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Characterization of a transcription factor SlNAC7 gene from Suaeda liaotungensis and its role in stress tolerance.

J Plant Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Life Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116081, China.

NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) transcription factors play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stress. In this study, we cloned an NAC2 subfamily transcription factor gene (SlNAC7) from the halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis K., and conducted a series of studies to determine the characteristics and functions of this gene. Read More

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A survey of the mouse hindbrain in the fed and fasted state using single-nucleus RNA sequencing.

Mol Metab 2021 May 4:101240. Epub 2021 May 4.

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitaris (NTS), located in the hindbrain, are key nuclei that sense and integrate peripheral nutritional signals and, consequently, regulate feeding behaviour. While single cell transcriptomics have been used in mice to reveal the gene expression profile and heterogeneity of key hypothalamic populations, similar in-depth studies have not yet been performed in the hindbrain.

Methods: Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we provide a detailed survey of 16,034 cells within the AP and NTS of the mouse, in the fed and fasted state. Read More

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Neuroanatomical organization of methionine-enkephalinergic system in the brain of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 May 3;115:101963. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

Enkephalins are a class of opioid peptides implicated in several physiological and neuroendocrine responses in vertebrates. In this study, using immunocytochemical or immunofluorescence technique, we examined the neuroanatomical distribution of methionine enkephalin (M-ENK) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the telencephalon, no M-ENK-like-immunoreactive (M-ENK-L-ir) perikarya, but sparsely distributed fibres were detected in the glomerular layer and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Read More

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In search of an ideal drug for safer treatment of obesity: The false promise of pseudoephedrine.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania School of Medicine, Catania, Italy.

Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. Only relatively few treatment options are, at present, available for the management of obese patients. Furthermore, treatment of obesity is affected by the widespread misuse of drugs and food supplements. Read More

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Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis by Targeting Hippo/YAP Signalling in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:656359. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China.

The complex in which scribble planar cell polarity protein () is located is one of the three main polar protein complexes that play an important role in maintaining epithelial polarity and affecting tumour growth. However, the role of in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. This study used date from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and clinical samples to determine the expression of in CRC and explored its mechanism through bioinformatics analysis and and experiments. Read More

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Variant to Gene Mapping to Discover New Targets for Immune Tolerance.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:633219. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

The breakdown of immunological tolerance leads to autoimmune disease, and the mechanisms that maintain self-tolerance, especially in humans, are not fully understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of human genetic loci statistically linked to autoimmune disease risk, and epigenetic modifications of DNA and chromatin at these loci have been associated with autoimmune disease risk. Because the vast majority of these signals are located far from genes, identifying causal variants, and their functional consequences on the correct effector genes, has been challenging. Read More

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3D Reconstruction of the Morpho-Functional Topography of the Human Vagal Trigone.

Front Neuroanat 2021 16;15:663399. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The Vagal Trigone, often referred to as Ala Cinerea, is a triangular-shaped area of the floor of the fourth ventricle that is strictly involved in the network of chardiochronotropic, baroceptive, respiratory, and gastrointestinal control systems of the medulla oblongata. While it is frequently identified as the superficial landmark for the underlying Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus, this correspondence is not univocal in anatomical literature and is often oversimplified in neuroanatomy textbooks and neurosurgical atlases. As the structure represents an important landmark for neurosurgical procedures involving the floor of the fourth ventricle, accurate morphological characterization is required to avoid unwanted side effects (e. Read More

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Roles of Neuropeptides, VIP and AVP, in the Mammalian Central Circadian Clock.

Front Neurosci 2021 15;15:650154. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research and Education Center for Brain Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

In mammals, the central circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Individual SCN cells exhibit intrinsic oscillations, and their circadian period and robustness are different cell by cell in the absence of cellular coupling, indicating that cellular coupling is important for coherent circadian rhythms in the SCN. Several neuropeptides such as arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are expressed in the SCN, where these neuropeptides function as synchronizers and are important for entrainment to environmental light and for determining the circadian period. Read More

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CmMLO17 and its partner CmKIC potentially support Alternaria alternata growth in Chrysanthemum morifolium.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):101. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Landscaping, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

The Mildew Resistance Locus O (MLO) gene family has been investigated in many species. However, there are few studies on chrysanthemum MLO genes. We report in this study that CmMLO17 in Chrysanthemum morifolium was upregulated after Alternaria alternata infection. Read More

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The hypoxia sensitive metal transcription factor MTF-1 activates NCX1 brain promoter and participates in remote postconditioning neuroprotection in stroke.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 30;12(5):423. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Dentistry Sciences, School of Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RLIP) is an experimental strategy in which short femoral artery ischemia reduces brain damage induced by a previous harmful ischemic insult. Ionic homeostasis maintenance in the CNS seems to play a relevant role in mediating RLIP neuroprotection and among the effectors, the sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) may give an important contribution, being expressed in all CNS cells involved in brain ischemic pathophysiology. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the metal responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), an important hypoxia sensitive transcription factor, may (i) interact and regulate NCX1, and (ii) play a role in the neuroprotective effect mediated by RLIP through NCX1 activation. Read More

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Transcription Factor Evaluation by Flow Cytometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2285:35-47

Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

The development of T helper (Th) cell subsets requires activated T cells that respond to a polarizing cytokine environment, resulting in the activation and expression of specific transcription factors. The subset-specific transcription factors are located either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus, which determine the functional profile of Th populations, inducing the production of specific effector cytokines and functions. Flow cytometry analysis of transcription factors has become very common not only in research but also in immunologic follow-up protocols of patients recruited in clinical trials (as evaluation of CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ T regulatory cells). Read More

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January 2021

The "Genomic Code": DNA Pervasively Moulds Chromatin Structures Leaving no Room for "Junk".

Authors:
Giorgio Bernardi

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Science Department, Roma Tre University, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy.

The chromatin of the human genome was analyzed at three DNA size levels. At the first, compartment level, two "gene spaces" were found many years ago: A GC-rich, gene-rich "genome core" and a GC-poor, gene-poor "genome desert", the former corresponding to open chromatin centrally located in the interphase nucleus, the latter to closed chromatin located peripherally. This bimodality was later confirmed and extended by the discoveries (1) of LADs, the Lamina-Associated Domains, and InterLADs; (2) of two "spatial compartments", A and B, identified on the basis of chromatin interactions; and (3) of "forests and prairies" characterized by high and low CpG islands densities. Read More

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Connexins in the Heart: Regulation, Function and Involvement in Cardiac Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Cardiovascular Diseases Research Group, Department of Cardiology, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a key role in cardiac physiology. Gap junctional channels put into contact the cytoplasms of connected cardiomyocytes, allowing the existence of electrical coupling. However, in addition to this fundamental role, connexins are also involved in cardiomyocyte death and survival. Read More

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Acupuncture Alleviates Anxiety and 22-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats Subjected to Repeated Alcohol Administration by Modulating the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Signaling Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseongdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea.

The Shenmen point (acupuncture point heart 7: HT7), located in the heart meridian, is frequently used to treat mental disorders, including drug addiction, anxiety, and depression. This study aimed to determine how HT7 regulates anxiety and negative emotions caused by repeated alcohol administration, focusing on the amygdala and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Repeated administration of alcohol (ETOH; 2 g/kg, i. Read More

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Detection of Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA in fixed cells and tissues using CRISPR/Cas-mediated RCasFISH.

Anal Biochem 2021 Apr 26;625:114211. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, PR China; Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, PR China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Laboratory Medicine, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, 100730, PR China. Electronic address:

Identification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells is critical for the diagnosis and clinical management of EBV-associated diseases. EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) located in the nucleus is a reliable marker due to its high levels of expression and inherent stability in tissue specimens. EBER in situ hybridization has long been the gold standard for detecting tumor-associated latent EBV infection and is valuable in determining the primary site and radiation fields of EBV-related malignancies. Read More

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Evaluation of the Direct Effect of Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Levodopa-Induced On-Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:595741. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the direct anti-dyskinesia effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during the early period after surgery without reducing the levodopa dosage. We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who underwent STN-DBS from January 2017 to October 2019 and enrolled patients with levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia before surgery and without a history of thalamotomy or pallidotomy. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) parts I+III+IV and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) were monitored prior to surgery, and at the 3-month follow-up, the location of active contacts was calculated by postoperative CT-MRI image fusion to identify stimulation sites with good anti-dyskinesia effect. Read More

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An intact Krüppel-like factor 9 gene is required for acute liver Period 1 mRNA response to restraint stress.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

The clock protein period 1 (PER1) is a central component of the core transcription-translation feedback loop governing cell-autonomous circadian rhythms in animals. Transcription of Per1 is directly regulated by the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR), and Per1 mRNA is induced by stressors or injection of GC. Circulating GCs may synchronize peripheral clocks with the central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain. Read More

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Red-Light-Responsive Ru Complex Photosensitizer for Lysosome Localization Photodynamic Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 26;13(17):19572-19580. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Photoresponsive ruthenium (Ru) complexes have been extensively studied in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorption maximum of most Ru complexes is located in the short-wavelength visible region, which is well suited for superficial tumors but shows inefficient therapeutic effects for more deep-seated ones. Moreover, Ru complexes are primarily located in the mitochondria or nucleus, always resulting in high levels of dark toxicity and DNA mutation. Read More

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The Nuclear Effector MiEFF1 Interacts With Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases to Promote Parasitism.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:641480. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, INRAE, CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur, Sophia Antipolis, France.

Root-knot nematodes are obligate endoparasites that maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts over a period of several weeks. They induce the differentiation of root cells into specialized multinucleate hypertrophied feeding cells known as giant cells. Nematode effectors synthesized in the esophageal glands and injected into the plant tissue through the syringe-like stylet play a key role in giant cell ontogenesis. Read More

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Orchestral manoeuvres in the light: Crosstalk needed for regulation of the Chlamydomonas carbon concentration mechanism.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Plant Sciences, Downing Street, University of Cambridge , CB2 3EA UK.

The inducible carbon concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been well defined from a molecular and ultrastructural perspective. Inorganic carbon transport proteins, and strategically located carbonic anhydrases deliver CO2 within the chloroplast pyrenoid matrix where Rubisco is packaged. However, there is little understanding of the fundamental signalling and sensing processes leading to CCM induction. Read More

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Comparative connectivity correlates of dystonic and essential tremor deep brain stimulation.

Brain 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

The pathophysiology of dystonic tremor and essential tremor remains partially understood. In patients with medication-refractory dystonic tremor or essential tremor, deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the thalamus or posterior subthalamic area has evolved into a promising treatment option. However, the optimal DBS targets for these disorders remains unknown. Read More

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A multi-tissue multi-omics analysis reveals distinct kineztics in entrainment of diurnal transcriptomes by inverted feeding.

iScience 2021 Apr 19;24(4):102335. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology and the Center for Circadian Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Time of eating synchronizes circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology. Inverted feeding can uncouple peripheral circadian clocks from the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. However, system-wide changes of circadian metabolism and physiology entrained to inverted feeding in peripheral tissues remain largely unexplored. Read More

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Deep brain stimulation electrode position impact on parkinsonian non-motor symptoms.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava and University Hospital Martin, Martin, Slovak Republic.

Background: In this study we evaluated the impact of location of deep brain stimulation electrode active contact in different parts of the subthalamic nucleus on improvement of non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Methods: The subthalamic nucleus was divided into two (dorsolateral/ventromedial) and three (dorsolateral, medial, ventromedial) parts. 37 deep brain stimulation electrodes were divided according to their active contact location. Read More

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December 2020

Cleaved PGAM5 dephosphorylates nuclear serine/arginine-rich proteins during mitophagy.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jun 17;1868(7):119045. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Cell Regulation, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan. Electronic address:

PGAM5 is a protein phosphatase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane through its transmembrane (TM) domain and is cleaved within the TM domain upon mitochondrial dysfunction. We found previously that cleaved PGAM5 is released from mitochondria, following proteasome-mediated rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane during mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy specific to mitochondria. Here, we examined the role of cleaved PGAM5 outside mitochondria. Read More

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Dsk2 involves in conidiation, multi-stress tolerance and thermal adaptation in Beauveria bassiana.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-Geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China.

Dsk2 is a nuclear-enriched ubiquitin-like polyubiquitin-binding protein that regulates protein degradation in yeast but has not been explored yet in filamentous fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana. Here, we report Beauveria bassiana Dsk2 located both in the nucleus and in cytoplasm of hyphal cells. Deletion of Dsk2 resulted in mild growth defect on scant media with various carbon/nitrogen sources and dramatic attenuation in conidiation capability at optimal condition. Read More

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Sign-specific stimulation 'hot' and 'cold' spots in Parkinson's disease validated with machine learning.

Brain Commun 2021 10;3(2):fcab027. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has become a standard therapy for Parkinson's disease. Despite extensive experience, however, the precise target of optimal stimulation and the relationship between site of stimulation and alleviation of individual signs remains unclear. We examined whether machine learning could predict the benefits in specific Parkinsonian signs when informed by precise locations of stimulation. Read More

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Anatomical organization of the lateral cervical nucleus in Artiodactyls.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, BO, Italy.

The presence of the lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in different mammals, including humans, has been established in a number of anatomical research works. The LCN receives its afferent inputs from the spinocervical tract, and conveys this somatosensory information to the various brain areas, especially the thalamus. In the present study, the organization of the calf and pig LCN was examined through the use of thionine staining and immunohistochemical methods combined with morphometrical analyses. Read More

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First spermatological data on the digenean genus Ityogonimus derived from the description of sperm characters of Ityogonimus ocreatus (Brachylaimidae: Ityogoniminae).

Tissue Cell 2021 Apr 14;72:101541. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Secció de Parasitologia, Departament de Biologia, Sanitat i Medi Ambient, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l'Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 645, 08028, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The present study describes the ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoa of the brachylaimid digenean Ityogonimus ocreatus (Ityogoniminae) by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Live digeneans were collected from the digestive tract of an Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis (Eulipotyphla, Talpidae) captured accidentally during a vole pest control campaign in Priesca (Asturias, Spain). The TEM study reveals that the I. Read More

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Chemical characterization (LC-MS-ESI), cytotoxic activity and intracellular localization of PAMAM G4 in leukemia cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8210. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratorio de Diseño y Desarrollo de Nuevos Fármacos e Innovación Biotécnológica (Laboratory for the Design and Development of New Drugs and Biotechnological Innovation), Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, 11340, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Generation 4 of polyamidoamine dendrimer (G4-PAMAM) has several biological effects due to its tridimensional globular structure, repetitive branched amides, tertiary amines, and amino-terminal subunit groups liked to a common core. G4-PAMAM is cytotoxic due to its positive charges. However, its cytotoxicity could increase in cancer cells due to the excessive intracellular negative charges in these cells. Read More

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Clinical implications for dopaminergic and functional neuroimage research in cognitive symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Authors:
Shigeki Hirano

Mol Med 2021 04 15;27(1):40. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Evidence from dopaminergic image and cerebral blood flow/metabolism images have shed light on symptomatology of cognitive aspects in brain physiology of healthy human as well as patients with Parkinson's disease. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is characterized by executive, visuospatial, attentional disturbances. Dopaminergic system includes triadic parallel pathways. Read More

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