Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 29:151914. Epub 2021 Nov 29.
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA.
This critical review presents the key factors that control the occurrence of natural elements from the uranium- and thorium decay series, also known as naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, radium, radon, lead, polonium, and their isotopes in groundwater resources. Given their toxicity and radiation, elevated levels of these nuclides in drinking water pose human health risks, and therefore understanding the occurrence, sources, and factors that control the mobilization of these nuclides from aquifer rocks is critical for better groundwater management and human health protection. The concentrations of these nuclides in groundwater are a function of the groundwater residence time relative to the decay rates of the nuclides, as well as the net balance between nuclide mobilization (dissolution, desorption, recoil) and retention (adsorption, precipitation). Read More