Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2013 30;9:1499-512. Epub 2013 Sep 30.
Florida State University - Panama, Clayton, Panama ; Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA ; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancon, Republic of Panama.
Substance dependence is characterized by a group of symptoms, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). These symptoms include tolerance, withdrawal, drug consumption for alleviating withdrawal, exaggerated consumption beyond original intention, failure to reduce drug consumption, expending a considerable amount of time obtaining or recovering from the substance's effects, disregard of basic aspects of life (for example, family), and maintenance of drug consumption, despite facing adverse consequences. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain structure located in the basal forebrain of vertebrates, and it has been the target of addictive drugs. Read More