous microalgae is unknown. In Nannochloropsis oceanica, to modulate long-chain FAs (LCFAs), we first discovered a fungi/bacteria-originated polyketide synthase (PKS) system which involves a cytoplasmic acyl-ACP thioesterase (NoTE1). NoTE1 hydrolyzes C16:0-, C16:1- and C18:1-ACP in vitro and thus intercepts the specific acyl-ACPs elongated by PKS for polyunsaturated FA biosynthesis, resulting in elevation of C16/C18 monounsaturated FAs when overproduced and increase of C20 when knocked out. Read More

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False-positive very long-chain fatty acids in a case of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 14;34(4):517-520. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) affects up to 25% of boys diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency in childhood. Because early identification of these individuals can be lifesaving, all boys with new-onset primary adrenal insufficiency should be tested for ALD with a plasma very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) level. While plasma VLCFA is a diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity, false-positive results have been reported in individuals on a ketogenic diet. Read More

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