22,968 results match your criteria long availability


Implementation Science to Improve Tobacco Cessation Services in Oncology Care.

Authors:

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Nov;19(Suppl_1):S12-S15

Every patient with cancer deserves access to evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions as part of their routine oncology care. The NCI Cancer Moonshot funded the Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) to help establish and/or expand tobacco treatment programs at 52 NCI-designated Cancer Centers. Although this initiative has broadened the availability of tobacco treatment services across US cancer centers, the reach and utilization of these services remains low among patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The subsurface urban heat island in Milan (Italy) - A modeling approach covering present and future thermal effects on groundwater regimes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 3:152119. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

DISAT - Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 4, Milan 20126, Italy.

Knowledge on the intensity and extension of current subsurface urban heat islands (SUHI) is not only based on the availability of spatiotemporal high-resolution and long-term groundwater monitoring data but also in-depth investigations on the role of single natural and anthropogenic factors. A holistic city-scale 3D FEM model is presented to introduce possible thermal management applications in the Milan metropolitan area such as: (1) understanding the hydro-thermal regime of the urban aquifer disentangling the thermal contribution of natural and anthropogenic heat sources, (2) quantifying the geothermal potential and (3) investigating the effects of urbanization and climate change scenarios. Focusing on the most relevant heat sources (boundaries) and transport mechanisms (parameters), this work deals with (I) the reconstruction of large-scale aquifer heterogeneities to consider the advective dominated heat transport, (II) the accurate definition of the upper thermal boundary by a coupled analytical solution and (III) the integration of natural and human-related fluid/heat sources as transient boundary conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Both real-time and long-term environmental data perform well in predicting shorebird distributions in managed habitat.

Ecol Appl 2021 Dec 6:e2510. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Point Blue Conservation Science, 3820 Cypress Drive #11, Petaluma, CA, USA.

Highly mobile species, such as migratory birds, respond to seasonal and inter-annual variability in resource availability by moving to better habitats. Despite the recognized importance of resource thresholds, species distribution models typically rely on long-term average habitat conditions, mostly because large-extent, temporally-resolved, environmental data are difficult to obtain. Recent advances in remote sensing make it possible to incorporate more frequent measurements of changing landscapes; however, there is often a cost in terms of model building and processing and the added value of such efforts is unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Dimensional reduction of phenotypes from 53 000 mouse models reveals a diverse landscape of gene function.

Bioinform Adv 2021 11;1(1):vbab026. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, EC1M 6BQ London, UK.

: Animal models have long been used to study gene function and the impact of genetic mutations on phenotype. Through the research efforts of thousands of research groups, systematic curation of published literature and high-throughput phenotyping screens, the collective body of knowledge for the mouse now covers the majority of protein-coding genes. We here collected data for over 53 000 mouse models with mutations in over 15 000 genomic markers and characterized by more than 254 000 annotations using more than 9000 distinct ontology terms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Availability and Quality of Grief and Bereavement Care in Pediatric Intensive Care Units Around the World, Opportunities for Improvement.

Front Pediatr 2021 15;9:742916. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Surgery, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Northwell/Hofstra University School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, United States.

Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) provide multidisciplinary care to critically ill children and their families. Grief is present throughout the trajectory of illness and can peak around the time of death or non-death losses. The objective of this study was to assess how PICUs around the world implement grief and bereavement care (GBC) as part of an integrated model of care. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The Research Progress in Immunotherapy of Tuberculosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 15;11:763591. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Key Laboratory/Beijing Key Laboratory of New Techniques of Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment, Senior Department of Tuberculosis, The 8th Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem worldwide. The combination of various anti-TB drugs is mainly used to treat TB in clinical practice. Despite the availability of effective antibiotics, effective treatment regimens still require long-term use of multiple drugs, leading to toxicity, low patient compliance, and the development of drug resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Surrogate endpoints for early-stage breast cancer: a review of the state of the art, controversies, and future prospects.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 29;13:17588359211059587. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Medica Scientia Innovation Research (MEDSIR), Barcelona, Spain.

Drug approval for early-stage breast cancer (EBC) has been historically granted in the context of registration trials based on adequate outcomes such as disease-free survival and overall survival. Improvements in long-term outcomes have made it more difficult to demonstrate the clinical benefit of a new cancer drug in large, randomized, comparative clinical trials. Therefore, the use of surrogate endpoints rather than traditional measures allows for cancer drug trials to proceed with smaller sample sizes and shorter follow-up periods, which reduces drug development time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

The PID Principles of Care: Where Are We Now? A Global Status Report Based on the PID Life Index.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:780140. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

The International Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Downderry, United Kingdom.

A global gold standard framework for primary immunodeficiency (PID) care, structured around six principles, was published in 2014. To measure the implementation status of these principles IPOPI developed the PID Life Index in 2020, an interactive tool aggregating national PID data. This development was combined with a revision of the principles to consider advances in the field of health and science as well as political developments since 2014. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Mitochondria-Related Nuclear Gene Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens and Blood Mitochondrial Copy Number After Developmental Fentanyl Exposure in Adolescent Male and Female C57BL/6 Mice.

Front Psychiatry 2021 18;12:737389. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The potency of the synthetic opioid fentanyl and its increased clinical availability has led to the rapid escalation of use in the general population, increased recreational exposure, and subsequently opioid-related overdoses. The wide-spread use of fentanyl has, consequently, increased the incidence of exposure to the drug, but the long-term effects of this type of developmental exposure are not yet understood. Opioid use has also been linked to reduced mitochondrial copy number in blood in clinical populations, but the link between this peripheral biomarker and genetic or functional changes in reward-related brain circuitry is still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Chemical synthesis of saponins: An update.

Authors:
Peng Xu Biao Yu

Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 2021 25;79:1-62. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Bioorganic and Natural Products Chemistry, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Saponins, as secondary metabolites in terrestrial plants and marine invertebrate, constitute one of the largest families of natural products. The long history of folk medicinal applications of saponins makes them attractive candidates for innovative drug design and development. Chemical synthesis has become a practical alternative to the availability of the natural saponins and their modified analogs, so as to facilitate SAR studies and the discovery of optimal structures for clinical applications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Individual and facility-level factors associated with women's receipt of immediate postpartum family planning counseling in Ethiopia: results from national surveys of women and health facilities.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Dec 5;21(1):809. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Immediate postpartum family planning (IPPFP) helps prevent unintended and closely spaced pregnancies. Despite Ethiopia's rising facility-based delivery rate and supportive IPPFP policies, the prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use remains low, with little known about disparities in access to IPPFP counseling. We sought to understand if women's receipt of IPPFP counseling varied by individual and facility characteristics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Nutritional optimization for female elite football players-topical review.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Dec 5. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Section of Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Women's football is an intermittent sport characterized by frequent intense actions throughout the match. The high number of matches with limited recovery time played across a long competitive season underlines the importance of nutritional strategies to meet these large physical demands. In order to maximize sport performance and maintain good health, energy intake must be optimal. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Survey Deficiencies as Quality Indicators in Oregon Assisted Living Communities.

Gerontologist 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Institute on Aging, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Background And Objectives: License inspection data have commonly been used as a quality measure for nursing homes but has not yet been used to assess the quality of assisted living/residential care (AL/RC) communities. Drawing on resource dependency theory, we test the hypothesis that structural and environmental characteristics influence AL/RC quality as measured by deficiency citations ("deficiencies") issued during license inspections.

Research Design And Methods: Using data from 526 licensed AL/RC communities in Oregon that received a license inspection visit between 2008 and 2016, we examined the prevalence of deficiencies by type and year. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

DeepIDP-2L: protein intrinsically disordered region prediction by combining convolutional attention network and hierarchical attention network.

Bioinformatics 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Motivation: Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are widely distributed in proteins. Accurate prediction of IDRs is critical for the protein structure and function analysis. The IDRs are divided into long disordered regions (LDRs) and short disordered regions (SDRs) according to their lengths. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Impacts of sediment resuspension on phytoplankton biomass production and trophic transfer: Implications for shallow lake restoration.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 2:152156. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands; Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Group, Wageningen University (WUR), Droevendaalsesteeg 2, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Wind-induced sediment resuspension in shallow lakes may enhance nutrient availability while reducing light availability for phytoplankton growth, thereby affecting the entire food-web. Lake restoration projects that reduce wind-induced resuspension are expected to enhance trophic transfer efficiencies, thereby improving food-web structure and functioning. Yet, reduced resuspension may also lead to lower nutrient concentrations in the water column, promote benthic algae development, reduce phytoplankton biomass production and thereby reduce secondary production by zooplankton. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

A system dynamics approach to pollution remediation and mitigation based on increasing the share of renewable resources.

Environ Res 2021 Dec 1:112458. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, 43500, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study explores the role of renewable energy (RE) penetration in Malaysia's energy security (ES) and its implications for the country's target of 20% capacity in the energy mix by 2025. Renewable energy (RE) is a critical driver of long-term energy security. In 2018, the share of renewable energy in Malaysia's energy mix was 9%, falling far short of the national target of 20% penetration by 2025. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Immediate IUD insertion after second trimester abortion: implications for service delivery.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Dec 4;21(1):1304. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Women's Health Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, 7925 Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The availability of modern contraception including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), is a fundamental component of postabortion care. Findings from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) in South Africa comparing immediate to delayed insertion of the copper intrauterine device (IUD) after medical abortion (MA) at 17-20 gestational weeks showed that immediate insertion resulted in higher IUD use at 6 weeks postabortion, but that expulsion rates were significantly higher than for delayed insertion. This study aims to explore barriers, facilitators, and context-specific factors relevant to the implementation of immediate IUD provision after second trimester medical abortion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Toward a genome sequence for every animal: Where are we now?

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Dec;118(52)

LOEWE Centre for Translational Biodiversity Genomics, Frankfurt 60325, Germany;

In less than 25 y, the field of animal genome science has transformed from a discipline seeking its first glimpses into genome sequences across the Tree of Life to a global enterprise with ambitions to sequence genomes for all of Earth's eukaryotic diversity [H. A. Lewin , 115, 4325-4333 (2018)]. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Herpesvirus DNA polymerase: Structures, functions, and mechanisms.

Enzymes 2021 2;50:133-178. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Microbiology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Herpesviruses comprise a family of DNA viruses that cause a variety of human and veterinary diseases. During productive infection, mammalian, avian, and reptilian herpesviruses replicate their genomes using a set of conserved viral proteins that include a two subunit DNA polymerase. This enzyme is both a model system for family B DNA polymerases and a target for inhibition by antiviral drugs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Thermodynamic constraints on the assembly and diversity of microbial ecosystems are different near to and far from equilibrium.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Dec 3;17(12):e1009643. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics has long been an area of substantial interest to ecologists because most fundamental biological processes, such as protein synthesis and respiration, are inherently energy-consuming. However, most of this interest has focused on developing coarse ecosystem-level maximisation principles, providing little insight into underlying mechanisms that lead to such emergent constraints. Microbial communities are a natural system to decipher this mechanistic basis because their interactions in the form of substrate consumption, metabolite production, and cross-feeding can be described explicitly in thermodynamic terms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Altruistic Attitudes Among Older Adults: Examining Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of a New Scale.

Innov Aging 2021 27;5(1):igaa060. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York, US.

Background And Objectives: Scholarly research has established the role of altruism in facilitating human cooperation and prosocial behaviors and highlighted its contribution to psychological well-being. Given the health significance of altruistic attitudes and orientations, we developed a valid and reliable measure of this construct that is suitable for use with older adults.

Research Design And Methods: Based on data from a long-term panel study on adaptation to frailty among older adults ( = 366; mean age = 86 years), we used confirmatory factor analysis to perform construct validation of a five-item Elderly Care Research Center Altruism Scale among older adults (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Farm and Livelihood Characteristics After ITM Vaccination Against East Coast Fever in Tanzania.

Front Vet Sci 2021 11;8:639762. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Animal and Human Health, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

East Coast Fever is a critical cattle disease in East and Southern Africa which is currently mainly controlled through frequent chemical removal of ticks, the disease vector. However, a vaccine conveying life-long immunity has existed for some time, known as the infection and treatment method (ITM), although it has so far not been widely adopted because of its cost, demanding distribution system and regulatory reservations. Also, despite having proved effective on the animal level, the promoters of the vaccine have not been able to show much evidence of its benefits on the herd, farm and household levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses Revealed the Implications of Abscisic Acid in Mediating the Rate-Limiting Step for Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Utilisation in Response to Vapour Pressure Deficit in (Tomato).

Front Plant Sci 2021 10;12:745110. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

College of Horticultural Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

The atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) has been demonstrated to be a significant environmental factor inducing plant water stress and affecting plant photosynthetic productivity. Despite this, the rate-limiting step for photosynthesis under varying VPD is still unclear. In the present study, tomato plants were cultivated under two contrasting VPD levels: high VPD (3-5 kPa) and low VPD (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Parents' experiences with a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown: an online survey in the Netherlands.

BMJ Open 2021 12 2;11(12):e055811. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

General Paediatrics, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents' health-seeking behaviour and care for a sick or injured child in the Netherlands.

Design And Setting: An online survey on parents' experiences with a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown periods was disseminated through social media.

Participants: Parents living in the Netherlands with a sick or injured child during the lockdown periods from March to June 2020 and from December 2020 to February 2021 were eligible to participate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Adoption and patterns of use of invasive physiological assessment of coronary artery disease in a large cohort of 40821 real-world procedures over a 12-year period.

Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Oct;40(10):771-781

Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando da Fonseca, EPE, Cardiology Department, Amadora, Portugal; University Clinic of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine at University of Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal.

Introduction And Objectives: Use of invasive physiological assessment in patients with coronary artery disease varies widely and is perceived to be low. We aimed to examine adoption rates as well as patterns and determinants of use in an unselected population undergoing invasive coronary angiography over a long time frame.

Methods: We retrospectively determined the per-procedure prevalence of physiological assessment in 40821 coronary cases performed between 2007 and 2018 in two large-volume centers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

A critical review on the occurrence and distribution of the uranium- and thorium-decay nuclides and their effect on the quality of groundwater.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 29:151914. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA.

This critical review presents the key factors that control the occurrence of natural elements from the uranium- and thorium decay series, also known as naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, radium, radon, lead, polonium, and their isotopes in groundwater resources. Given their toxicity and radiation, elevated levels of these nuclides in drinking water pose human health risks, and therefore understanding the occurrence, sources, and factors that control the mobilization of these nuclides from aquifer rocks is critical for better groundwater management and human health protection. The concentrations of these nuclides in groundwater are a function of the groundwater residence time relative to the decay rates of the nuclides, as well as the net balance between nuclide mobilization (dissolution, desorption, recoil) and retention (adsorption, precipitation). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Comparison of TCF4 repeat expansion length in corneal endothelium and leukocytes of patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(12):e0260837. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United states of America.

Expansion of CTG trinucleotide repeats (TNR) in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene is highly associated with Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Due to limitations in the availability of DNA from diseased corneal endothelium, sizing of CTG repeats in FECD patients has typically been determined using DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. However, it is non-feasible to extract enough DNA from surgically isolated FECD corneal endothelial tissue to determine repeat length based on current technology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Cancellation of elective orthopaedic procedures is not a benign practice and is often preventable.

N Z Med J 2021 11 26;134(1546):70-78. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Senior Lecturer, University of Otago, Southland Hospital, Southern District Health Board, Invercargill, New Zealand.

Aim: To quantify the reasons for cancelled elective orthopaedic operations, in particular hip and knee arthroplasty. Secondary aims included defining how long these patients had to wait until their operation, and investigating the impact delayed surgery has on patients in terms of re-presentation to healthcare services.

Methods: We reviewed hospital records for all cancelled elective orthopaedic operations over a two-year period at a secondary hospital in New Zealand, investigated the reasons for these cancellations, wait times and comorbidities and compared total hip and knee arthroplasty to other elective orthopaedic operations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Instant Preparation of Ultraclean Gold Nanothorns under Ambient Conditions for SERS Kit-Enabled Mobile Diagnosis.

Anal Chem 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China.

Availability of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with good stability, high sensitivity, and a clean surface is crucial for the practical usefulness of the SERS technology in biochemical sensing, especially for point-of-care testing (POCT). Hereby, we develop a "ready-to-use" SERS kit, which requires only 20 s to fabricate ultraclean gold nanothorn (AuNT)-based SERS chips under ambient conditions with simple solution processing steps. By varying the thickness of the pre-coated platinum (Pt) nanolayer, we can control the size and number density of the grown AuNT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Leaf trait modification in European beech trees in response to climatic and edaphic drought.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Leaf morphological and physiological traits control the carbon and water relations of mature trees and are determinants of drought tolerance, but it is not well understood how they are modified in response to water deficits. We analysed five sun-canopy leaf traits (mean leaf size (LS), specific leaf area (SLA), Huber value (HV), water potential at turgor loss point (Ψ ) and foliar carbon isotope signature (δ C)) in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across three precipitation gradients sampled in moist (2010), dry (2019) and very dry (2018) summers, and tested their response to short-term water deficits (climatic water balance (CWB) preceding sample collection) and long-term water availability (mean annual precipitation (MAP), plant-available soil water capacity (AWC) and neighbourhood competition). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021